English (United Kingdom)  Russian (CIS)


«Былые годы» (Bylye Gody) – российский исторический журнал

E-ISSN.2310-0028
Периодичность – 4 раза в год.

Издается с 2006 года.

1 March 01, 2024


Articles

1. Anna V. Shashkova, Galina V. Gudimenko, Ekaterina V. Kudryashova, Lada O. Gordeychenko
The Evolution of Crimes and Punishments of the Corruption Origin in Russia

Bylye Gody. 2024. 19(1): 5-14.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2024.1.5CrossRef

Abstract:
The article examines the evolution of the category «corruption» in pre-revolutionary Russia, as well as its various manifestations and punishments for corrupt actions. The authors analyzed numerous legislative acts in force in various periods of the existence of the Russian state, as well as measures that taken at the state level to combat corruption. According to the authors, the emergence of corruption is primarily due to the expectation of significant benefits from corrupt actions, the influence of officials' decisions on the allocation of limited resources. The formation of the Russian Empire accompanied by such phenomena as favoritism, abuse of power, distribution of privileges, extortion and bribery. Over time, the state began to attach great importance to anti-corruption issues, many legislative acts aimed at combating corruption adopted, officials convicted of corruption punished regardless of rank and merit, a ban was imposed on combining public service with commerce, etc. The study found that by the end of the XIX century, the experience of legislative and social measures against corruption crimes had been accumulated. These actions of the state led to the fact that at the beginning of the XX century in Russia, corruption in the highest echelons of power in Russia was practically absent, not a single case of abuse and bribery was established. There were manifestations of corruption at the lower and middle levels of government, but the measures taken by the country's leadership to combat corruption for a long time made it possible to achieve real success in pre-revolutionary Russia and become one of the least corrupt European states.

URL: https://bg.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1709214456.pdf
Number of views: 160      Download in PDF


2. Aleksandr A. Cherkasov
Cherkasovs (Keretskys): During the Period of the Muscovite Kingdom (to the 450th Anniversary of the Cherkasov Family)

Bylye Gody. 2024. 19(1): 15-28.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2024.1.15CrossRef

Abstract:
The paper examines the history of the Cherkasov family from Kereti during the period of the Muscovite Kingdom. The attention is given to the first five generations in the history of the family, who lived in the period from 1570 to 1725. The source base of our research is based on archival materials from the Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts (Moscow, Russian Federation), as well as the Archive of the St. Petersburg Institute of History of the Russian Academy of Sciences (St. Petersburg, Russian Federation). In conclusion, the author states that the history of the Cherkasovs from Kereti today has 17 generations, which fell on the period from 1570 to the present. At the same time, the family history of the period of the Moscow Kingdom is only the first five generations (1570–1725): the initial chronological point is associated with the birth in 1570 in the Zaporozhian Sich (territory of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth) of a Cossack named David (1st generation), and the final one with the death in 1725 of a representative of the 5th generation Prokopii Antonovich Cherkasov. With the death of Prokopii Antonovich, an entire epoch came to an end – an epoch in which a representative from the 2nd generation of the Cherkas Davydov family, the son, stays from the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth to the territory of the Moscow Kingdom, serves in its military formations and settles in Kereti. Cherkas's sons, who continued their father's work, also receive excellent military training. Cherkas' grandson Anton participates in the defense of the Solovetsky Monastery, and his great-grandchildren serve in the Streltsy army and take part in hostilities. During this era, all four generations of Cherkasovs from Kereti (2nd – 5th generations) were directly related to military service in the Muscovite Kingdom either as part of military men or as part of the Streletsky army. This allows us to talk about the Cherkasovs from Kereti as a family of sovereign servants of the period of the Moscow Kingdom.

URL: https://bg.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1709377988.pdf
Number of views: 99      Download in PDF


3. Pavel S. Seleznev
On the Question of the Everyday Life of the Nobility at the end of the 17th – beginning of the 18th centuries

Bylye Gody. 2024. 19(1): 29-39.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2024.1.29CrossRef

Abstract:
The study of the everyday life of the noble class during the reign of Peter the Great acquires particular relevance due to the fact that the previous historical development of Russian society predetermined qualitative changes in the life and structure of life of the nobility - representatives of the privileged class of the Russian people. The significance of this work is determined, therefore, by the insufficient knowledge in the context of modern scientific research of certain aspects of the everyday life of the Russian nobility at the end of the 17th – beginning of the 18th centuries. The work pays special attention to such components of the daily life of the Russian nobility as the legal and economic position of this class in society, its cultural ideas, and everyday life. The author makes an important conclusion that changes in the everyday life of the Russian nobility were greatly influenced by the penetration of elements of European culture into the court environment, on the one hand, which were actively introduced into everyday social practice, and on the other, which received a certain refraction on the basis of Russian traditions. The author pays special attention to the connection between the assemblies introduced under Peter I – the prototype of the noble ball, organized in European traditions, and qualitative changes in the life of the Russian nobility. Despite the fact that the era under study was the heyday of the noble class, the “Europeanization” of not only the consciousness, but also the life of the Russian nobility, according to the author’s conclusion, the growth in the standard of living of the class under study was carried out in parallel with the expansion of the official duties of its representatives, the need to constantly increase the educational level.

URL: https://bg.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1709214786.pdf
Number of views: 83      Download in PDF


4. Sergey I. Degtyarev, Evhenii M. Osadchyi
The Liubech Town Plan in 1651 by Abraham van Westerveld

Bylye Gody. 2024. 19(1): 40-47.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2024.1.40CrossRef

Abstract:
The publication analyzes a little-known Liubech plan described by Abraham van Westerveld in his report on Janusz Radziwiłł’s march to Kyiv in 1651. The latter was a Lithuanian hetman. The article concerns topographic drawings and geodetic tools used in that time. Modern topographic plans and early modern ones are compared (including respective mistakes). The drawing meets the West European cartographic school: orthogonal projection without decoration and description. It combines fortifications, separate buildings, infrastructure objects, etc. The plan is provided with a scale and English cardinal points. Such a draft was drawn by a skilled cartographer. The above-mentioned can determine the land survey, its methods and tools. The survey was conducted after the Liubech seizure by Janusz Radziwiłł. The geodesist could get acquainted with the object and determine the stages of plan creation. The work was completed properly. There was only one deviation on the plan: the corner tower orientation shift. Besides, several surveying techniques were applied to the plan, which confirms high skills of the geodesist. The plan is almost centered. No pasting or wall direction changing are detected. Such techniques are usable for surveying unknown objects. However, plan errors themselves are typical for surveying tools and methods of the 17th century. Unfortunately, such a plan was created in a single copy. Therefore, we cannot make any assumptions about its authors.

URL: https://bg.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1709214902.pdf
Number of views: 83      Download in PDF


5. Marat V. Saudakhanov, Inna A. Garnaya-Ivanova
The Legal Status of the Native Population of Western Siberia in the Russian Empire (late 17th century – late 19th century)

Bylye Gody. 2024. 19(1): 48-57.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2024.1.48CrossRef

Abstract:
The article analyzes the legal status of the yasak population in the Russian Empire in the 17th-19th centuries, namely the period of history from the reign of Peter I to the accession to the throne of Emperor Nicholas II. In their study, the authors relied mainly on materials from Western Siberia, extrapolating the study to the entire policy of the development of colonial territories by the Russian Empire. The authors' view is focused on the regulatory and law enforcement activities of the bodies of the Russian state for the integration of Siberian foreigners into Russian society. The paper examines the genesis of the development of the socio-economic and legal status of the native population of Western Siberia within the framework of the development of territories by the Russian Empire in the XVIII-XIX centuries. On the basis of archival data and other open sources, the problems that the public authorities have faced in terms of integrating the native population of Siberia into Russian society are being comprehended. The authors identify a number of important analytical positions that contributed to the resistance of foreigners to the policy of assimilation. In addition, the article attempts to identify the causes of positive changes in the development of cultural and economic ties between Russian and native society. The research materials demonstrate certain results affecting the period under study in the field of “domestication” of Siberian aliens and the nullification of the normative uncertainty of their legal status. The authors emphasize the careful attitude of the government of the Russian Empire to the traditional way of life of the natives and their social regulation.

URL: https://bg.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1709214941.pdf
Number of views: 86      Download in PDF


6. Ruslan M. Zhitin, Alexey G. Topilsky
French-Language Publications in the Structure of Bookselling Interests of Academic Bookstores of the XVIII century

Bylye Gody. 2024. 19(1): 58-65.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2024.1.58CrossRef

Abstract:
The article examines the spread of French-language literature in the Russian Empire during the XVIII century, from Peter I to Paul I. The spread of French literature is characterized as an integral part of Gallomania, which spread throughout Europe (including the Russian Empire) during the period under study. The process of spreading and penetrating into the consciousness of both privileged and, later, wider segments of the population of the French language and French culture as an integral part of the Enlightenment is considered. This confirms the historiographical idea that the assimilation of the French language was an important component of a cultured, enlightened person of the era. It is indicated that contacts with booksellers and the possibility of independent selection of publications by agents contributed to the successful search for the best scientific and fiction literature from the numerous European "assortment" of book products. The activity of the St. Petersburg and Moscow academic shops is characterized as an important element of the distribution of printed publications not only in St. Petersburg and Moscow, but also in provincial cities of the Russian Empire. It was found that decisions on the transformation of the forms of sale of books (in particular, the decision to close the Moscow academic bookstore in 1760) did not lead to the cessation of the distribution of books; well-established links for the supply of literature continued to operate. It is shown that French–language works contributed to the popularization of enlightenment norms, the importance of education and – what was important for the transformation of educated Russians - humanistic values. The conclusion is made about the widespread and sustained interest of Russians in the French book in the post-Soviet era.

