Abstract: This article discusses the features of the development of legal regulation of the institution of pledge in the Pskov Court Charter of 1467. Considerable attention is paid to the analysis of archival and historical-legal documents, as well as to the study of birch bark letters and parchments containing IOUS, lists of debtors, acts of mortgage transactions. An additional source of research was collections of legal monuments of medieval Russia, which allowed us to come to the conclusion about the significant development of collateral legal relations in the last century of independence of the Pskov Republic. The article analyzes the functions of the pledge, examines the institution of change of persons in the pledge obligation, the specifics of the implementation of the pledge object, the grounds for the emergence of collateral legal relations. The purpose of this study is to conduct a historical and legal analysis of the evolution of the institution of the pledge of Old Russian civil law contained in the Pskov Court Charter. It is concluded that it is possible to consider the Pskov Judicial Charter as a codified act of legislation that laid the foundations of individual institutions of pledge law. It is proved that the Pskov Judicial Charter fixes the security and evidentiary functions of the pledge. The authors formulate a conclusion that there are two grounds for the occurrence of a pledge in the Pskov Court Certificate: on the basis of a contract and by virtue of the law. Based on the analysis of the Pskov and Novgorod charters, it is concluded that the institute of pledge of property law existed during the period of validity of the Pskov Court Charter. The interpretation of the subject of pledge in the Pskov Court Charter is proposed to be extended, including not only objects of the material world, but also property rights of claim.
Abstract: The article deals with the events that took place on the territory of the Putivl district in the spring of 1613. The authors used and analyzed archival materials with details of the events that took place then. They are supplemented by the results of archaeological research, which supplement the data of written sources. In the winter of 1613, the King of the Commonwealth, Sigismund III, granted Putivl County to Prince Mikhail Vyshnevetsky. A Cossack detachment was located in Putivl, left there by Prince Semyon Lyko. At the same time, the newly elected Tsar of Moscow, Mikhail Romanov, attempted to fight the troops of Ataman Zarutsky. Against the backdrop of these actions, preparations begin in Rylsk for a campaign against Putivl. By royal decree, a detachment was assembled from the border cities, commanded by Prince D. Dolgoruky. His task is to capture Putivl. In April 1613, the Moscow detachment approached the city and stopped on the Kleven River, 10 miles from the city. After several skirmishes with the Cossack detachments, the Moscow troops forced them to retreat to the fortress, and they themselves began to ravage the surroundings of Putivl. To protect the city and divert the forces of the Moscow army, a detachment of Cossacks left Putivl. For a month, Putivl was attacked and shelled, and after another assault was taken. The Cossacks withdrew to Putivl, where reinforcements arrived the day before, led by Prince Semyon Lyko. Having won, but not having achieved its tasks, the Moscow army retreated to Rylsk, and then dispersed to the surrounding cities. After that, the Cossack troops began to ravage the Rylsky district and burned the Rylsk settlement. Thus, the victory in the field battle turned into a defeat, the goals set were not achieved, and the losses incurred made it impossible to defend our own city.
Abstract: The question of the time of transition from the medieval Moscovite Kingdom to modern Russia, the political form of which was the Russian Empire, has been raised in Russian socio-historical thought since the XVIII century. The prevailing was that the beginning of a new period of Russian history falls during the reign of Peter the Great. Based on the principle of historicism, S.M.Soloviov pointed out that the beginning of a new period in the history of Russia was in the XVII century, when the prerequisites for Peter's reforms were formed. This point of view has been firmly established in Russian historiography, including in the Soviet period. The basis for such a revision were the theories of the patrimonial state and the regular, or police state to which attention is drawn in the works of modern historians. It is emphasized that the end of the patrimonial state and the transition to a new Russia, which happened under Peter I. In the historical consciousness of the general population, the new period of the country's history is also associated with Peter the Great.
Abstract: This article examines the features of the legal regime of natural bioresources in the XVII-XVIII centuries in the positive and customary law of the Finno-Ugric and Samoyed peoples of the North of Russia. The authors concluded that during the period under review, two legal systems of positive and customary law functioned simultaneously on the territory of the northern Finno-Ugric and Samoyed peoples. The legal regime of natural bioresources was regulated by the norms of positive law. However, its detailing took place in ordinary (unwritten) law, which included not only legal norms, but also moral and moral obligations, religious and taboo norms. Customary law contributed to the competent regulation of the sphere of nature management, preserving natural objects and biological resources, as well as the traditional system of life of these peoples, based on a centuries-old and repeatedly used model of nature management. Despite the fact that the Russian legislator, since the XVII century, introduced a number of restrictions on the use of natural objects and biological resources, however, by the end of the XVIII century a trend is being determined emphasizing the convergence process that took place between the norms of written and customary law, which complemented the first. The authors have formulated the conclusion that if during the period under review the Russian legislator as a whole sanctioned broad opportunities for the use of natural bioresources, introducing them into civil circulation and taxing such activities, then the norms of customary law of the Arctic peoples regulated in detail various aspects of nature management that were not affected by the norms of positive law, including the consolidation of property rights by generic signs property; regulation of commercial legal relations, including norms-taboo; resolution of conflicts arising on issues of environmental management by mediation and the implementation of ethno-justice in cases of similar competence.
Abstract: The focus of the Russian Empire on the conquest of the territory of the Caucasus, led to the emergence of interest in the spiritual and religious life of the peoples inhabiting the region. During the expansion of the Russian Empire, the first analytical works devoted to the religious life of North Caucasian societies began to appear. At the same time, there was very little material about women's religious practices. As in the rest of the world, gender history remains an issue that requires study and restoration of the preserved grains. There were no researchers and authors in the Russian Empire interested in a purposeful study of this aspect of religion, which is characterized by extreme relevance, adjacent to gaps. In recent years, some rare publications on this problem have begun to appear.
Based on the analysis of biographies of local Islamic theologians, archives, publications, newspapers, we will try to reconstruct the history bit by bit and determine the real role of women in religious practices.
The study allowed us to see new features in women's religious activity. The results of the study showed that, contrary to stereotypes about the Jadidist influence on the status of women, women received religious education even before the appearance of this direction, and many theologians assigned an important role to the education of daughters, but this issue was not studied and attention was not focused on this issue.
Abstract: The article is devoted to the analysis of the penetration of French printed publications into the Russian Empire in the second half of the XVIII century. Several interrelated processes that took place in Russian society contributed to this phenomenon at once. Thus, the penetration of Enlightenment ideas made it fashionable to become familiar with advanced European culture, and above all, French culture, thereby forming Gallomania. The spread of French as a common language in the nobility made it literally necessary to purchase books in French in a personal library. The desire to improve their farm and make the estate landscape beautiful required studying the experience of European farmers and designers. Critics of the emperors replenished their collections with the works of freethinkers. The development of scientific and educational institutions, in turn, led to the acquisition of foreign books in departmental libraries. The combination of these factors ensured the active transfer of foreign (primarily French) publications to Russia. The main research methods used were comparative-historical, as well as the method of comparative analysis. In conclusion, the authors come to the conclusion that, despite the existence of different streams of French literature with different content from each other, due to their reading by the educated layer of Russians, there was an active borrowing of French culture and the dissemination of these book publications. Attempts by state bodies at the end of the XVIII century to restrict the import and publication of books by French enlighteners as unreliable led rather to the opposite effect, when people massively read and studied Voltaire and other freethinkers.
Abstract: The article is devoted to the analysis of those factors that contributed to the transformation of two historical figures of the pre-revolutionary era into iconic figures of the regions. According to a survey of 50 experts, among such figures of the period of the Russian Empire the following were most often noted: in the Altai Territory, the inventor Ivan Ivanovich Polzunov (life years: 1729–1766), in the Altai Republic, the artist Grigory Ivanovich Choros-Gurkin, who flourished in the pre-revolutionary period (years of life: 1870–1937). The use of historical methods of analysis allowed the authors to reconstruct not only the main stages of the life path, but also the subsequent "fate of the images" of these figures, to conduct a comparative analysis of the factors that contributed to their transformation into iconic figures of the regions. Important details of biographies are considered. It was revealed that, with all the differences of these figures, there were many similarities in the life path of each of them, in their vision of their “mission” and in the way the memory of them was formed. Their selfless contribution to science and culture is noted, as well as the fact that each of them eventually became a kind of “genius of the place” (genius loci). This concept is closely related to the formation of the identity of the inhabitants and the unique image of the region, so the policy of memory of such iconic figures is important.
Abstract: The article is devoted to the study of the political situation that developed on the territory of the Junior Horde of the Kazakhs in the second half of the 18th – the 1st quarter of the 19th century. After the death of Khan Abulkhair in 1748, the struggle for supreme power intensified in the Steppe. The weakening of traditional power relations in the Junior Horde of the Kazakhs causes to a major uprising led by the batyr Syrym Datov. During the studied period, the murders of khans Yesim Nuraliev, Zhantore Aishuakov took place. The assignment of Shergazy Aishuakov as the ruler of the Junior Horde by the Russian Empire intensified the internecine struggle for power between the Chingizids from Abulkhair’s clan. The rivalry between Khan Shergazy Aishuakov and Sultan Aryngazy Abulgaziev, intervention and “heating up” of the conflict by the Orenburg military governor P.K. Essen led to confusion in the capital. Created in 1820, the new “Asian Committee” was supposed to determine the fate of the legitimate Khan Shergazy, as well as decide on a change in the rule of the traditional potestar–political structure of the nomads. At the meetings of this Committee, the issue of the fate of the Kazakh Chingizid Aryngazy Abulgaziyev, who was elected as Khan by representatives of the Kazakh society’s many tribes, was decided. The authors comes to the conclusion that it was not possible to solve this problem at that time, as evidenced by the fact that Sultan Aryngazy was sent into exile in Kaluga in 1823 and the liquidation of the Khan's power in the Junior Horde soon followed, in 1824.
Abstract: This paper is devoted to analysis of the main stages, preceding creation of the quarantine services for guarding the frontier of the Russian State (from the Peter's reforms and the first quarantines up to the end of the XVIII century and confirmation of the ‘Regulations of Frontier and Sea Quarantines’). The main sources and legislative documents regulating preventive measures against carrying the infectious diseases from neighboring countries and determining the organization of state policy in the field of quarantine services in the Russian Empire in connection with the expansion of trade and economic relations with foreign countries (organization of outposts, customs posts, quarantine houses with hospitals at border customs; quarantine rules and peculiarities, etc.) have been studied. Organization of quarantines within the country during epidemics (carried from neighboring countries), have been also analyzed, in particular a successful victory over the pestilence in Moscow in 1770–1772. The role of the State (Senate, Medical Office, Empress Catherine the Great, other State officials, etc.) in organization of quarantines and quarantine measures in frontier areas and within the country has been studied in historical sequence. The personnel policy on the formation of the staff of customs posts and quarantines, the involvement of customs officials, doctors and healers, their functions and responsibility were analyzed. The successes (in spite of lack of knowledge in etiology and epidemiology of dangerous infectious diseases) and problems in the organization of the quarantines on the land and naval frontiers of the Russian Empire and within the country at various stages of its formation have been studied.
Abstract: The article deals with the issues connected with the functioning within the framework of the imperial policy of cooperation with the local nobility of the institution of district (povitovyi) marshal in the border Volyn governorate. Based on the analysis of published and archival materials the authors highlighted the main issues related to the processes of organization, staffing and activities of officials. In the times of the Rzeczpospolita, the nobility corporation independently solved its internal life issues, the district (povitovyi) marshal were involved in the organization of the nobility's ruin.
After the incorporation in accordance with the «Institution for the government of the provinces of the Russian Empire» (1775), Catherine the Great introduced the institution of the district (povitovi) marshals of the nobility with constantly revised powers.
The policies of Paul I and Alexander I were more flexible and aimed at establishing themselves in a socio-ethnically complex region. Among other concessions to the nobility, but at the same time maintaining control over the processes in the region, the title of «district (povitovyi) marshal» was restored. The powers of the marshal were retained and elections were held every three years with the approval of the governor. The marshals had to execute the orders of the supreme authority and provincial administrators on the one hand, and to protect the interests of their corporation on the other. Therefore, under the conditions of unpaid work and bureaucratisation of their activities, there was a «chilling effect» for some representatives of the local elite towards elective office.
In an effort to preserve the influence of the nobility in the region, the district (povitovyi) marshal had to carry out instructions from the provincial authorities, persuade the landowners to pay money or maintain postal stations, conduct investigative actions in conflicts, or handle other unrelated matters. At the same time, the nobility, ensuring social stability in the society, understood that without its efforts, the imperial power would replace elected officials with appointed ones and take over.
Abstract: The problem of national identity in Russia of the 19th century manifested itself in the need to understand its place in the conglomerate of cultures, and to determine the nature of its relations with the European civilization. This study analyzes the attitudes of the Russian intelligentsia toward the values and lifestyles of the Western European society. The study is based on the analysis of memoirs and scientific works of representatives of the Russian intelligentsia, who greatly influenced the public opinion and had a significant impact on the formation of national identity. The lack of a unified position among the Russian intelligentsia about the nature of the relationship with European civilization led it to split into two camps, the Slavophiles and the Westerners, which greatly complicated the solution of the issue of national identity. This paper analyzes the Russian public's sources of information about life abroad. These include both personal contacts during European travels and published memoirs. The periodical press and scientific works, such as N. Danilevsky's book “Russia and Europe”, played an important role in the formation of the image of Europe. The desire of Russians to visit Europe and learn as much as possible about it was opposed by the official authorities, who did not welcome active Russian-European contacts for ideological reasons. Our analysis of the sources and works of present-day authors has shown that, despite the difference of beliefs, the Russian intelligentsia perceived Europe as a single cultural and historical space, quite different from Russia. The Russian intelligentsia determined the nature of its relations with Europe depending on its perception of the country's past development, which differed greatly among its representatives.
Abstract: The Don historiography of the 19th – early 20th centuries paid considerable attention to the origin of the Cossacks. This is largely due to the interest of the Cossacks in their historical roots. The article deals with the studies of A.G. Popov (“History of the Don Army”), E.N. Katelnikov (“Historical information of the Don Cossacks about the Verkhne-Kurmoyarsk village”), V.D. Sukhorukov (“Historical description of the Land of the Don Cossacks”), N.I. Krasnov (“Materials for the geography and statistics of Russia, collected by officers of the General Staff. Land of the Don Cossacks”), V.M. Pudavov (“History of the Don Army and the old times of the beginnings of the Cossacks”), Kh.I. Popov (“A Brief Essay on the Past of the Don Cossacks”), P.P. Sakharov (“The Origin of the Free Don Cossacks and the First Services of the Cossacks of Russia”), E.P. Savelyev (“Ancient history of the Cossacks (historical research)”) and other authors of the 19th – early 20th centuries. Some historians considered the ancient peoples of Eurasia and even mythological creatures to be the ancestors of the Cossacks. Others associated its origin with the departure of the Russian population to the Don and other outskirts as a result of socio-economic and political processes. The author identifies and characterizes various theories of the origin of the Cossacks, explains the reasons for their appearance, related both to the development of historical science and the evolution of the Cossacks themselves, their self-consciousness.