URL: https://bg.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1709215104.pdf
Number of views: 72      Download in PDF


7. Аnna P. Dvoretskaya, Nadezhda L. Khait, Olga V. Konovalova, Elena Y. Kushnarenko
The Role of Spiritual Education in the Closed Sacred Space of the Yenisei Siberia (second half of the 18th – first half of the 19th centuries)

Bylye Gody. 2024. 19(1): 66-77.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2024.1.66CrossRef

Abstract:
The article examines the local features of theological education in Yenisey Siberia in the second half of the XVIII – first half of the XIX centuries on the example of the Russian-Latin school in Krasnoyarsk and Yeniseysk and the Yenisey Theological School. Archival documents and materials of church periodicals tell about the activities of the Russian Orthodox Church in the field of theological education. The emphasis is placed on the sacred space of the church parish. The paper identifies staffing issues in schools and colleges, analyzes the social composition of students and teachers, examines the principles of the educational process aimed at mindset formation of future pastors. The authors conclude that, despite the dogmatism inherent in the system, future clergymen could acquire knowledge in the field of Christian doctrine, as well as literacy and numeracy skills. The attention is drawn to the fact that during the period in question, the principle of life-long learning in theological education was being formed. The experience of reconstruction and analysis of the activities of well-known clergy of the Yenisey Siberia show that thanks to their activities, the Orthodox Church gave a good account of itself on the imperial outskirts, being at a considerable distance from diocesan authorities. The clergy gave examples of Christian behavior through the Liturgy, promoted the cohesion of the parish, helped to build communication within the community.

URL: https://bg.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1709215208.pdf
Number of views: 82      Download in PDF


8. Natal'ya A. Shevchenko, Yulia V. Kapitanets, Galina M. Zinchuk, Lyudmila N. Tatarinova
The Appointed Hetman Yakov Gerasimovich Kukharenko (1799–1862) (to the 225th Anniversary of his Birth)

Bylye Gody. 2024. 19(1): 78-83.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2024.1.78CrossRef

Abstract:
This work is devoted to the biography of the commander-in-chief of the Black Sea Cossack Army, Major General, as well as the outstanding writer Yakov Gerasimovich Kukharenko (1799–1862). The publication is timed to the 225th anniversary of his birth. As a source, we used information from the pre-revolutionary “Military Encyclopedia”, as well as materials about the ancestral home of ataman Yakov Kukharenko. In conclusion, the authors state that among the atamans of the Black Sea (Kuban) Cossack army, Yakov Gerasimovich Kukharenko was a special person who combined not only military and administrative talents, but also creative ones. Coming from a Cossack officer family, he joined the Black Sea Cossack Army at the age of 15 and took an active part in the Caucasian War (1801–1864), the Russian-Turkish War (1828–1829) and the Crimean Company (1853–1856) for the first 25 years of his service. According to historians, he took part in 44 battles and military affairs. In 1852–1856, he reached the peak of his military career – he received the rank of major General and became the commander-in-chief of the Black Sea Cossack army. However, Major General Y.G. Kukharenko is known not only for this, but also for his creative activity. From his pen came a number of works that had important ethnographic significance for the study of the life of the Zaporozhye Cossacks, the first settlers to the Kuban Plain in the late XVIII century. This was Yakov Gerasimovich Kukharenko – a brilliant officer and a talented writer.

URL: https://bg.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1709215806.pdf
Number of views: 78      Download in PDF


9. Ziyabek E. Kabuldinov, Saule K. Uderbayeva, Galiya А. Shotanova
Diplomatic Mission A. F. Negri in Bukhara 1820: Goals and Results

Bylye Gody. 2024. 19(1): 84-94.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2024.1.84CrossRef

Abstract:
This article discusses the circumstances of the preparation, goals, course, conduct and results of the diplomatic mission of Alexander Fedorovich Negri to Bukhara in 1820. The mission was sent from Orenburg to Bukhara by the Asian Committee to strengthen relations with the Bukhara Emirate. Based on existing literature and two little-known works from the “Proceedings” of the Orenburg Scientific Archival Commission, little-studied facts about the ransom of prisoners from Bukhara imprisonment are revealed, the scientific results of the expedition members E.K. Meindorf, E. Eversman and others, as well as the political and economic results of the mission. Over the years, full members of the Orenburg Scientific Archival Commission A.V. Vasiliev and N.G. Petukhov published their research in the “Proceedings” of the commission, revealing the results of the mission and the biographies of its participants. The work of A.V. Vasiliev “The Journey of Doctor Eversman to Bukhara” was published in the XVI issue of the “Proceedings” of the OSAK in 1905, the study by N.G. Petukhov “From the Past of Orenburg” was published in 1911 in the XXIII volume of the “Proceedings” of the OSAK. When preparing their research, members of the archival commission relied on archival documents from the Orenburg Regional Administration. The authors concluded that the publications of the members of the Orenburg Scientific Archival Commission occupy an important place in the historiography of the issue and are valuable sources on the history of the Negri mission, revealing the unknown facts of the diplomatic embassy. Materials from the “Proceedings” of the Orenburg Scientific Archival Commission significantly complement the rather meager historiography of the mission of A.F. Negri.

URL: https://bg.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1709215993.pdf
Number of views: 86      Download in PDF


10. Tatiana N. Goncharova
A Little-Known Testimony on the Russian-Turkish War of 1828–1829: French Ambassador C. de Mortemart on the Balkan Front

Bylye Gody. 2024. 19(1): 95-107.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2024.1.95CrossRef

Abstract:
During the Russian-Turkish war of 1828–1829, which became the final stage of the Eastern crisis provoked by the Greek struggle for independence, the imperial cabinet perceived France as a potential support against the hostility of England and Austria. Appointed ambassador to Russia, general Casimir de Mortemart, was instructed to join emperor Nicholas I on the Balkan front in May 1828. He remained there five months and wrote 32 dispatches, hardly considered by historians to this day. Mortemart did not limit himself to mere observation, but also comments as an officer upon the miscalculations of the high command, which in the end deceived the hopes of the French government for a quick Russian victory over Turkey. He misses Napoleonic audacity in the conduct of operations. Moreover, he came to doubt the real forces and resources of the “northern colossus”, and warned his government against too many illusions. As a diplomat he takes a stronger view than his own government on the opportunity to support Russia against the British claim of a separation between the Balkan issue and the Greek one. Such an ambassador, who appears both as a would-be general-in-chief of the Russian army and would-be French minister of foreign affairs cannot but provide a specially interesting testimony.

URL: https://bg.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1709216221.pdf
Number of views: 72      Download in PDF


11. Leonid L. Balanyuk, Svetlana A. Grimalskaya, Olga V. Guseva, Ul'yana I. Zubritskaya
Konstantin Nikolaevich Bestuzhev-Ryumin (1829–1897): A Biographical Sketch (To the 195th Anniversary of His Birth)

Bylye Gody. 2024. 19(1): 108-114.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2024.1.108CrossRef

Abstract:
The paper attempts to create a biographical sketch about the outstanding historian Konstantin Nikolaevich Bestuzhev-Ryumin (1829–1897). The authors drew attention to the main events in the life of this scientist and divided his period of life into three chronological periods (Nizhny Novgorod, Moscow and St. Petersburg). As materials, the authors used sources of personal origin, namely the memoirs of K.N. Bestuzhev-Ryumin, which were published after his death, namely in 1900. In his memoirs, V.K. Bestuzhev-Ryumin described the period of his life from childhood to 1860. The authors conclude that the outstanding Russian historian, professor of St. Petersburg University K.N. Bestuzhev-Ryumin (1829–1897) has passed an interesting life path. Gifted and inquisitive by nature, he linked his life with history from childhood and began publishing in periodicals back in his high school years. After graduating from the Imperial Moscow University, he was a home teacher, taught Russian history to members of the imperial family. He tried his hand at editorial work, collaborated with edition “Otechestvennye Zapiski”, worked for “Moskovsky Vedomosti” and “Moskovskoe obozrenie”. But his main job was teaching at the Imperial St. Petersburg University, where he headed the Department of Russian History and for a long time was engaged in historiography and source studies, having trained a whole pleiad of outstanding students.

URL: https://bg.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1709216295.pdf
Number of views: 66      Download in PDF


12. Artyom Yu. Peretyatko
The Arrest of Khivan Subjects in the Russian Empire in 1836 and Russian Struggle Against Slave Trade in Middle Asia. Part II

Bylye Gody. 2024. 19(1): 115-128.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2024.1.115CrossRef

Abstract:
The article is dedicated to a well-known yet not specifically studied event, the arrest of Khivan subjects in the Russian Empire in 1836. Different authors offer diametrically opposed interpretations of this event: thus, the Russian researcher R.Yu. Pochekaev views it as an act of self-defense caused by the Khiva-inspired attacks on the Russian subjects, but the British researcher A. Morrison considers it the first step towards the escalation of a conflict which ended with the Khivan campaign. We will consider this event from the point of view of microhistory rather than the history of states and regions, concentrating the attention on the individual strategies and fates of different people connected with the arrest of Kvivans, and in doing so we will rely on archive materials, predominantly the documentation of the Orenburg Border Commission. In the second part of the article, the author comes to four main conclusions. First, the attitude of the Orenburg authorities towards the arrested Khivans was extremely negative, and the Orenburg Military Governor V.A. Perovsky was demonstrating blatant xenophobia, as a result of which even the mistakenly arrested Bukharians and “Kirgiztsy” (an erroneous term used by Russian officials of the time to call various native ethnicities of the region) were not released from Russian captivity. The Khivans were kept in a specially designated building and on extremely small funds, their visits with families were limited, and as a result, 43 of the arrested in Orenburg did not survive Russian captivity. Second, such an attitude towards the arrested Khivans was not universal for the Russian Empire: much better conditions were created for them in Astrakhan, first of all, by allowing them to live in appartements and by allocating them times more funds for daily expanses. Third, the arrest of Khivans didn’t give the results in terms of fighting the slave trade which G.F. Gens had hoped for: for the first two years, before Khiva learned about the impending military expedition against her, only 30 Russian subjects were released from Khivan captivity. And, finally, fourth, the Russian authorities were able to achieve success fighting Khivan slave trade in Middle Asia in 1820–1830s only by extremely brutal methods, the number of victims of which is comparable to the number of victims of said slave trade: in the case of the arrest of Khivans they, to free 30 Russian subjects, had to take no less than 400 hostages, of whom more than 40 died in captivity, and the military campaign to Khiva that allowed to free almost 500 slaves from there had cost, by various estimations, 1 000-3 000 dead Russian soldiers.

URL: https://bg.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1709216616.pdf
Number of views: 66      Download in PDF


13. Larisa A. Koroleva
The Development of the Female Education System in the Penza Province in the 1850–1880

Bylye Gody. 2024. 19(1): 129-136.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2024.1.129CrossRef

Abstract:
The article examines the evolution of a secondary female school in the Russian Empire in the second half of the XIX century at the regional level – in the Penza province. The degree of knowledge of this problem is characterized. In 1859, the first female school of the 1st category was formed in Penza by combining existing institutions – the noble boarding house and the Hoffmann private boarding house. Two years later, it was closed due to lack of funds, the Hoffmann boarding house remained. Since 1862, a school of the II category functioned in Penza, for three years they received education, mainly girls of the urban class. In 1869, the petition of the Penza governor N.D. Seliverstov about the opening of a women's school of the 1st category, renamed a gymnasium in 1870, was granted. The main contingent of those who studied at the gymnasium were children of nobles and officials. In the gymnasium, the leadership was carried out by the head and councils – pedagogical and guardianship. Women's schools were run by educational districts, existed at the expense of public and private funds. The public of county (9) and state (3) cities of the province declared their readiness to create schools of the II category, but in conditions of a shortage of money they established parish (Chembar, Krasnoslobodsk, Nizhny Lomov, Saransk, etc.). The total number of girls studying in educational institutions of all types of the Penza province did not exceed 1000 people.

URL: https://bg.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1709216663.pdf
Number of views: 71      Download in PDF


14. Alexander V. Golovinov, Egor A. Kulikov, Irina A. Anisimova
Problems of Penal Policy of the Russian Empire in the Literary and Journalistic Heritage of N.M. Yadrintsev and F.M. Dostoevsky

Bylye Gody. 2024. 19(1): 137-147.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2024.1.137CrossRef

Abstract:
This work is aimed at studying the problems of the criminal-executive (penitentiary) policy of tsarism in the assessments of pre-revolutionary writers – the Siberian regionalist N.M. Yadrintsev and the great Russian novelist F.M. Dostoevsky. Thus, the purpose of the article is to explicate narratives about the essence, content and problems of implementing the penal policy of the Russian Empire in the literary and journalistic heritage of N.M. Yadrintsev and F.M. Dostoevsky. The research is carried out on the basis of an interdisciplinary methodology that organically combines the tools of the “new intellectual history”, hermeneutic content analysis and the paradigm of the “new social history”. This research approach is aimed at explicating a system of views and concepts on a specific social problem, taking into account the context of the era. The source base for the work was published sources: the corpus of artistic, literary and journalistic texts by N.M. Yadrintsev and F.M. Dostoevsky, dedicated to the problems of prison and hard labor in the history of the Russian Empire. The authors show that the journalism of the classics of regional thought includes a large component in the field of exile as a form and type of punishment, the fate of exiled settlers, their colonization significance, and extensive problems in the field of prison studies. It is also noted that F.M. Dostoevsky formulated an important idea for penitentiary studies: for work in prison to have the character of not only punishment, but also to have a corrective effect, it must be meaningful and useful. In general, the authors found that as a means of correction F.M. Dostoevsky understood labor, collective interaction and collective organization, taking into account the rules of community life inherent in this organization, as well as reading, education and training. Level of reflection N.M. Yadrintsev about the state and prospects of imperial penal policy was of a practice-oriented nature.

URL: https://bg.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1709216717.pdf
Number of views: 70      Download in PDF


15. Tatiana V. Izluchenko, Denis N. Gergilev, Evgeniy A. Akhtamov, Daria N. Nesterenko
The Problem of Terrorism in the Security System of the Russian Empire at the turn of the XIX–XX centuries (on the example of the Yenisei Province)

Bylye Gody. 2024. 19(1): 148-158.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2024.1.148CrossRef

Abstract:
Modern security studies actualize the problem of terrorism. It is multidimensional and requires careful study, taking into account the time and space of a particular State. Considering terrorism as a concrete historical phenomenon contributes to the preservation of historical and genetic continuity. Using the experience of countering it will ensure the security of the state and society. The aim of the work is to identify the specifics of the attitude towards terrorism in the Russian Empire at the turn of the XIX–XX centuries on the part of the state authorities and society. The methodological basis of the study was the political-historical approach. It is used to reconstruct the domestic political situation and transform legislation. The historical-genetic method made it possible to identify the conditions of spread and development of terrorist sentiments in time. The idiographic method reveals the impact of individual cases on the situation as a whole. Terrorism is considered within the framework of social constructivism. The roles of all participants are indicated. The authors note the emerging trend towards the glorification of terrorists among the population and the positioning of their actions by terrorists as acts of martyrdom. The noted favorable conditions for the spread of terrorism were caused by systemic errors of the State authorities. The first mistakes were in the absence of an appropriate legislative norm separating terrorism from other types of crimes. The second is ignoring the social nature of terrorism caused by post-reform changes. As a result, the comprehensive approach necessary for constructive counteraction to terrorism has not been developed. The police measures of detection, prevention and supervision used were not effective, and in some cases even contributed to the spread of anti-government ideas to remote territories of the empire.

URL: https://bg.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1709216796.pdf
Number of views: 73      Download in PDF


16. Mariya A. Sosnina, Tatyana V. Vorotilina, Julia V. Nikolaeva, Olga A. Lavrishcheva
Legal Regulation of Peasant Family Divisions in the Russian North in the second half of the XIX – early XX centuries

Bylye Gody. 2024. 19(1): 159-168.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2024.1.159CrossRef

Abstract:
The article analyzes the issues of legal regulation of the institution of family divisions among the peasants of the Arkhangelsk province in the second half of the XIX – early XX centuries: namely, the role of legal custom and legislative regulation in the field of marital and family relations in the peasant community of the Russian North is studied. The authors focused not only on the materials of pre-revolutionary historiography on this issue, but also on archival documents found in the State Archive of the Arkhangelsk region, which contain reliable information about the activities of volost courts during this period. From the point of view of the formal legal method, this article analyzes the normative legal acts concerning family divisions among peasants. Due to the already published and for the first time introduced archival documents into scientific circulation, the problem of the relationship between law and legal custom in regulating family divisions and their consequences expressed not only in the disintegration of a large peasant family but also in the division of property based on the principles of consentient labour and family ownership, is understood. In addition, the authors identify the subjective and objective causes of the processes taking place, its specifics in the Russian North, where there was no private feudal dependence of the majority of peasants. The research materials demonstrate reliable results concerning the period under study in the field of regulating family divisions among peasants, who mainly relied on local custom in solving this issue, at the same time experiencing a governmental reaction in the form of the adoption of normative legal acts restraining the process of disintegration of the peasant community and contradicting peasant customary law.

URL: https://bg.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1709216949.pdf
Number of views: 68      Download in PDF


17. Alexey G. Topilsky, Ruslan M. Zhitin
Commercial and Industrial Interests of Landowners in the Field of Sugar Beet Production (XIX – early XX centuries)

Bylye Gody. 2024. 19(1): 169-177.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2024.1.169CrossRef

Abstract:
The article examines the development of the sugar beet industry during the XIX – early XX centuries. The materials of the State Archive of the Tambov Region were used to study the problem at the micro level. The methodological tools of the work were the principles of objectivity and historicism. The principle of objectivity made it possible to analyze the history of sugar enterprises outside the ideological context of Soviet historiography, to show the positive role of the industry in the development of latifundia. The principle of historicism was aimed at studying the historical context of the development of industrial beet processing in post-reform Russia. The pre–revolutionary, Soviet and modern historiography of the development of sugar and refined landlord enterprises in the Russian Empire in general and the Central Chernozem region in particular is considered. The influence of the abolition of serfdom and other legislative acts on the development and concentration of the sugar industry is analyzed. It is shown that the state policy of supporting sugar growers at the end of the XIX century led to a high concentration of sugar beet enterprises and encouraging the export of their products. The transfer of beet fields from individual vegetable gardens to the general structure of the owner's crop rotation, the purchase of new machines and equipment for planting and harvesting beetroot, the active involvement of agricultural artels in the work is analyzed. The internal agreements of the owners of enterprises, which were formed within a semi-legal syndicate of refiners, whose association actively dictated its conditions in the domestic market, are characterized. In particular, restrictions on the production of refined products on the Russian market are considered, as well as how Russian landlords were forced to reduce the acreage of beetroot in order to maintain high sugar prices.

URL: https://bg.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1709217024.pdf
Number of views: 65      Download in PDF


18. Olga A. Plotskaya, Diana I. Makembaeva, Nikita S. Grudinin, Denis A. Shiryov
Publications of the Periodical Press as a Representative and Authentic Source of Information on Ethno-Justice and Family-Legal Relations of the Permian Peoples in the 19th century

Bylye Gody. 2024. 19(1): 178-188.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2024.1.178CrossRef

Abstract:
The materials and publications of the periodical press are the most important historical and legal source of information on the customary law of the Permian peoples in the 19th century. In the period under review, the Zyryans, Votyaks, and Permyaks assigned a significant role to customary law in traditional social relations that existed in ethno-local societies. It recorded the centuries-old experience of ancestors, the peculiarities of the ethno-normative culture of the peoples in question, the rules for conducting economic and economic activities, the ways of proper behavior in the family and in society. Customary legal norms were widespread in civil law, marriage and family, criminal law, trade, and ethno-justice. They were reflected in the legal and cultural traditions of the studied peoples. In this regard, the materials of the periodical press of the 19th century are the most valuable historical and legal source of information about the customary legal life of the Perm peoples. Moreover, a huge number of periodicals containing relevant materials can be divided into publications of the central and local periodicals. Despite the fact that the pages of the central periodicals revealed the process of influence of the current state legislation on the norms of customary law, as well as commented on some court decisions and contained various aspects of the customary legal world of the Perm peoples, however, a significant amount of historical, ethnographic and customary legal material is contained in the works of researchers published in such editions of the local periodical press as Vologda Provincial Gazette, Vyatka Gubernskie Gazette, and Perm Diocesan Gazette.