Abstract: The personality and activity of the outstanding Russian historian Ivan Egorovich Zabelin (1820-1908) is so deep and multifaceted that it attracted the attention of historians of science during his lifetime. I.E. Zabelin is known not only for his purely historical works, but also works in the field of archeology. Under his leadership, the richest Scythian burial mounds in southern Russia were excavated. The most famous of them is the Chertomlyk mound, which brought real masterpieces of Scythian and Greek art to the treasury of the Imperial Hermitage. Scientists who analyzed the activities of I.E. Zabelin as an archaeologist, were based, as a rule, on publications belonging to the pen of the scientist. This gave rise to a series of misunderstandings and false accusations against the great Russian historian. The authors of this article used archival materials, manuscripts and field diaries of I.E. Zabelin, which allowed to debunk a number of biases that have become a kind of scientific myths. I.E. Zabelin appears as an attentive, thorough and observant archaeologist who developed his own, innovative methods of excavation and fixation of layers, as evidenced by the plans and sections of the mounds made by him. The historian independently analyzed the materials of the expeditions, studied the works of ancient authors, carried out thorough measurements and compiled detailed descriptions of monuments and artifacts. Since extracts from ancient authors are dotted with remarks of a purely linguistic nature, and the inventories of finds contain multi-page copies of ancient Greek amphoric stamps, tombstones, inscriptions on vessels, the authors of this article question the thesis of I.E. Zabelin's ignorance of the Greek language. Assessment at the modern scientific level of the contribution of I.E. The introduction to the theory of archaeology and the teaching of this discipline is the task of a separate study.
Abstract: In the Russian Empire from 1764 to 1864 existed disabled teams, which included military personnel who had lost the ability to serve in the military, but were able to perform the functions of maintaining public order in provincial cities. The support of disabled teams was entrusted to the local population. In the article the issues of accommodation and housing for employees of the disabled team in Krasnoyarsk in the first third of the 19th century are considered, using the methods of microhistorical analysis of documents from the State Archives of the Krasnoyarsk Territory, first introduced into the scientific use. The basic rules for the quartering of single and family military invalids from the lower ranks and non-commissioned officers are presented. Also, the features of the fulfillment, as well as the procedure of refusing of housing obligation by the city commoners of Krasnoyarsk are analyzed. The characteristic of the social status of the citizens involved in obligation and released from its performance is provided. The problems of the relationship between the local population and the representatives of the disabled team, located in the apartments of citizens, were studied. Specific examples of both Krasnoyarsk residents repeatedly providing apartments for members of the disabled team and conflict situations that were resolved with different results for their participants are considered. With that in mind, a conclusion was reached about the effectiveness of organizing public charity for war invalids with the involvement of ordinary citizens in providing them with housing in a provincial city.
Abstract: The article represents a retrospective analysis of the origin of the hotel industry in the Crimea, assesses the level of service, presents the first hotels of the peninsula, describes their services as well as the advantages and disadvantages in the formation and development of the hotel industry in the region. It was found that the resort development of the peninsula originated by the end of XVIII century, when the Crimea entered a phase of active development of land plots with estates, palace ensembles and garden and park complexes. At that time there was also a revival of the agrarian sector throughout the peninsula. The main trigger for the development of the hotel industry and infrastructure of the peninsula as a whole was the joining of Crimea to the Russian Empire in 1783. This event took place under the patronage of Catherine II, who visited the peninsula in 1787. Seeing with her own eyes the countless possibilities of this land, the empress launched a serious domestic policy aimed at integrating the peninsula as quickly as possible. These fragments stimulate the interest in the study of various areas of the economic history of the Crimea, including the formation of the hotel industry.
Abstract: The article explores the variants of Russian women’s reproductive behaviour, which were regarded in the peasant environment as deviations. The aim of the article is to examine the specific types of deviant behaviour and to reveal the factors that contributed to their emergence and persistent presence in the everyday life of Russian peasant women of the Middle Ural.
The main sources represent certain unpublished materials (judicial investigation cases) and number of published sources (recordings of folklore). The study allowed the “tender points” in the reproductive culture that existed in the Russian peasant environment in the 19th – early 20th century: premarital intimate relations, subsequent out-of-wedlock pregnancy, the desire to conceal it using different methods (abortion, murder of the already-born child), deviant parenthood in the form of child abandonment. These phenomena were deemed to be deviations from the norm since the main accepted aim of women’s life was marital childbearing, when the wedlock was considered as the only birth controller in the traditional society. Women were expected to be punished in various ways for departure from the accepted norms, ranging from moral condemnation to real penal servitude. Despite of the above, the abovementioned deviations regularly took place in peasants’ everyday life.
The authors conclude that the factors contributing to deviant reproductive behaviour of peasant women included psychological (dependence on public opinion, the concept of sin and crime), sociocultural (reproductive “purpose” of women, low level of women’s literacy), material (young woman’s inability to provide for her illegitimate child).
Abstract: Based on a broad empirical base, the article highlights the stages in the formation of a pro-Russian public in the Northwestern Territory as a special intellectual and sociocultural phenomenon in the first half of the 19th century. An analysis of the socio-cultural and socio-political factors that contributed to the emergence and development of this ideological direction, which sought to establish cooperation between the imperial authorities and the educated society of the outlying region, was carried out.
The formation of a pro-Russian public was a reaction to the dominance of the Polonized social elite in the northwestern provinces of the Russian Empire, which defended the Polish national project, which competed with the idea of imperial unification of the western outskirts. The history of the region, rich in events of foreign development, influenced the public consciousness of its inhabitants, contributing to the strengthening of both regional separatism and loyalism, the essence of which was the realization of the possibility of successful and conflict-free development of the region as part of Russia.
It is concluded that in the specific historical and cultural conditions of the northwestern provinces by the beginning of the 1860s in the environment of the pro-Russian oriented public, two main ideological currents took shape, one of which was based on the estate principle and was represented by local gentry loyalists, and the other by a nationally oriented and conservative-patriotic group of local figures. At the same time, representatives of the pro-Russian oriented public were distinguished by a clear worldview that the full development of the “Western Russian people” and the preservation of the original ethnic, cultural and religious image of the North-Western Territory is possible only if the region has organic ties with Russia and upholds the sovereign idea of an imperial heterogeneous state with an East Slavic ethnic core.
Abstract: This paper is aimed at an objective representation of the value of the distance [distanochnaya] system, introduced in 1831 on the territory of the Kazakhs of the Orenburg department, as well as at identifying the role of representatives of the Kazakh nomadic nobility in the person of distance chiefs, who were local administrators and intermediaries. One of such personalities is sultan Asfendiyar Syugalin, who is of interest to historical science. This paper reveals the personality, service and activities of sultan Asfendiyar Syugalin based on the analysis of form lists, service records and other archival documents. Sultan Asfendiyar Syugalin is one of the interesting and ambiguous figures in the history of Kazakhstan, because during his service as head of distances No. 31, No. 38 and No. 54 in the different parts of the Orenburg Department, sultan Asfendiyar Syugalin received both positive and negative feedback from Kazakh nomadic population and Russian officials. Some discrepancies in the data in archival documents, different characteristics regarding the personality and service of sultan Asfendiyar Syugalin arouse interest and actualize this research. In addition, this paper reflects the essence of the distance administrative system on the territory of the Kazakhs of the Orenburg department, reveals the mechanism of appointment and awarding of Kazakh officials in the person of distance chiefs. The article is presented on the basis of archival documents (form lists and service records, reports, notes) extracted from the Central State Archive of the Republic of Kazakhstan and analysis of historical literature.
Abstract: The issue of the Trans-Siberian Railway construction attracts the researchers’ attention constantly. It is due to the role that the railway’s impact on the life in Siberia and in the country. The problem of the workers status who worked on the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway was also repeatedly raised in the papers of many researchers. The issue attracted scientists as a good example of the class struggle in the Soviet period. At the turn of the XX−XXI centuries the desire to give a new assessment of already known information prevailed, as well as to replenish the existing historiography with new facts. The object of study of this article is the situation on workers of the Trans-Siberian Railway: their quantitative composition in different years, the amount of local residents among the workers, government recruitment measures. The authors have noted that during the construction of the railway, the struggle for labour intensified to some extent. For example, the workers in gold mines, being bound by contractual obligations with gold producers, sought to get a job at the construction of the railway. At the same time, the living conditions of the railway workers left much to be desired. First of all, the remoteness of construction sites from settlements in Siberia had negative consequences. This created certain difficulties in providing workers with food, medical care, and organizing leisure activities. In an effort to replenish the ranks of workers, the government attracted exiled convicts and prisoners to the construction. At later stages of construction, subject to a number of conditions, it was allowed to involve prisoners of war in the work.
Abstract: The paper deals with the problem of crime and punishment of slaves in the Central Asian slave-owning society in the first half of the XIX century. There has been made an attempt to classify crimes.
Russian captives who were enslaved in Central Asia and released in 1839 were used as sources by the authors. These documents were deposited in the case of the release of 80 Russian captives from the Khanate of Khiva, stored in the State Archive of the Orenburg region (Orenburg, Russian Federation).
In conclusion, the authors state that in the Khanate of Khiva, as such, there were no rules on the crime and punishment of slaves: each slave owner disposed of a slave at his discretion and treated him as property. The slaveholder had the legal right to dispose of the slave's life, but he was in no hurry to deprive him of his life, since the slave could almost always be resold. The most common were preventive punishments – beating a slave in order to demonstrate his social status. For theft or not going to work, the slave owner could apply the following types of punishment – cut off ears or nose, torture or even kill his slave. One of the most serious crimes in the slave-owning society was the attempt of a slave to escape from his master. And here the slaveholders acted taking into account their interests, in most cases the punishments were expressed in severe beatings, flogging, torture; however, if the Khan of Khiva intervened in this matter, the victim of escape was doomed to a painful death. One way or another, the life of the captives in the Khanate of Khiva did not differ in its duration, it was influenced by exhausting labor, hunger, beatings and mutilation. Only a few could live ten years in slavery, and only a few could live 20 or more.
Abstract: The article is carried out within the framework of a scientific project, is devoted to the analysis of book maps of Russian authors of the XIX – early XX centurшуы, cataloging and introduction into scientific circulation of cartographic unique, little-known data in order to study the visual history of Kazakhstan.
The source base was the book collections of rare editions with book maps of the National Library named after Alisher Navoi, Tashkent (NBUz) and of the Orenburg Universal Scientific Library named after N.K. Krupskaya (OUSL). During the preparation of the catalog, a single catalog description of the book maps was developed.
The methodology of the research is a comprehensive interdisciplinary approach of broad interaction between the humanities and natural sciences, which made it possible to identify, analyze and prepare a bibliography of book maps. A cartographic method is used as a special method, which allows cataloging and description of book maps.
The operational and functional advantages of the catalog of cartographic materials are substantiated, where each researcher can get an answer where and under what number the necessary book with a book maps is located.
In the description of the book maps using the materials of the book, additional opportunities appear to characterize historical facts more fully and visually show the dynamics of the events taking place. Comparison of the book maps and the text showed that the cartographic material contains information that is not in the text of the book.
The historical details of the formation of the border, possible ways of melioration of the Central Asian region unknown pages of military history, the participation of the Kazakhs in the military campaign to Khiva in 1839-1840, the peculiarities of the distribution and nomadic ways of the Kazakhs district were revealed. The authors conclude that Russian scientists, travelers, bureaucrats and the military left a significant book heritage with phenomenal cartographic material for studying the visual history of Kazakhstan.
Abstract: This article is devoted to identifying the iconic plots of the personal and political biography of the outstanding Kazakh-Russian military, state and political figure G. Valikhanov. Appeal to the biographical method and the contextual approach in constructing the life path of a “second plan” person in history opened up a broad research perspective for understanding the sociocultural situation, within which in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The Russian Empire implemented a colonization policy in the Central Asian region, relying, among other things, on representatives of the national elites who were ready to demonstrate loyalty to the imperial administration.
Based on published materials and unpublished information extracted from the archives of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Kazakhstan, the stages of the military and socio-political biography of Sultan-Gaza Valikhanov were identified, the formation of whose personality took place against the background of the influence of both the traditionalist environment of the steppe aristocracy, and Russian educational and state- administrative structures.
In the course of the study, it was proved that the political biography of G. Valikhanov was typical for representatives of the tribal steppe aristocracy of the second half of the 19th century, however, as a result of the active colonial expansion of Russia, the status of local political elites underwent some changes, which was due to the need to incorporate indigenous peoples into the Russian society, and elite groups were considered as a kind of "locomotives" organizing this movement. It has been established that the military, state and socio-political career of G. Valikhanov was generally successful. At the same time, he himself, like many steppe aristocrats, found himself in the role of a hostage of the imperial policy on the eastern outskirts, in the logic of which the national political elites were perceived as a tool for introducing Russian administrative orders and cultural conventions.
Abstract: In the nineteenth century Kazakh young men received the right to study at universities. More than 30 Kazakh young men studied at Kazan University during the study period. Kazakh students were natives of the Steppe regions. Most of them lived in areas territorially close to Kazan. The social environment of the Kazakh student population was heterogeneous. Along with representatives from sultan's families in Kazan students came from diverse social environment. Most students were educated in gymnasiums before enrolling in university. During the analysis of grammar school diplomas it turned out that their owners were distinguished by their diligence and demonstrated good knowledge of the disciplines of study. The Kazakh students at the university studied at the medical and law faculties. Obviously, the motivation for their choice was the need for further socialization in the legal and medical fields. During their gymnasium years, they acquired a good knowledge of foreign languages, in particular classical and European languages, which proved to be in demand during their studies. Later, the holders of university diplomas realized their own potential in their profession; in particular, Karabayev, Beremzhanov, Tanachev and a number of other graduates of the university proved themselves as professionals in their field of study.
Abstract: The paper considers the pedagogical periodical press of the Kiev educational district in the period from 1857 to 1917.
As materials the authors used reference works and publications of the pre-revolutionary periodical press. The first can include encyclopedic works, as well as reference information about the Russian periodical press, the second includes materials of the pre-revolutionary periodical press, for example, the “Studencheskii byulleten' Kievskogo kommercheskogo institute”.
In the methodology of the work, the authors applied the historical-chronological method, which made it possible to consider the research topic in historical sequence. The content analysis method was also used, which made it possible to make a selection of interesting materials from the total number of Russian periodicals of the imperial period.
In conclusion, the authors state that 17 pedagogical periodicals were published on the territory of the Kiev Educational District in the period from 1857 to 1917, geographically 16 of them were published in Kiev and only one in Poltava. As in the territory of the Caucasian Educational District, only state periodicals that were published either at the universities of the Ministry of Public Education (“Fizicheskoe obozrenie”, “Tsirkulyar po upravleniyu Kievskim uchebnym okrugom”) or at the spiritual department (“Tserkovno-prikhodskaya shkola”) differed in constancy. The fate of other publications was sad, since a significant part of them closed in the first year or two from the beginning of their work (“Pedagogicheskaya nedelya”, “Professional'naya shkola”).
Abstract: For a long time, the name of the Russian theologian and historian, Professor of the Kiev Theological Academy Afanasy Ivanovich Bulgakov (1859–1907), was mentioned mainly in connection with the analysis of the work of his son, the famous writer M.A. Bulgakov. The works, devoted to the analysis of the scientific production of Bulgakov the Elder, begun to appear only recently (O.T. Ermishin, Yu.A. Labyntsev, L.L. Shchavinskaya). This article examines Bulgakov's works dedicated to the study of the Church of England during Victorian period. Bulgakov's interest in this issue was initially caused by the intensification of the Orthodox-Anglican dialogue, which gave rise to hopes for the reunification of the Churches. Gradually Bulgakov moved on to considering the phenomena of English religious life as significant in themselves. Especially noteworthy is his work «New religious transformations in England in the present century» (1897). Here Bulgakov presented not only a meaningful sketch of the development of the most significant phenomenon in the 19th century Anglicanism – the Oxford Movement (Tractarianism), but also anticipated some of the judgments of modern historiography. Bulgakov's writings were an important channel of informing the educated Russian public about the events of religious life in England. They testify to the desire of some representatives of the Russian church-historical science to move away from rigid confessionalism and take the path of a more objective study of the events of the contemporary religious life of the West.