URL: https://bg.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1709217089.pdf
Number of views: 70      Download in PDF


19. Natalia Ye. Goryushkina
The Practice of Excise Supervision in Russia after the Wine Reform of 1863

Bylye Gody. 2024. 19(1): 189-198.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2024.1.189CrossRef

Abstract:
The article highlights the practical activities of excise departments, which were specially established for the conduct of the wine reform of 1863. This transformation was carried out in relation to the drinking collection, which was the most significant part of the state revenues of Russia. The steady receipt of the collection from drinking was guaranteed by the tireless, everyday activity of excise officials. Their functional responsibilities were clearly defined and included inspection of factory equipment, patenting of establishments that produced and sold alcohol, proper audits, accounting control and accounting, technical support of excise duty. Alcohol turnover was supervised day and night. The first level of supervision was provided by overseers assigned to each distillery, the second – by assistant district supervisors at their site; the third – by excise supervisors in their district; the fourth level of supervision was carried out by the excise manager, his assistants, auditors, technicians within the subordinated territory; the fifth – the Minister of Finance himself, the director of the Department of Non-payment Fees and the auditors of the specified department. Audits of distilleries were carried out for compliance of production with selected standards of distilling and included monitoring the full cycle from jam to distilling alcohol or for a separate distillery operation, readings of control shells were taken, factory reports were checked. During the audit of places of trade, measurements of dishes, the strength of wine were carried out, permits for trade were checked. The revisions were planned and sudden, brief and complete, and there were no restrictions on their number. The provincial and district excise administrations coped with their mission, the drinking income grew during the excise period. The epithet “excise” has become synonymous with the word “quality”.

URL: https://bg.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1709217126.pdf
Number of views: 64      Download in PDF


20. Andrii Lebid, Oleg Tulyakov
Some Issues of Organization of the Educational Process in Russian Imperial Universities in Accordance with the University Statutes of 1863 and 1884

Bylye Gody. 2024. 19(1): 199-209.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2024.1.199CrossRef

Abstract:
This article is an attempt to analyze the main milestones in the formation and development of the system of higher education in Ukraine in those territories that were part of the Russian Empire. In this context, the organizational features and functioning of three Russian imperial universities on the territory of Ukraine are considered: the Imperial Kharkov University, St. Vladimir's University in Kiev, and the Imperial Novorossiysk University. From the point of view of observing the principle of objectivity and completeness these phenomena and phenomena were investigated in the context of the all-Russian imperial process of ensuring and implementing the state policy in the sphere of higher education. The scientific review of the stated problem was made with reference to the main legislative initiatives and norms of the government of the Russian Empire, which established the principles and priorities of state policy and reforming the sphere of higher education. Significant differences in the norms of the university charters of 1863 and 1884 were noted, in particular, concerning not only academic freedoms, but also organizational features of educational and scientific activities in Russian imperial universities. In general, summarizing these differences, it is necessary to note the fact of increased governmental and ministerial control in the system of higher education. These phenomena in the history of university education can be conceptualized as counter-reformist. By analyzing the content, formal, as well as contextual characteristics of government documents: rules, regulations, circulars, orders, etc., it is possible to trace the evolution of changes in the sphere of higher education, in particular those concerning the organizational features of teaching and learning in Russian imperial universities in the second half of the 19th century.

URL: https://bg.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1709217172.pdf
Number of views: 68      Download in PDF


21. Nicholas W. Mitiukov, Irina Yu. Cherkasova
Reconstruction of Ship Biographies Using “Ship Lists”

Bylye Gody. 2024. 19(1): 210-218.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2024.1.210CrossRef

Abstract:
“Ship Lists” are a valuable source of the history of the Russian fleet. This is probably the only printed work on the basis of which it is possible to reconstruct the biographies of non-self-propelled watercraft of domestic ports. In some cases, analysis of records makes it possible to identify distorted data, as illustrated by the example of the fire steamboat of the Kronstadt Steamship Plant. It is shown that in the course of the evolution of records, the place of construction first changed from Votkinsk to Kronstadt, and later the date of major repairs of 1885 replaced the date of construction of 1865. However, the more intense the period with records about ships, the more confidently it is possible to reconstruct ship biographies. As a result of the analysis of the records, it was possible to unambiguously link the fire steamboat of the Kronstadt Steamship Plant with the steamboat No. 141 of the Kronstadt port, and ultimately trace the biography of the vessel until the end of the 1930s, and also link it with the 12-horsepower steamboat laid down by the Votkinsk plant for its own needs in 1860. The insufficient saturation of the records of the “Ship Lists” of the period of the Russian-Japanese War regarding the new watercraft of the Kronstadt port led to a discrepancy between the list of built ships and the ships available in the port. As a result, based on the analysis of archival information, it was possible to identify five garbage boats, two provision barges and two dry cargo barges built by the Votkinsk plant for the Kronstadt port. As it turned out, all the ships appeared in the “Ship Lists”, but without indicating the place of construction.

URL: https://bg.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1709217244.pdf
Number of views: 81      Download in PDF


22. Oksana O. Zavyalova
The Pro-Russian Oriented Public of the North-Western Territory about Current Problems of Our Time on the Pages of the “Vilna Bulletin” in the second half of the 1860s

Bylye Gody. 2024. 19(1): 219-231.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2024.1.219CrossRef

Abstract:
In a publication based on an analysis of articles, letters and notes sent by local correspondents to the newspaper “Vilna Bulletin” in 1865–1867 the views of the pro-Russian oriented public of the North-Western Territory on current issues of the development of the Russian Empire and the region are revealed, and the features of the socio-political position of its individual representatives are revealed. Based on the application of a communicative approach, newspaper materials are considered as a form of expression of political loyalty and a single “communicative flow”, within the framework of which value judgments and assessments were developed that are significant both for the regional administration and for the local public. Local correspondents of the Vilna Vestnik, in the context of overcoming the socio-political crisis in the North-Western region in the second half of the 1860s, acted as participants in the official imperial discourse aimed at developing the ideological foundations of the integrative course implemented by the Russian authorities. It is concluded that in 1865–1867 Vilna Vestnik correspondents from the northwestern provinces, following the newspaper’s editorial policy, supported the task of “moral conquest of the region” and actively participated in the process of forming the concept of Russian nationalism, both in its religious-ethnic and political dimensions. Representatives of the local educated society, loyal to the Russian authorities, sent their materials to the Vilna Bulletin, contributed to the formation of the image of Emperor Alexander II as a “renovator tsar”, “a new organizer of the whole of Russia” and insisted on the need for further reforms under the auspices of autocratic power. Representatives of the local public, who supported the policies of the Russian government, proposed a set of measures that, in their opinion, would make it possible not only to oust the Polish element hostile to Russian government principles from the region, but also to deepen the integration vector of the government course aimed at forming an all-Russian identity among the residents of the Northwestern Territory.

URL: https://bg.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1709217487.pdf
Number of views: 64      Download in PDF


23. Irina Yu. Cherkasova, Larisa A. Koroleva, Valentina S. Nikitina, Natalia V. Svechnikova
To the Issue of the Pedagogical Periodical Press of the Warsaw School District (1867–1916)

Bylye Gody. 2024. 19(1): 232-237.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2024.1.232CrossRef

Abstract:
The paper examines the pedagogical periodical press of the Warsaw School District in the period of 1867–1916. The attention is paid to the geographical distribution of these publications, as well as to the internal criticism of these publications as a historical source. The source base of our research is based on materials from pre-revolutionary periodicals and highly specialized reference works on the history of periodicals. Methodologically, the work is based on the method of content analysis, thanks to which a selection of periodicals published in 1867–1916 was made on the territory of the Warsaw School District. The authors conclude that 6 scientific pedagogical publications were published on the territory of the Warsaw Educational District in the period from 1867 to 1916. All of them were associated with either the Imperial Warsaw University or the Warsaw School District. The first two magazines (“Tsirkulyar po Varshavskomu uchebnomu okrugu” and “Russkii filologicheskii vestnik”) existed for more than 30 years. Moreover, the “Russkii filologicheskii vestnik” has become an authoritative and recognizable publication in the scientific and pedagogical life of the Russian Empire. Another, later popular, publication for physicists was published in Warsaw – the journal “Fizicheskoe obozrenie”. This journal was published in Warsaw in 1900–1905, and then moved to Kiev. Among the other publications, the journal “Domashnee i shkol'noe obrazovanie” (the period of publication 1911–1914) was distinguished by great longevity, while two other publications (“Voprosy pedagogiki” and “Ekho universiteta”) ceased publication in the first year of its existence.

URL: https://bg.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1709217541.pdf
Number of views: 67      Download in PDF


24. Anna A. Omelik, Anastasia V. Kistova, Natalya А. Sergeeva, Tikhon K. Ermakov
“Russian Style” in Art Based on the Analysis of the Architectural and Artistic-Technical Journal “Zodchii” (“Arhitektor”)

Bylye Gody. 2024. 19(1): 238-248.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2024.1.238CrossRef

Abstract:
In this article, the conceptual theory of art criticism of fine art by V.I. Zhukovsky, D.V. Pivovarov, N.P. Koptseva is used as a methodological basis for analyzing the materials of the architectural and art-educational journal “Zodchii”. The first part of the work is devoted to the theoretical understanding of the concept of “Russian style” in art. The second part of the article presents an analysis of articles of the monthly architectural and artistic-technological journal “Zodchii” from 1872 to 1875 as research material and, in the third part, articles from 1893 to 1897 are considered in order to identify the truly national characteristics of Russian culture and “Russian style”. Of particular interest were the articles by L.V. Dahl devoted to issues of style – these are issues of national identity and self-knowledge. The study in question can be called basic, both for the author himself and for his contemporaries. In the future, L.V. Russian Russian architecture Dahl will devote a large number of articles to a more detailed and thorough examination of individual monuments and signs of the “Russian style” in Russian architecture. Also, the works of such authors as I.I. Gornostaev, G.G. Gagarin and E.N. Sokolovsky, A. Dmitriev and others are considered. Russian Russian researchers identify the influence of cultural traditions, such as the Byzantine cultural tradition; the traditions of Lombard, Hungarian, Mongolian and Italian art, which were reinterpreted by Russian architects and formed the features of the “Russian style” in Russia of the XIX century. It should be noted that the monthly architectural and art-technical journal is an invaluable source of materials for art historians and researchers of Russian culture and art of the XIX century. The articles devoted to Russian architecture are filled with knowledgeable data and are of research interest.