Abstract: This article is devoted to the study of the causes of the abolition of serfdom in the Russian Empire by Emperor Alexander II in 1861. The authors of the article consider the historical and geographical features and conditions of the development of the fatherland, which served as the basis for the formation of serfdom in the Russian Empire. The article also identifies the main positive and negative sides of serfdom. The authors of this study drew parallels between the vectors of the development directions of European countries in the first half of the XIX century and the Russian Empire during the reign of Emperor Nicholas I. Special attention is paid to the state of the states after the Patriotic War of 1812 and its impact on the domestic and foreign policy of both European countries and the Russian Empire. The study also examines the key features that characterize the image of ruler Nicholas I as a statesman and autocrat, as well as the central ideologies that were formulated and were relevant during his reign. In this article, an important role is also played by the Crimean War of 1853−1856, which, in the opinion of the authors, is of paramount importance for the awareness of the state authorities, in the person of Emperor Alexander II, of the need to change the vector of development of the Russian Empire in the middle of the XIX century. In addition, the authors investigated another set of indirect reasons for the abolition of serfdom, namely the change in cultural and moral values among the representatives of the nobility of the XIX century, as well as the Manifesto of Peter III “On the granting of liberty and freedom to all Russian nobility” as a normative source, which later became a key tool of a kind of cultural revolution in the circles of the upper class of the Russian empires.
Abstract: This article is devoted to the study of a number of issues related to the general characteristics of the functioning of the Institute of advocacy in the Russian Empire in the period from 1864 to 1917. In the course of this study, the authors studied the main regulations governing the activities of sworn attorneys. The main five stages of the formation of the bar were identified, with the identification of their periodization, starting from the stage of the formation of the institute of the bar and ending with its actual liquidation in connection with the fall of the empire. The authors of the article examined the general organization and forms of activity of the bar under the Judicial Statutes of 1864, namely judicial and activities under the Council of Sworn Attorneys. The key competencies of the Council of Sworn Attorneys were investigated, primarily as a disciplinary body for monitoring the activities of sworn attorneys. The evaluation of the activity of the Councils of Sworn Attorneys in the periodical press was also analyzed. The article examines the main requirements that were imposed on candidates for the position of sworn attorneys and the main characteristic features of the appearance of lawyers in pre-revolutionary Russia. In addition, the article also pays attention to the development of the institute of assistants to sworn attorneys, the authors also investigated the main projects of the Minister of Justice of the Russian Empire of the late XIX – early XX centuries, Prosecutor General N.V. Muravyov, aimed at reorganizing the activities of sworn attorneys.
Abstract: The article raises the problem of gender relations in the traditional Kazakh society in the second half of the XIX century. The issues of family and marriage forms among Kazakhs, intra–family relations and etiquette, family rituals and traditions have always been in the focus of attention of Kazakh ethnographers, and also received comprehensive coverage in the narrative of pre-revolutionary authors – scientists, travelers, representatives of the tsarist administration and others. Meanwhile, due to the limited sources, the problem of the relationship between men and women in premarital and marital relations, the reflection of the erotic principle in the rituals of the family cycle, sex education, sexual and gender identification, the phenomenon of transvestism, the influence of the social status of a married woman on her personal relationship with her husband and his family circle, the canons of morality for men has become a poorly developed field of research and women, adultery and punishment. As we can see, the sphere of family and marriage relations of the traditional Kazakh society has many little-explored aspects, to shed light on which through the prism of a new approach of social inclusion, which provides for the integration of society through the formation of a culture of tolerance to all members of society, their social and gender equality. Having revealed the reasons for the social exclusion of women, their vulnerability in traditional society, the deprivation of their right to freedom of expression of intimate feelings, in this article we will show that these institutions are of a historical social nature, they should not be preserved and transferred to modern reality, hiding behind the need to revive traditional culture.
Abstract: The paper is dedicated to the problematics of the Russian Empire’s military researchers of the Don Host. Within it, it is shown that, due to Don Host’s subordination to the Ministry of War, there were quite a few of such researchers, although in later historiography the attention was drawn predominantly to those of them who were of Cossack descent. Meanwhile, even the most general analysis allows to distinguish 4 groups of Russian Empire’s Don Host military researchers: these are, besides Don Cossacks, the officers who had visited Don before any serious publications on the matter of studying the Don Cossacks, the officers of the General Staff and the officers of the Main Directorate of Cossack Hosts. At the same time, exactly in the case of Cossacks, assigning researchers who had military rank to the category of military researches should be made with outmost caution: a number of Don historians and statisticians (for example, M.Kh. Senyutkin and V.M. Pudavov) did not have military education, did not serve in any combat units and therefore principally had a bad familiarity with military-specific literature, including that about the Don Cossacks. The officers who had visited Don before the publications of any serious researches on the Don Cossacks did try to describe, by their own impressions too, the Cossacks and the Don Host, which were perceived as somewhat of an exotic at the time, filling a lacuna in Russian scientific and publicist prose. The officers of the General Staff had frequently composed their works in preparation of upcoming reformations, or just to inform higher authorities about local statistics, and it is characteristic for their works to be based of statistical science which was taught in Nicholas General Staff Academy. Finally, a number of texts was made by the officers of the Main Directorate of Cossack Hosts, based on presenting materials from the archives, which were also found while performing government assignments. Therefore, somewhat different research methods and themes were characteristic for various categories of Russian Empire’s Don Host military researchers, which were determined by their education and official duties.
Abstract: The article is devoted to the study of the materials of the newspaper “Kurskie Eparkhial'nye Vedomosti” as a source of events of the Russian-Turkish War of 1877−1878 from the position of the Orthodox Church. The issues of the newspaper from the 8th to the 24th for 1877 and from the 1st to the 4th for 1878 are considered, that is, the numbers corresponding to the chronological framework of the war. The church newspaper “Kurskie Eparkhial'nye Vedomosti” was published from 1871 and until 1888 was published twice a month.
The historiographical (content analysis method) was used as the main research method, and methods of historical-systemic, historical-comparative, historical-genetic and synthesis methods, system analysis and hypothetical were also used.
It was concluded that the first “military” issues paid rather modest attention to combat operations, but with the development of the war, the corresponding articles became more and the peak of its patriotic content of the newspaper reaches by July 1877. Then there was a decline in military-patriotic articles up to the last issue.
The authors widely use such methods of military propaganda as “praising the leader”, “demonizing the enemy”, “justice of our struggle”, “support of our struggle by the world community”, etc. The articles attempt to mobilize the nation and motivate Russian subjects to labor and military exploits for the sake of victory. The materials about combat losses, as well as information about collections and donations are widely published, which allows us to conclude that mutual aid and patriotic charity are widespread.
By the end of 1877, when the war becomes commonplace, the number of publications of military content is minimized, up to the last military issue, which devotes only one article to the end of the war.
In comparison with another church publication, the newspaper “Irkutskie Eparkhial'nye Vedomosti”, the rates of patriotic and propaganda work in the newspaper “Kurskie Eparkhial'nye Vedomosti” has sharply decreased over the course of the war; there is reason to assume that military-patriotic work in the outback was established more qualitatively.
Abstract: The location of the Steppe Region, the area of residence of Kazakhs in the late Imperial period, in the second half of the 19th – early 20th centuries, was the object of attention of photographers. This chronological stage has absorbed the historical layers of socio-economic reforms carried out by administration in the environment of the nomadic economy area and accompanied by cultural vectors. Photography in the triad: craft, business and art gradually entered the measured life of the steppe people in order to reflect material and spiritual values, ideological foundations and behavioral patterns. Visualization in retrospect is valuable both as a source and as a fact of the co–creation of the master and his nature in the flow of time and space. Russian Turkestan, adjacent to the Steppe, experienced a similar influence of intercultural adaptation, although clerical pressure was quite strong here. The history of the “implantation” of photography into the Kazakh society is certainly informative in terms of reconstruction, based on archives, personalities, as well as the formation of interest among the Genghisids, students. Overcoming stagnation as a social phenomenon in the Kazakh environment is obvious at the beginning of the 20th century, through the lens of a camera.
Abstract: The paper analyzes the experience Tambov craftsmen received when participating in handicraft exhibitions at county, provincial, regional and all-Russian levels. The study is topical because it corresponds to the need to use the practices of earlier generations to solve modern demographic and economic problems. The results were obtained from the unpublished documents stored in funds of the State archive of Tambov region. The author also used published logbooks and resolutions of provincial and district zemstvo assemblies; reports of the Ministry of State Property, county zemstvos, and “Tambovskie eparkhial'nye vedomosti”; exhibitions signs; and “Tambov Diocesan Gazette” and “Sel'skokhozyaistvennaya zhizn'” periodicals. The analysis of the documents reveals several factors that influenced handicrafts positively. While preparing expositions the author gathered a lot of statistics on the problem to be presented in diagrams and charts to the exhibition visitors. As a result, large-scale exhibitions draw public attention to the problem of handicrafts, provided craftsmen with information on potential consumers and a good opportunity to earn money from sales. Best works received special award, which stimulated other craftsmen to improve production. However, handicraft exhibitions organizers made some mistakes. Firstly, some exhibits did not represent handicrafts. Secondly, some handicrafts sections were misplaced or did not match the general idea of the exhibition. Thirdly, some choices of provincial and county exhibition venues were unsuccessful since most craftsmen worked in rural areas and had no sufficient motives to travel to the city.
Abstract: After the Turkestan Region became part of the Russian Empire in 1865, significant changes took place in all spheres of life. Several peoples lived in the Turkestan region, and their economy differed from each other. There were nationalities and social groups in the region that led a sedentary and nomadic lifestyle. The Syrdarya region has become one of the most economically and culturally difficult regions of Turkestan. The territory of the region was inhabited by social categories who led a sedentary and purely nomadic, semi-nomadic economic lifestyle. While the vast majority of Kazakhs adhered to a pure and semi-nomadic economy, Uzbeks and Tajiks were engaged in sedentary.
The tsarist administration clearly understood that the main livelihood of the indigenous peoples was closely linked to agriculture. In this regard, the authorities have taken measures to regulate and develop agriculture in the region within a certain system. Market management mechanisms were implemented taking into account the peculiarities of the local economy. The authorities provided material and technical support to the ways of exporting agricultural products of the region. The above-mentioned steps led to the gradual involvement of local agriculture in capitalist relations.
At the beginning of the XX century, market facilities and means of agricultural development appeared on the territory of the region. Railways, stations, workshops were built. The directions of formation and development of agriculture in the Syrdarya region under the Russian Empire are among the least discussed topics in historiography. This article provides a scientific analysis of the development of agriculture in the Syrdarya region and its features after the establishment of the power of the Russian Empire.
Abstract: It is believed that the virus that caused the 1889−1890 “Russian flu” pandemic originated in the capital of the Bukhara emirate in May 1889. This article is about the Bukhara epidemic. The purpose of the article is to analyze the Bukhara epidemic and its causes and to answer the question: was the disease in Bukhara really caused by an influenza virus. The study is based on pre-revolutionary sources of the late 19th century, including periodicals containing information about the epidemic. The literature on the “Russian flu” pandemic provides evidence that the virus originated in May 1889 in Bukhara. It was first described by a witness of the Bukhara epidemic, doctor O.F. Heyfelder. From the second half of May until the beginning of August 1889, a great part of Bukhara’s population fell ill with a fever. About 7,000 people died. The lethality of the Bukhara epidemic was at least 5 %, and the lethality of the “Russian flu” was 35 times less: 0.2 %. The incubation period for the Bukhara fever was 1-2 weeks, while for influenza it was 1-3 days. The characteristic symptoms of the “Russian flu” – cough and complications in the form of pneumonia – were absent in Bukhara’s patients. Given the population migration along the Trans-Caspian railway and the virus contagiousness, influenza would have come to the cities located near Bukhara as early as in summer. But in Tashkent, Baku, Vladikavkaz, influenza emerges at the end of November 1889. The poor sanitary conditions in the city, snowy and cold winter contributed to the development of the epidemic. The heat that came in April provoked a rapid melting of snow, which resulted in very high water levels in reservoirs and the soil. The heat and plenty of water created favorable conditions for the reproduction of Anopheles mosquitoes, vectors of malaria. At the end of August 1889, a commission of 4 doctors came to the conclusion that the cause of the Bukhara epidemic was malaria. Malaria was endemic for Bukhara. Presumably, the Bukhara epidemic could be caused by P. falciparum, the causative agent of tropical malaria. Heyfelder came to the conclusion that the Bukhara epidemic and the influenza epidemic in the Russian Empire were identical diseases. Cough, sore throat, complications in the respiratory system, according to Heyfelder, were characteristic of influenza in northern latitudes only. The Bukhara epidemic was rather due to malaria presumably caused by P. falciparum than due to an influenza virus.
The Trade Relations of Russia with the States of the Eastern Balkans in the late XIX – early XX centuries (1898–1912) and the Problem of Borrowing the Experience of Austria-Hungary in the Reports of Russian Diplomats
Abstract: Russia’s foreign economic relations with Romania and Bulgaria in the late 19th-early 20th centuries have been under-researched in Russian and foreign historiography. The reports of Russian diplomats, who, besides analyzing trade relations, offered recommendations on the improvement and expansion of Russia’s economic contacts with Rumania and Bulgaria, are presented as an object of research in the paper. The weak interest of Russian trade and industry circles in the development of foreign trade, poor transport logistics and ignorance of the specifics of markets in the Eastern Balkans have not contributed to an increase in its trade with Romania and Bulgaria. The article provides evidence of the overlapping structure of Russian, Romanian and Bulgarian exports. They all depended on agricultural exports being competitors on foreign markets. For a long time, Russia was unable to act as an exporter of manufactured goods to these states. In 1908−1909 Russia stepped up its economic infiltration into the Balkans, using the increased potential of its own industry and considering the experience of other states, above all Austria-Hungary. On the eve of the Balkan wars, Russia's trade relations with Bulgaria and especially with Romania reached their peak. The outbreak of the First Balkan War led to the destabilization of foreign economic relations in the region and a reduction in Russian trade with Romania and Bulgaria.
Abstract: The article provides an encyclopedia source analysis of “Industry and Technology. Encyclopedia of Industrial Knowledge”, published in the Russian Empire period 1901−1904. The encyclopedia was a complete translation of the German edition with significant additions by Russian scientists in certain areas of technical knowledge. It was in the Russian version of the Encyclopedia that the logical order of books collection was determined, which corresponded to the most advanced technologies characteristic of the XX century beginning. The purpose of this article is to analyze the formation history and development of Russian science and technology, as well as to determine the information potential of the encyclopedia as a historical source. The content of each volume has a huge array of information about scientific and technical developments, major discoveries and current scientific knowledge in a specific historical period. Despite the great attention to the science and technology achievements the past, encyclopedic texts record the aspiration of technological progress to the future, where science and technology will be a solid foundation for the social and cultural progress of Russia. Because of the conducted source analysis of the Encyclopedia, including using the qualitative and quantitative content analysis method, the historical continuity of this technology type as an “automaton” in the Russian history of science and technology was established. Special attention to this type of technology was due to the modern development and achievements in the field of technical sciences, the modern significance automated technology. The significance of the publication under study as a historical source lies in the comprehensive and systematic nature of the materials presented on the history of Russian science and technology.