URL: https://bg.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1709217607.pdf
Number of views: 68      Download in PDF


25. Aidar Aitmukhambetov, Serikzhan Ismailov, Alibek Tabuldenov, Sergey Simonov
St. Petersburg University in the History of Training Kazakh Specialists in the second half of XIX – early XX centuries

Bylye Gody. 2024. 19(1): 249-258.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2024.1.249CrossRef

Abstract:
In the second half of the XIX century, Kazakh young men received the right to study at St. Petersburg University. During the period under study, more than 20 people received qualified training at the university. All of them represented different social groups. From social categories the largest group of students of this university were representatives of sultan dynasties, which was a common phenomenon of that time. This social stratum was the most progressive and well-off among the Kazakh people in terms of economic and social status. Students were educated in law, physics, mathematics and philological specialities. Students received their initial training in educational institutions according to strictly established standards, the basic fundamentals of which were required for admission to university. Education in gymnasiums provided the right to enrol in higher education, which Kazakh young men took advantage of. Often the professional successes of older relatives and close friends were motivating factors in the choice of university applicants. During the student period, students showed perseverance and persistence in obtaining comprehensive knowledge in order to realise their opportunities in the service. It should be noted that during the study period, students had the opportunity to travel to other universities to obtain additional competences. This form of education allowed them to listen to a course of lectures from leading scientists in other universities and training centres. Some Kazakh trainees, due to health complications, had to extend their education to complete a full course of study and become certified specialists. Subsequently, the specialists established themselves as employees, demonstrating high professional qualities at their place of service.

URL: https://bg.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1709217717.pdf
Number of views: 65      Download in PDF


26. Orazgul Kh. Mukhatova, Shamek B. Tleubayev, Svetlana G. Belous, Arailym N. Konkabayeva
Verny Men’s Gymnasium and Future Alash Figures

Bylye Gody. 2024. 19(1): 258-267.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2024.1.258CrossRef

Abstract:
On September 1, 1876, the local tsarist authorities opened the Verny men's gymnasium to enable the children of the indigenous nomadic population to receive a secondary education and continue their studies at the universities of the Russian Empire. Those who graduated from the gymnasium worked as translators in the center and districts of the Zhetysu region. In 1883‒1911, future representatives of the Alash movement in Zhetysu were educated in this secondary educational institution. The purpose of the article is to study the first stage in the formation of Alash figures in Zhetysu – education at the Verny men's gymnasium; to consider the opening of this gymnasium and the rules for enrolling students, its potential, teaching staff, student apartment, conditions for admission to a boarding school;to analyze, on the basis of conduit sheets of students, academic performance, discipline, passing tests, reasons for the departure of Kazakh children; to reveal the essence and significance of the historical trace left by the men’s gymnasium on the Zhetysu Alash figures and their life path. The article studies Alash figures in Zhetysu who studied at the Verny men's gymnasium in the late 19th – early 20th centuries (on the basis of archival sources). In the gymnasium, the children lived in a boarding house, studied Russian and French, Latin, algebra, geometry, history, geography, and took tests. They learned to live in a state-owned house, obey order, be true friends and reliable associates. They developed the skills of reading books, knowledge of languages and philosophical thinking, the ability to express their opinion. The childhood of the future leaders of the Alash movement in Zhetysu, who aspired to get an education, passed within the walls of the Verny men’s gymnasium. Studying at the gymnasium predetermined their appointment to the civil service, receiving higher education and becoming qualified specialists in their field. Some of them occupied the administrative positions and became influential people in the region, while others were drawn into the national liberation struggle at the beginning of the 20th century.

URL: https://bg.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1709217775.pdf
Number of views: 70      Download in PDF


27. Tatyana V. Gryaznukhina, Alexander G. Gryaznukhin, Anna S. Zhulaeva, Alena O. Zadorina
Special Aspects of Siberian Intelligentsia Development in the XIX – the early XX centuries

Bylye Gody. 2024. 19(1): 268-277.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2024.1.268CrossRef

Abstract:
The sources of formation of Siberian Intelligentsia are the main study object in this paper. Intelligentsia is thought of as the only social group capable of solving collectively the scientific, cultural, and economic problems, the region faced, which determines its contribution and importance for the long-term development of Siberia. Analysis of authentic sources and published literature suggests that Intelligentsia in Siberia was just at the start of development into a certain social group in the second half of the 19th century. A small number of the local intelligentsia was completed at the expense of voluntary intellectuals who came to work from European Russia. Another source of increase of its members were political exiles, pertaining mainly to the noble intelligentsia or that of different social classes. Despite prohibitions and in violation of instructions of the central authorities, the Siberian administration had to make use of the skills and qualifications of the political exiles to settle various economic issues. Local intelligentsia, represented by regional officials, progressive-minded bureaucracy and merchants understood the need of drastic solution for the lack of intelligentsia in the region through its recruitment from the local population. To this end, various societies were created that consolidated the forces of the already existing intelligentsia and performed educational functions through organization of meetings, public readings, opening exhibitions and classes. The self-sacrifice of the intelligentsia, understanding of the importance of education for their own increase, great efforts to open secondary and higher educational institutions, resulted in the gradual creation of a unified educational space in Siberia by the beginning of the 20th century, which was of potential power to settle the problem of the regional intelligentsia deficiency.

URL: https://bg.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1709217824.pdf
Number of views: 67      Download in PDF


28. Alexander S. Kovalev, Nikolai R. Novosel'tsev, Dmitry V. Rakhinsky, Oleg I. Savin
Expulsion from the Poorhouse in the second half of the XIX – early XX centuries (based on Materials of Siberia)

Bylye Gody. 2024. 19(1): 278-289.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2024.1.278CrossRef

Abstract:
This research based on the previously obtained results of studying the social care of disabled and elderly people in Siberia in the XIX – early XX centuries, it used previously unpublished archival materials. This study deals with the process of expulsion of disabled citizens from charitable institutions. Historiographic analysis shows that this aspect of the daily life of the poorhouse has been fragmentarily considered by historians of public charity, who believe that the exception was a rather rare and exceptional fact. While agreeing with their position in principle, it should be noted that each case of expulsion was unique and required a detailed investigation. Microhistoric analysis combined with a historical and anthropological approach, which are used to study the internal processes in the poorhouse, make it possible to consider the grounds for dismissal of those under consideration and the exclusion procedure itself, as well as to identify different types of objective and subjective reasons why disabled and elderly people left the institution. The conducted research suggests that those admitted to the poorhouse did not realize the degree of their own material wellbeing and security in conditions when society could not offer other forms of social assistance, easily parting with the received place in it. At the same time, the expulsion from the poorhouse became a serious life test for those who inadvertently left the institution itself, or were dismissed by the administration of the almshouse by the decision of the Board of Trustees, since there were very few opportunities to return to the almshouse, which doomed a disabled person or an elderly person to a beggarly existence.

URL: https://bg.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1709217878.pdf
Number of views: 70      Download in PDF


29. Yulia B. Nadtochiy
Innovations in Russian Arms Production in the Period of the 1880s – 1890s

Bylye Gody. 2024. 19(1): 290-301.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2024.1.290CrossRef

Abstract:
The article attempts to consider the issue of the use of innovations in weapons production in the pre–revolutionary period of time in Russia, in connection with which various examples of different types of innovations, both developed and applied, in domestic weapons production during the 1880s – 1890s, are studied, which became the purpose of the study. In tsarist Russia, the concept of “innovation” was not used (was absent), however, as the study showed, it was innovations (innovative developments, various innovations) that contributed and contribute to the development of domestic weapons production (as well as other types of production) of the studied time period. The sources used in the study clearly demonstrate the presence of various innovations (with the disuse of this concept) in pre-revolutionary weapons production, identified based on the specific content of this concept, the interpretation of which in the article, in particular, is considered both in domestic and foreign dictionaries of that time period. In the course of this work, some examples of different types of innovations used in weapons production in the Russian Empire are identified and described.

URL: https://bg.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1709546026.pdf
Number of views: 70      Download in PDF


30. Ilya I. Aminov
Political and Humanistic Role of Guljamal Khan during and after the Annexation of Merv to Russia

Bylye Gody. 2024. 19(1): 302-311.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2024.1.302CrossRef

Abstract:
Dedicated to Guljamal Khan (um), a representative of the Turkmen tribe of Tekin, who played an important role in the socio–economic and political development of this part of Central Asia (the southern region of modern Turkmenistan) in the late XIX – early XX centuries. The article states that in the most difficult times for the Tekin tribe – the period of the military conquest of the Akhal (1881) and the annexation of the Merv (1884) oases by Russia, Guljamal, despite the traditional role of a silent housewife for a Turkmen woman who had no political rights, contributed to the decision of the council of tribal elders on the peaceful settlement and the establishment of Russian control in The Merv oasis. As a result, the long wars, economic and political instability on the Merv and then on the entire Turkmen land were put to an end. In the long-standing confrontation between the Russian Empire and Great Britain, Russia won for Central Asia and the Middle East. The study of the humanistic role of Guljamal was also able to reveal new gender facets of the First World War. Using the example of an empathetic reading of her messages (appeals) to the highest authorities of the Russian government, an attempt was made to reconstruct the attitude of the militant and courageous Tekin people to the Supreme Decree of June 25, 1916 on the mobilization of the foreign population of Central Asia for works on the construction of defensive structures in the area of the active army, the motives of the political and humanistic position of Guljamal, defended, as in the years the annexation of Merv to Russia, the ideals of goodness and justice, the right of its people to national and cultural identity, honor and dignity.

URL: https://bg.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1709217959.pdf
Number of views: 62      Download in PDF


31. Natalia P. Koptseva, Anna A. Shpak, Yulia N. Menzhurenko, Kenija A. Degtyarenko
The History Image of the Fatherland in the Essays of the First Part of the First Volume in Edition “Zhivopisnaya Rossiya (“Picturesque Russia”)” (1881)

Bylye Gody. 2024. 19(1): 312-324.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2024.1.312CrossRef

Abstract:
The article is an analysis of the historical concept that was used in the first part of the first volume of the 1881 edition of “Zhivopisnaya Rossiya”, under the general academician editorship by P.P. Semenov-Tien Shan. The importance of the multi–volume publication “Zhivopisnaya Rossiya” for the historical and cultural heritage of the Russian Empire of the late XIX – early XX centuries is indicated. The first part of the first volume – “Zhivopisnaya Rossiya”: consists of two large sections: “Northern Russia. The Far North and North-East of European Russia” and “Ozernaya and Ancient Novgorod region”, including 20 essays, with a large number of illustrations. The structure of the first part and first volume of “Zhivopisnaya Rossiya” is considered as a source that allows us to identify the main historical model elements used by its authors, highlights the main historical events significant for the image formation of the Fatherland for the historical essays authors creating them at the XIX century end. The authors of the first part of the first volume highlight the historical, cultural, economic and political aspects of the life of the peoples of the North and Northeast of Russia, emphasizing the importance of geographical, climatic conditions and socio-economic processes for understanding the specifics of the history of the Russian Empire, which is actively developing new territories. The special attention in their historical model is paid to historical information about the creation and development of monasteries, villages and towns, and their role in the socio-cultural, economic, and political development of the northern territories and Russia as a whole. The article focuses on the importance of Orthodoxy and the coexistence of many cultural groups involved in the formation of a complex Russian identity. It is pointed out the scale and multidimensional nature of the research underlying the historical model, which is based on the authors of the essays of the first part of the first volume, published in “Zhivopisnaya Rossiya” in 1881. In their understanding of history, the diversity and complexity of factors contributing to the development of the northern and northeastern territories are emphasized, and a positive historical image of the Russian Empire is created.

URL: https://bg.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1709218117.pdf
Number of views: 72      Download in PDF


32. Goran Rajović, Sergei N. Bratanovskii
The System of Public Education on the Territory of Kharkiv Province in the XIX – early XX centuries. Part 2

Bylye Gody. 2024. 19(1): 325-331.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2024.1.325CrossRef

Abstract:
The article considers the system of public education on the territory of Kharkiv province during the imperial period. This part of work examines the period from 1881 to 1917. The source base of the study is represented by documents of the Russian State Historical Archive (St. Petersburg, Russian Federation) as well as the annual publications of the Kharkov Provincial Statistical Committee: “Khar'kovskie kalendari” published in the period 1893–1903 and annual “Obzory Khar'kovskoi gubernii”, which were appendices to the most recent reports of the governor of the Kharkov province. The work uses “Obzory” for 1880–1916. The authors conclude that in the period from 1880 to 1916, the public education system on the territory of the Kharkiv province went through a period of significant growth. The number of higher educational institutions increased 3 times and reached 6. Almost the same growth was given by secondary educational institutions in 1916, reaching 66, as well as lower educational institutions – reaching 1,599 schools together with higher primary educational institutions. As a result, by January 1, 1916, about 200 thousand students were at their desks in the province. However, despite significant successes in the field of public education, it was still far from victorious relations, since, according to officials of the Ministry of Public Education, about 100 thousand more school-age children (8-11 years old) were not enrolled in the Russian Public School.

URL: https://bg.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1709218169.pdf
Number of views: 63      Download in PDF


33. Alexander B. Khramtsov
Features of Elections and the Formation of Representative Meetings in the Cities of the Tobolsk Province on the Reform of 1892

Bylye Gody. 2024. 19(1): 332-342.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2024.1.332CrossRef

Abstract:
For the first time with the involvement of archival sources, the article examined the results of elections to representative meetings (city councils, meetings of commissioners) of cities of the Tobolsk province on the reform of 1892, indicating the level of electoral activity of voters. It is estimated that in general, less than 1 % of city residents were granted the right to vote in local elections due to various kinds of censors, and less than 33 % of voters took part in the elections directly. Difficulties in organizing elections, their correct conduct and approval of the results were noted in all cities of the province. In fact, every election was accompanied by various violations and protracted scandals, which led to additional checks by the provincial authorities and the police, re-leaving the electoral lists, canceling the results and calling new elections, thereby delaying the process of forming local self-government bodies. It was established that at the level of individual cities, the process of electing vowel city meetings both by objective and subjective factors had its own specifics: participation in elections by proxy of persons without personal qualification, as well as the participation of institutions, firms and enterprises. Under the 1892 law, local elections were held 6 times. In the local thoughts of Tyumen, Tobolsk and Kurgan, large entrepreneurs and industrialists of the region prevailed, in small towns – bourgeois as small traders and artisans. The vowel re-election rate averaged 60 %. Representative meetings “turned” into an elitist authority, inaccessible to most of the population of Siberian cities.

URL: https://bg.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1709218209.pdf
Number of views: 65      Download in PDF


34. Altynai Zhurasova, Gulnara Esseeva, Raushan Serik, Lyazzat Alkhamova
To the Issue of the Socio-Demographic Situation of the Russian Population on the Territory of Western Kazakhstan (late 19th – early 20th centuries)

Bylye Gody. 2024. 19(1): 343-352.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2024.1.343CrossRef

Abstract:
The formation of the Russian population in the national structure of Western Kazakhstan is directly related to the historical processes that took place in the region, as well as the territory of border Russia. Western Kazakhstan has always been an important area of interethnic relations between representatives of various nationalities, including Russians and Kazakhs. The formation of the Russian ethnic group in the population structure of Western Kazakhstan had deep historical roots and took place within the framework of various components. The three main constituent elements in the structure of the Russian ethnic group in the pre-revolutionary period should include Cossacks, nonresidents and immigrants. This article examines the issues of formation, settlement and other demographic characteristics of the Russian ethnic group in Western Kazakhstan during the period under consideration. This is the period when the process of integration of the Russian ethnic group acquires the most intense and large-scale character. The study also analyses the dynamics of quantitative and qualitative changes in the composition of the Russian population of the region. Special attention is paid to the characterisation of the main trends in the socio-demographic development of the Russian ethnos in the period under consideration. The materials of the article are based on the use of archival materials, statistical sources, scientific research of various periods. In addition, the materials of the general population census of the Russian Empire in 1897, which gives a rich layer of data on the number, distribution, sex and social structure of the Russian ethnos in the pre-revolutionary period, are analysed in the materials of the article. Due to the fact that this work belongs to the category of historical and demographic, statistical methods of analysis, systematisation, criticism and mutual verification of sources were applied in the study.

URL: https://bg.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1709218260.pdf
Number of views: 70      Download in PDF


35. Natalia M. Leshchinskaia, Maria A. Kolesnik, Aleksandra A. Sitnikova, Ekaterina A. Sertakova
The Journal “Mir Iskusstva” (1899–1904) as a Source on the History of Women's Artistic Creativity

Bylye Gody. 2024. 19(1): 353-365.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2024.1.353CrossRef

Abstract:
The relevance of the study is related to the modern revision of the history of art in order to highlight the role of women artists in the development of fine art in different eras. This study was carried out on the basis of a content analysis of the journal “Mir iskusstva”, published at the turn of the 19th-20th centuries, the aesthetic preferences of which were given to modern art and the Russian national style. As a result of the study, it was established that significant attention is paid to women's creativity on the pages of the journal – the main personalities are A. Ostroumova, E. Polenova, M. Yakunchikova, N. Davydova, A. Golubkina and some others. Some of the covers of the journal were made by these artists; reproductions of their works and critical articles about their work were published on the pages of the journal. As a feature of women's creativity, we can highlight the fact that at the turn of the century, traditional women's crafts and activities related to knowledge of Russian folklore became a significant foundation for the advancement of women into the professional artistic environment, since the formation of the Russian national style required a deep acquaintance with folk culture.

URL: https://bg.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1709218335.pdf
Number of views: 67      Download in PDF


36. Tatуana A. Kattsina, Ksenia A. Tishkina
Charitable Donations of Siberians to the Russian Red Cross Society during the Military Campaign in China (1900–1901)

Bylye Gody. 2024. 19(1): 366-373.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2024.1.366CrossRef

Abstract:
The article is devoted to an important and little-explored topic – charity in wartime conditions. It contains material on private charitable donations from the Siberian population to the Russian Red Cross Society during the military campaign in China (1900–1901). The authors rely on a wide range of written sources and achievements of modern historiography, guided by an interdisciplinary approach. The directions of work of the Russian Red Cross Society are demonstrated, the dynamics of donations for 1900, as well as the structure and state of the capitals of the Yenisei local government are shown. The channels for receiving donations and the contribution of individual citizens are indicated. According to the authors, the center of gravity in the organization of assistance to the Russian Red Cross Society has been significantly shifted towards the public. Even a fragmentary examination of the phenomenon of charity in Siberian society shows that it has a deep moral and humanistic meaning.