Abstract: The article is devoted to the architectural and art-technical journal “Zodchij”, published by the Imperial St. Petersburg Society of Architects since 1872, as a historical source of scientific and technological progress in the Russian Empire. The materials for the article were the issues of the magazine in 1902, when the publication was published weekly. The authors have identified significant and characteristic topics of publications posted in the journal. Among them: science and education as the basis of technical development in the Russian Empire at the beginning of the 20th century, technical innovations in the field of urban planning, architectural projects: scientific and technological progress in public, residential and urban architecture. Analysis of publications in the journal “Zodchij” shows that in the technical development of the Russian Empire at the beginning of the 20th century, an important role was assigned to the formation of professional personnel. The publication also demonstrates the importance of the societies of architects and engineers in scientific and technological progress, and how rapidly the technical development in the early twentieth century in the field of urban planning was going on, which is associated with a number of topical technical innovations.
Abstract: Russian and Japanese obsolete cruisers of the 2nd and 3rd ranks (sail-screw clippers, corvettes, frigates) in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904−1905, as well as Russian mine cruisers, are analyzed in the article. These ships are considered obsolete, however, many of them took the most active (and some – and effective) participation in combat operations. The paper provides a comparative analysis of these vessels, their potential in terms of modernization, as well as the introduction of innovations and the impact of these innovations on the effectiveness of their use.
Russian cruisers of the 2nd rank (sail-screw clippers) “Zabiyaka”, “Razboinik”, “Dzhigit”, Russian mine cruisers “Gaydamak”, “Vsadnik”, Japanese cruisers of the 3rd rank “Idzumi”, Japanese coastal defense ships “Sayen” are analyzed in the study, “Hei-Yen”, “Chin-Yen”, “Fuso”, etc. A comparative analysis of outdated “classmates” in the opposing fleets and the possibility of their modernization and combat use in the fighting of the Russian-Japanese war is also carried out.
In the course of the study, we came to the conclusion that the possibilities of modernization of Port Arthur sail-screw clippers had dried up by the beginning of the war and their conversion into minelayers seemed relatively expedient; in this regard, the decision of the military and naval leadership of Port Arthur to use the weapons and crews of these vessels on the land front seems to be the only correct one. As for the Russian mine cruisers, there were opportunities for their modernization and more efficient use, but they were missed.
Japanese cruisers of the 3rd rank (including Chinese captured ones) were built abroad and had a much wider potential for modernization, which was fully used by Japanese sailors. The outdated modernized ships were actively used in combat operations and made a significant contribution to the victory.
Abstract: Scientific and technological progress launched the process of cardinal changes in people's lives at the beginning of the 20th century. Transformations of everyday life, work and leisure under the influence of technology, people's adaptation to life in a new technological reality are no less relevant in the 21st century. Significant technological changes in the world were set in motion with the invention of the motion picture camera and the rise of audiovisual culture. The study of the origins of scientific and technological transformations at the beginning of the 20th century in the field of cinema and photo technologies is relevant for the analysis of the ongoing changes. The study of scientific and technological progress of the beginning of the last century was carried out on the basis of an analysis of publications on the pages of the leading film journals of the Russian Empire – “Sine-phono”, “Vestnik kinematografii”, “Zhivoi ekran” and “Razumnyi kinematograf i naglyadnye posobiya”, where the issues of technological development of cinematography and photographs were the center of attention. Methods of quantitative and qualitative content analysis were used as a methodology. Based on the results of the study, an overview of the novelties of cinema and photo technologies is presented, which were explained, advertised and discussed on the pages of magazines; an analysis of the inventions of the future (stereo cinema, transmission of a cinematic image at a distance, sound cinema), which were enthusiastically covered in film magazines, is presented; as well as perceived prospects for the use of film and photo technologies for scientific research in the field of geology, topography, medicine, psychology, microbiology and other areas of scientific knowledge.
Abstract: In work involving archival sources, the process of reforming police departments in the provinces of Siberia in 1908-1916 was first investigated (based on materials from the Tobolsk province). The key goal of the reform was to strengthen the personal composition of the police, improve the financial situation of its ranks, since the states approved in 1867 and 1887 did not meet the needs of the time in either qualitative or quantitative aspects. It was established that after the suppression of the first Russian revolution, the criminal situation in the region sharply worsened. There was an increase in various types of crimes (thefts, robberies, murders). Under the new conditions, insufficient states of city and county police could not ensure security and law and order. Other factors indicated the need to strengthen police ranks: an increase in the volume of shipping, passenger and freight transportation by rail, the development of trade, industry and others. The reports of the county police officers, their views and arguments in the context of the reorganization of the police were considered. It was revealed that the central government partially satisfied the petitions of local chiefs: a new cut of police camps was carried out, 14 positions of bailiffs were added and a police guard was introduced (however, only in 6 out of 10 counties of the Tobolsk province). Obviously, the reform was late and did not qualitatively improve the work of police departments in the region.
Abstract: The paper reconstructed the biographies of barges and praams of the Kronstadt and Petrograd military ports during the First World War and the Civil War. Despite the fact that during the First World War and the Civil War there were practically no active hostilities on the territory of Petrograd and Kronstadt, the watercraft of these ports suffered significant losses. Ports have lost a total of 24 barges and praams, and another nine barges have probably been transferred to other ports.
In 1908, there were 21 barges and 2 praams in the port of St. Petersburg, in 1924 – 5 boats. In 1908, there were 51 barges and 48 praams in Kronstadt, in 1924 there were 34 barges and 9 pontoons. Basically, the reduction in the number of watercraft should be sought in the subjective factor. If before the revolution it was determined by the tasks ahead, then in 1922 a regulation was adopted, according to which it was supposed to have 20 barges and 20 praams for the ports of the First category (Kronstadt), and 10 barges and 5 praams for the ports of the Second category (Petrograd). Because of this, the command of the ports, having formed the states, was forced to sell the remaining watercraft to private traders and shipping companies.
During the reform period, the products of the Votkinsk plant played a decisive role in the technical re-equipment of the floating facilities of the Kronstadt and St. Petersburg ports. As the experience of the First World War and civil wars showed, these boats were not only in demand, but quite durable. Despite the rather serious replenishment of barges in the period 1908-1912 and as a result of the evacuation of the Baltic ports at the end of the First World War, in 1923, Votkinsk products still prevail among the own watercraft of these ports. But if the Kronstadt port had a choice of available barges and praams, then the Petrograd port was forced to attract non-self-propelled ships that happened to be there: former floating batteries, battery-barges, etc.
At the same time, the fact is characteristic that for the documentation of the Soviet period, the year of construction of barges and praams was not indicated, noting that they were “pre-revolutionary construction”. Probably, with this step, the command did not want to draw unnecessary attention to their watercraft. If they cope with their functions, then let them be built in the 1850s and 1860s.