URL: https://bg.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1709223418.pdf
Number of views: 65      Download in PDF


37. Vladimir B. Bezgin, Aleksei Y. Viazinkin, Kuzma A. Yakimov
Russian Villagers in Revolutionary Fire, 1902–1907: Generation’s Factor

Bylye Gody. 2024. 19(1): 374-382.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2024.1.374CrossRef

Abstract:
The paper studies the role of the “revolutionary turning point” generation in the Russian revolutionary movement of 1902–1907. The source base for the study includes documents from central and regional archives and periodicals. Representatives of this generation were peasant children, adolescents and young people. The participation of children and adolescents in agrarian protests was established on the basis of gubernatorial reports, police reports and court chronicles. Young peasants or people from the peasant environment, who often had the city life experience, actively participated in revolutionary propaganda and creation of revolutionary cells in the village. The authors explore the specifics of their social experience on the basis of archival materials, including memories and questionnaires, which allows to consider the historical context not only from the perspective of a chronicle, but also in the framework of historical memory of social experience. The authors found that the participation of children in agrarian protests most often manifested themselves in passive forms of resistance and were spontaneous in nature. In turn, it was young people aged 16 to 24 years (the “revolutionary turning point” generation) who provided the most active assistance to the revolutionary cause. This was largely facilitated by the fact that rural youth, who managed to break away from the care of family and community, were more susceptible to the influence of left-wing radical ideas. Leaving for work in the cities and entering educational institutions, many people from peasant families easily fell under the influence of revolutionary ideas. The romanticization of the “heroic” image of a revolutionist, combined with youthful maximalism and a relatively low level of education, quickly turned young peasants into active participants of the revolutionary movement, in contrast to children and teenagers who rebelled mainly spontaneously, together with their community. At the same time, many of those who left for the cities subsequently worked secretly in rural revolutionary cells stimulating the spread of revolutionary influence in the village.

URL: https://bg.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1709218428.pdf
Number of views: 67      Download in PDF


38. Dmitry N. Belyanin, Viktor N. Razgon, Anton V. Razgon
Crafts of Migrant Peasants in Siberia During the Period of Activity of the Siberian Railway Committee (Based on the Results of an Economic Survey in 1903)

Bylye Gody. 2024. 19(1): 383-394.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2024.1.383CrossRef

Abstract:
The article, based on the analysis of materials from a statistical survey of settlement farms conducted by the Resettlement Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Empire in 1903, examines the crafts of migrant peasants who settled in various geographical zones of Siberia during the period of the Siberian Railway Committee. The relationship between the level of involvement of migrants in crafts and hiring for agricultural work and the duration of their residence in the Siberia is also studied. Non-agricultural economic activities were of the greatest importance for the migrant peasants who settled in the taiga zone of Siberia, which was determined by the availability of natural resources and difficulties in farming in this geographical zone. A comparative analysis of the economic occupations of migrant groups that differ in the time of settlement in Siberia shows that the proportion of households and their members engaged in crafts and employed in agricultural work tends to increase from early settlement groups to later ones. The majority of migrant peasants engaged in crafts combined them with farming, however, the professionalization of crafts was more pronounced among the "older" migrants in terms of settlement time, who adapted to a greater extent to the natural, climatic and social environment and were more deeply integrated into the economy of the Siberian region.

URL: https://bg.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1709218474.pdf
Number of views: 71      Download in PDF


39. Samat Zhumatay, Olzhas N. Mukanov, Gyulnar K. Mukanova, Zylyikha Sh. Bimakanova
Suffrage and Its Implementation by Kazakh Deputies of the State Duma of Russia at the beginning of the XXth century. Alikhan Bukeikhanov and Shaimerden Kosshygulov

Bylye Gody. 2024. 19(1): 395-406.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2024.1.395CrossRef

Abstract:
Suffrage by citizens of the Russian Empire was realized at the beginning of the twentieth century. Among the elected to the Duma were non-Kazakhs. The source base of the study of parliamentarians and their political careers: scientist Bukeikhanov and Mullah Kosshygulov - archived materials of the former State Duma and the press of Russia of the early twentieth century. The topic is poorly covered in historical literature, since both deputies were victims of Soviet repression. The authors studied the sources from the funds of the RGAKFFD, RGIA (Russian Federation), TCC DAB OAK (Turkey), the Central State Archive of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan). Methods of dialectical logic, analysis and synthesis, retrospection, verification and reconstructing little-known aspects of the all-Russian political process were used. Although the educational qualifications of Bukeikhanov (secular) and Kosshygulov (Islamic) differed, as did their lifestyle, both deputies took seriously the possibility of determining the fate of the people in the high rank of Duma members. There were curious parallels between the public activity of deputies during the period under study, in the context of international relations. Kosshygulov visited the Ottoman Empire. The self-identification of the people's deputies did not go beyond the scope of Russian citizenship.

URL: https://bg.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1709218526.pdf
Number of views: 72      Download in PDF


40. Timur A. Apendiyev, Gaukhar B. Batyrbekkyzy, Dinashieva L. Sarsembekkyzy, Botabek B. Tokishkadirov
The Public Role of Deputies Elected to the State Duma from the Steppe Region: An Effective Dialogue between Government and Society

Bylye Gody. 2024. 19(1): 407-415.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2024.1.407CrossRef

Abstract:
At the beginning of the XX century, the local elite of the Steppe Governor-General, whose main population consisted of Kazakhs, began to actively participate in the political system of the empire. The tsarist administration showed great interest in the implementation of this process. The tsarist government decided to create political mechanisms linking society and power. As a result, the State Duma was convened. The State Duma paved the way for the establishment of an effective dialogue between the authorities and the population. Deputies elected from the Steppe Governor-General played their role in the functioning of the new political system. They have contributed to the solution of social and domestic issues of local Kazakhs in the highest authorities. Deputies were considered bright representatives of society in the power structure. The national composition of the deputies elected from the Steppe Governor-General was different. Among them were Russians, Kazakhs and Cossacks. This change made it possible to consistently solve individual issues of various ethnic groups inhabiting the administrative region. The main composition of the deputies consisted of the Kazakh elite. The local elite was properly aware of the main problems with which they lived in society. The overwhelming majority of deputies of the State Duma were persons who previously held various positions in the tsarist administration. For this reason, they managed to find optimal solutions to any state issues. This article provides a historical analysis of the activities of the deputies of the State Duma elected from the Kazakhs of the Steppe Governorate-General. In addition, a scientific assessment of the political role of deputies in establishing an effective dialogue between society and the authorities is given. The parliamentary elections caused the appearance of new historical figures on the Historical scene.

URL: https://bg.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1709305721.pdf
Number of views: 93      Download in PDF


41. Julia S. Zamaraeva, Natalya N. Seredkina, Nаtalya P. Koptseva, Natalya N. Pimenova
The Journal “Dlya Narodnogo Uchitelya” (1907) as a Source on the Education History in the Russian Empire at the beginning of the XX century

Bylye Gody. 2024. 19(1): 416-427.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2024.1.416CrossRef

Abstract:
This study is devoted to the study of issues of the journal “Dlya narodnogo uchitelya” for 1907, the first year of publication of the publication; the authors analyzed 20 of its issues. The materials are publications in three thematic areas – dedicated to preschool education, public school and public university. The study shows that at the beginning of the 20th century, important issues of supplementing and strengthening the education system, as well as overcoming crisis phenomena in education, were being resolved in Russian education. The journal “Dlya narodnogo uchitelya” is an important and informative source about the history of the development of the education system at the beginning of the twentieth century in the Russian Empire; the study of its contents made it possible to see the overall picture of sustainable phenomena and innovations in this area of the country’s culture. In particular, the publications demonstrate that in order to develop universal public education in Russia at the beginning of the twentieth century, the creation of public kindergartens as educational institutions is proposed. It also demonstrates the special role of public universities as one of the engines for the development of the level of education and culture of Russian society.

URL: https://bg.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1709218636.pdf
Number of views: 73      Download in PDF


42. Samat Zhumatay, Gyulnar K. Mukanova, Ainagul M. Yespenbetova, Dzhanargul Mutalova
From the History of the Popularization of “Nomadic” Theater in Central Asia through the Kazakh Periodical Press at the beginning of the XX century

Bylye Gody. 2024. 19(1): 428-438.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2024.1.428CrossRef

Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to identify the features of popularization of the idea of theater and drama in the Kazakh community, through the first periodicals in their native language at the beginning of the twentieth century. The events of the first decade of the twentieth century (the Russo-Japanese war, 1905, elections to the State Duma, etc.), as it turned out, stirred up not only the political, but also the cultural life of communities in the eastern regions within the Russian Empire. The awakening of consciousness was reflected in the preference for visual means of communication, which at that time included theatrical productions, circus and musical evenings. The periodical press of the Russian East, in this case Central Asia, actively participated in the coverage of this process. It is curious that graduates of Jadidi educational institutions have made a certain contribution to the popularization of the idea of the national theater and drama. This social process is comparable in terms of goal-setting with a larger-scale all-Russian cultural and educational process known as “Peredvizhniki”. The tendency to bring cultural achievements to the masses in the last third of the nineteenth century found a response, which is important, in remote regions of Russia: Magazines and newspapers in Tatar and Kazakh languages were published about the events of the theatrical life of foreigners. The materials of the study were the press, published by the Arabic headset in a common alphabet understandable to a number of Turkic–speaking peoples – the newspaper “Kazakh” and others. The popularization of musical and dramatic works and stage art among the masses in the eastern regions of the empire certainly had specific features. As a result, interest in theater and drama among the Turkic-speaking peoples of Russia was accompanied by intercultural exchange, referred to in the special literature as the “import” of popular plays by Russian classics, with their subsequent processing (adaptation) to ethnocultural features. The “theatrical” theme was used for the purpose of education and formation of civic consciousness by the nascent Kazakh political parties; the genre of theater criticism was emerging.

URL: https://bg.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1709218692.pdf
Number of views: 72      Download in PDF


43. Timur A. Magsumov, Teymur E. Zulfugarzade, Mikhail B. Kolotkov, Sergei B. Zinkovskii
The Siege of Przemysl (1914–1915) in the Russian Periodical Press

Bylye Gody. 2024. 19(1): 439-445.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2024.1.439CrossRef

Abstract:
Russian periodical press materials are used to examine the siege of the Austrian fortress of Przemysl (1914–1915). Russian central and regional newspapers of the First World War period were used as materials, namely: “Soldatskii vestnik Petrogradskogo voennogo okruga”, “Voennyi telegraf” and “Voennyi vestnik” daily newspaper. The siege of Przemysl was covered on the pages of these newspapers in the period from December 2, 1914 to March 11, 1915. In conclusion, the authors state that the siege of any fortress is a matter that requires a significant amount of time or a significant amount of human and technical resources. In the first case, it is enough to simply qualitatively block the fortress and wait for surrender, and in the second – to participate in bloody and expensive assaults. In Przemysl, the Russian army, after an unsuccessful first attempt to seize the fortress, decided to act according to the scenario of a long-term siege. Despite the fact that the siege lasted a long time (from the end of October 1914 to the beginning of March 1915), in the media in 1914 very little was written about the siege of Przemysl. The information silence in the Russian periodical press was a consequence of the lack of active hostilities around the fortress, which was broken only when the Austrian garrison made unsuccessful attempts to break through. In January-February 1915, when the situation of the Austrian garrison became more and more doomed, more events began to take place around the fortress, some of which demonstrated defeatist sentiments among the Austrian soldiers. Finally, on March 9, 1915, the Przemysl fortress fell.

URL: https://bg.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1709218750.pdf
Number of views: 63      Download in PDF


44. Pavel S. Seleznev, Vadim V. Zubov
The Theme of Quality of Life in the Public Rhetoric of the Imperial People's Party during the First World War

Bylye Gody. 2024. 19(1): 446-453.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2024.1.446CrossRef

Abstract:
As part of the presented research, the issue of representation of the topic of quality of life in the public rhetoric of the leaders of the Imperial People's Party during the First World War will be studied. The source base of the work was formed by attracting unpublished archival materials from the funds of the State Archive of the Russian Federation and the Russian State Historical Archive and personal sources. The methodological basis of the work is built on the basis of a combination of structural and comparative analysis. The authors come to the conclusion that, within the framework of public rhetoric, the leaders and ideologists of the Imperial People's Party actively defended the need to implement a large-scale set of government programs to improve the quality of life of large sections of the population. Due to this, it was planned to ensure the long-term consolidation of the nation and maintain its viability in the conditions of widespread socio-economic transformations. The system of measures proposed by the party leaders included the intensification of resettlement policy, an increase in public investment in collective economic infrastructure, the creation of financial instruments to support the intensification of agricultural production of small and medium-sized owners, measures to strengthen trade unions and the creation of state insurance programs, limiting the length of the working day, and the transition to universal primary education (mainly technical), reforming tax policy in favor of the most widespread social strata and a number of measures aimed at combating alcoholism and supporting family and motherhood. At the same time, the party delegated a significant part of the initiatives (primarily those related to improving the quality of life of workers) to other political forces, which naturally neutralized the effectiveness of its leaders’ attempts to expand the program of measures they presented to resolve the “labor issue.” At the same time, the range of proposals designed to alleviate the financial situation of peasants was quite limited. The proposals of members of the Imperial People's Party to improve the quality of life of the population in many aspects duplicated the initiatives of other parties, but also contained a number of significant original elements, including in terms of reforming tax, educational and family policies.

URL: https://bg.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1709218789.pdf
Number of views: 69      Download in PDF


45. Gregory Popov, Oksana B. Barabash, Bella A. Bulgarova, Oleg Yu. Kazenkov
The Initial Stage of the Gorlitskaya Operation (1915). Causal Relationships of the Defeat of the Russian Army

Bylye Gody. 2024. 19(1): 454-464.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2024.1.454CrossRef

Abstract:
The article examines the initial stage of the Gorlitskaya operation, from the point of view of identifying the common causes of the defeat of the Russian army in the first decade of May 1915 in Galicia. The authors rely on the concept of the crisis of the command of the Russian Army as a basic one in the study of Russia's participation in the First World War. Based on documents from both Russian and German archives, the authors conclude that in the spring of 1915 there was a crisis of command at various levels in Russia, the Russian high command did not understand the new methods of warfare, unlike the command of the army of Kaiser Germany. The Russian high command considered heavy artillery as a means of fighting fortresses and their defense, but not as a means of fighting at the front, unlike the Germans and Austrians, who began to widely use heavy artillery on the Eastern Front in 1915. The paper shows that the Russian command made many mistakes at the tactical and small strategic levels on the Southwestern Front, in particular, creating an incorrect defense configuration. Reserves were sent to help the Southwestern Front untimely and in insufficient numbers when the offensive of the States of the Center in Galicia began. The authors believe that the Russian army had a chance to win at the initial stage of the Gorlitskaya battle, but it was missed due to a number of strategic mistakes. At the same time, the authors believe that the military-technical superiority over Russia in 1915 was exaggerated and this issue needs clarification and elaboration.

URL: https://bg.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1709218834.pdf
Number of views: 70      Download in PDF


46. Goran Rajović, Sergei N. Bratanovskii, Alexander Y. Epifanov, Ivan N. Kuksin
Coverage of the Brusilov's Breakthrough in the Russian Army Newspaper “Soldatskii Vestnik” (May 22 – September 7, 1916). Part 2

Bylye Gody. 2024. 19(1): 465-471.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2024.1.465CrossRef

Abstract:
The paper considers the coverage of the Brusilov breakthrough of the Russian troops of the Southwestern Front on the pages of the newspaper Soldatsky Vestnik. The attention is paid to the coverage of the second month of this offensive operation, namely June 23 – July 22, 1916. The source base of the study is represented by the issues of the newspaper “Soldatsky Vestnik”, published by the headquarters of the 6th Russian Army. To cover the Brusilov breakthrough, all issues of the newspaper for the period from June 23 to July 22, 1916 were involved, namely: 178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185. The authors conclude that in the second month of the offensive operation of the Russian troops of the Southwestern Front (commander General A.A. Brusilov) in the period from June 23 to July 22, 1916, materials on the total number of enemy losses for the entire period of fighting ceased to be published in the periodical press. Now materials about prisoners and the number of captured trophies are published in the context of a specific military operation. Despite the fact that the effect of surprise no longer existed, the Russian army continued to conduct private offensive operations in various places and achieved some success in a number of places. At this time, with references to foreign sources (usually allied media), the narrative begins to be introduced that the Russian offensive managed to penetrate the enemy's echeloned defenses, the enemy was left without reserves and the question of the final defeat of the enemy is only a matter of time. In addition, during the second month of offensive fighting, materials on effective interaction began to be published in the media.

URL: https://bg.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1709218970.pdf
Number of views: 65      Download in PDF


47. Aleksandr A. Cherkasov
The Head of the Russian Imperial House of Romanov, Grand Duchess Maria Vladimirovna: Touches to a Biographical Portrait (on the 70th Anniversary of Her Birth)

Bylye Gody. 2024. 19(1): 472-479.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2024.1.472CrossRef

Abstract:
The paper attempts to create a biographical portrait of the Head of the Russian Imperial House of Romanov, Grand Duchess Maria Vladimirovna. The source base of the research was the collection of documents “Acts of the Head of the Russian Imperial House of Romanov, Grand Duchess Maria Vladimirovna”, published in Washington in 2023. The work is based on general historical (historical-comparative, historical-systemic) and highly specialized (bibliographic) methods. The combination of these methods allowed, in the author's opinion, to create a lifetime biographical portrait of the Head of the Russian Imperial House of Romanov, Grand Duchess Maria Vladimirovna, and draw some preliminary conclusions. The author concludes that Grand Duchess Maria Vladimirovna was born in 1953 in the family of the Head of the Russian Imperial House. In 1969 she took the oath of allegiance to the country that expelled her ancestors in 1917. Despite this significant circumstance, Maria Vladimirovna carried and continues to carry her cross – the cross of service to the Fatherland. She met Russia almost immediately after the collapse of the USSR, in 1992. Over the subsequent period, despite the fact that her place of permanent residence is Madrid, she visited the former territories of the Russian Empire about 100 times, of which she was in the Russian Federation more than 80 times. Since the early 2000s Grand Duchess Maria Vladimirovna takes an active part in the public life of Russia. Her interests and affairs include issues related to caring for the Russian Orthodox Church, popularizing the history of Russia and helping compatriots. Historically, it was on these principles that what was previously called the Russian Empire stood, and the name of these principles was “Orthodoxy, autocracy, nationality”.

URL: https://bg.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1709219096.pdf
Number of views: 67      Download in PDF


48. Manara Ch. Kalybekova, Nadezhda A. Kubik, Ziyabek E. Kabuldinov
On the Economic Structure, Labor Use and Adaptation of Former Soviet Citizens Who Moved in a Planned Manner from the PRC to Kazakhstan in 1954–1963

Bylye Gody. 2024. 19(1): 480-491.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2024.1.480CrossRef

Abstract:
The article discusses with the issues of household management, labor use and adaptation of repatriates from the People's Republic of China during the campaign for the development of fallow and virgin lands in Kazakhstan. The campaign itself became a major socio-political event, the main goal of which was to resolve the food issue. It expressed in the development of grain production in Kazakhstan, in which D.A. Kunaev played an important role as Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Kazakh SSR, then as the first secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan (1960–1962). From the moment of its inception, the Soviet economic system was focused on strengthening the position of the state and solved modernization problems exclusively using emergency methods. The state tried to solve the economic problems of the 1950s and 1960s through an industrial breakthrough and a policy of developing virgin and fallow lands carried out using administrative management methods, which led to an increase in the workforce in all areas of production in the republic. The replenishment of the labor force for work in state farms and collective farms of the republic was supposed to be carried out through planned resettlement from different regions of the USSR, as well as the reception of immigrants from China. The leadership of Kazakhstan was forced to solve problems associated with the distribution of the population throughout the republic, based on the priorities of geopolitics and solving economic problems of developing virgin lands, filling industrial facilities with labor and minimizing ethno-demographic risks. Since the population arriving in Kazakhstan had a variegated ethnic and social composition, in general, the migration of the Kazakh population and other ethnic groups from China to the republic was very difficult. To ensure reliability and completeness, the topic covered in the article is considered on the basis of documents from the state archives of Kazakhstan.

URL: https://bg.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1709219205.pdf
Number of views: 77      Download in PDF


49.
Full number
URL: https://bg.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1709546050.pdf
Number of views: 88      Download in PDF


50.
Cover
URL: https://bg.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1709219313.pdf
Number of views: 65      Download in PDF





О журнале   Редакционный совет   Публикационная этика   Для авторов   Договор оферты   Образец   Архив   Рейтинг статей   


Copyright by Cherkas Global University © 2016-2024.