Abstract: The article analyzes the formation of heroic images by imperial propaganda during the First World War and their perception in the minds of contemporaries and descendants. Since propaganda in 1914−1917 years when broadcasting a patriotic view of the war to society, first of all, had to deal with a poorly educated part of the population, its main medium was not a newspaper, leaflet, postcard or poster. An important task in the education of patriotism was the formation of the image of “people's heroes” and the glorification of their exploits. However, the naive heroic narrative of “folk pictures” aroused hostility among the layman, due to military defeats, and dull irritation in the army environment, since it did not consciously distance itself from the real problems of the army. As a result, the heroes of the “foreground” (K.F. Kryuchkov and M.L. Bochkareva) did not cause much enthusiasm even among contemporaries. They were not forgotten in Soviet historiography, acting as examples of unsuccessful military propaganda of tsarism. Due to this, attempts to rehabilitate these heroes during the commemoration of the World War in 2014 were not entirely successful. Most of the heroes of the “second plan” war were forgotten, but in some cases, memorial practices laid down during the war years in their homeland gave good results after the collapse of the USSR. Among these heroes, it should be noted R.M. Ivanov (Simferopol) and P.N. Cherkasov (Nizhny Novgorod).
Abstract: The paper summarizes the results of the activity of the public education system on the territory of the Caucasian Educational District in the pre-revolutionary period. The attention is paid to the results achieved in secondary, lower and primary education.
As sources, the author used the documents from the Russian State Historical Archive (St. Petersburg, Russian Federation), as well as the annual reports of the Chief Prosecutor of the Holy Synod and the reports of the trustee of the Caucasian Educational District.
The author came to the following conclusions:
1. The Russian government created a system of public education on the territory of the Caucasian Educational District, which is called “from a blank slate”. As a result, by 1915, the educational activities in the Caucasus were carried out by more than 6 thousand educational institutions, among which were teachers' institutes and seminaries, gymnasiums, pro-gymnasiums, real schools, as well as an extensive network of primary educational institutions.
2. The significant progress has been made in secondary education: it has become available for both boys and girls in all regions and provinces of the Caucasian Educational District. Thanks to this, the significant contingents of people with secondary education have been accumulated and highly professional teaching staff have been trained. This laid the conditions for the opening of the first university in the Caucasus – in February 1918, Tbilisi State University was established in the administrative center of the Caucasian Educational District.
3. Lower and primary education achieved the greatest success. On the eve of the First World War, 4-class city schools were reorganized into 6-class higher primary schools. The number of 1st and 2nd grade primary schools has increased dramatically thanks to the program to prepare for the “Introduction of universal primary education”. At that time, the school set was set at 50 students, and a massive consolidation of schools began to take place.
4. By 1915, despite the fact that the Caucasian Educational District was located in close proximity to the Caucasian Front, 44 % of all Caucasian school-age children were covered by educational activities. Most of the children were covered in the territory of the Kutaisi province – 78 %, least of all in the Dagestan region – 6.8 %.
Abstract: The article is devoted to the description of everyday life or the so-called “weekdays of the war” in the deep rear – in the Primorsky region on the example of documents of the Russian State Historical Archive of the Far East (Vladivostok, Russian Federation), newspapers “Priamurskie Vedomosti” and “Kommercheskii Vestnik Blagoveshchenskoi birzhi” for 1914−1916, the journal “Dal'nevostochnyi mir”.
There were used such methods as historical-system, historical-typological, historiographical (content analysis method), as well as the method of synthesis and system analysis and the hypothetical method.
During the work, it was concluded that since the beginning of the war, the population of Primorsky Krai actively provided material assistance to military personnel. The state, in turn, also very actively appealed to its subjects with a request to collect funds from the pages of periodicals. The assistance to the wounded was widely provided, charitable assistance was also provided to the population of the territories affected by the war. Sometimes the wounded soldiers or front-line soldiers who had dependents themselves turned to the administration for help.
As for the mobilization campaign, the region tried to provide the front with not only new fighters, but also horses. The military sports committees were also being created.
Funeral events were not only held at the state expense, but also notes about the fallen soldiers were published in periodicals. The fallen in the vast majority of cases are heroized, which indicates the quality work of the state ideology. The various ironic notes about the enemy that come across in the sources were also designed to raise the morale of the population.
In Primorsky Krai, the labor of prisoners of war was widely used. The authorities tried to provide prisoners of war engaged in public works with everything necessary, in particular food and water, as evidenced by the documents.
Abstract: Based on the materials of the of 1917 All-Russian agricultural census, the article examines the gender and age composition of migrant households that settled in the Altai okrug in the process of mass agrarian migrations during the Stolypin reforms.
The gender and age composition of the households of the Stolypin reforms settlers reflected their increased need for male labor, necessary for the development of virgin lands and solving other problems of economic and social adaptation in the places of settlement. The higher proportion of adolescent children in the households of Stolypin reforms settlers, compared with other settlement groups of peasants of the Altai okrug, showed the desire of new settlers to have, not only at the time of settlement, but also in the near future, the number of workers necessary for the development of household economy.
The desire to put their land plots into economic circulation as soon as possible explains the wider use of female labor in the processing of arable land in the households of the Stolypin reforms settlers, than in the households of migrants of the previous period and old-timers. There was an interdependence between the gender composition of migrant households and their economic specialization and prosperity.
Abstract: This study is devoted to the issue of the practice of constructing images of the future by Russian liberal parties of the early XX century. The purpose of the work is to evaluate the effectiveness of the corresponding value-semantic constructs. The methodology of the work is built on the basis of a combination of elements of structural and comparative analysis. The source base of the study was formed through the use of unpublished office documents of the Cadets and Octobrists deposited in the funds of the State Archives of the Russian Federation. The authors come to the conclusion that both the Cadets and the Octobrists were able to construct complex and three-dimensional images of the future, which were the result of attempts to offer a rational solution to the most pressing issues of contemporary Russian society. As a result, these images of the future turned out to be suitable for perception by the elites and the intelligentsia, but were of little relevance to the task of popularization among the masses. The messages developed by the liberals were distinguished by relatively low affectivity, the complexity of discourse, and the presence of significant barriers to perception. At the same time, we are not talking about conceptual, but rather methodological, instrumental shortcomings. As part of the political promotion of their messages, the parties focused on the educated part of society, the elite and, in general, the “managing class” of the empire. Unlike the leftists, anarchists, nationalists, and right-wing conservatives, both the Cadets and the Octobrists failed to compactly set out the elements of their images of the future in a system of laconic slogans, the use of which would enable the mechanism of emotional contagion among the broad masses to be set in motion. It should also be noted that a number of fundamental theses that formed the foundation of these images of the future contradicted (in the medium term) the basic trends in the development of the socio-political process. These images were formed during the period of a large-scale rise of extremist movements, due to which the level of trust between society and the authorities was relatively low, as a whole indicator of the consolidation of society and the degree of readiness of its various strata for a constructive dialogue. The images of the future proposed by the Cadets and Octobrists could have been much more popular in the previous period, but the specific historical context of the era objectively minimized the potential for their dissemination.
Abstract: In the second half of the XIX century, after the Syrdarya and Semirechensk regions joined the Russian Empire, the process of formation and development of new cities took place. Originally built for military purposes, military fortifications later turned into cities. A number of old cities that had been in the status of small towns for hundreds of years were transformed into administrative and economic centers. The tsarist administration sought to maximize the geographical location and natural features of the cities of the Turkestan region. Roads and administrative buildings were built in this direction, taking into account the potential of cities, and the activities of postal, hospital, educational, etc. organizations were organized.
Russian architects and engineers paid great attention to the correct location of social and cultural objects when developing the master plan of cities. Places of religious worship and centers of market relations were located along the main streets of the cities. This article makes a comparative analysis of the trends in the development of the cities of Syrdarya and Semirechensk regions at the beginning of the XX century. During this period, the socio-economic importance of the former small towns on the territory of these regions increased, and new cities appeared. Traces of this historical and economic process can be seen to this day. The cities of the two regions differed from each other in natural landscape and climatic features.
The cities of the Syrdarya region were located in a flat and semi-desert area, and the cities of the Semirechensk region were located in a mountainous area. In the 1900s, the cities of these regions actively reflected elements of market relations, and cities began to move from the old economic and handicraft industries to production. Now cities have become centers of commodity and money exchange.