Abstract: The focus of research was a silver ornamented bowl with carved zoomorphic images, found in the Lower Tobol Basin at the Vak-Kur burial ground. This necropolis belongs to the group of the Yudinskaya archaeological culture monuments of the 10th–13th centuries. The study is intended to introduce a new unique piece of artistic metalworking into scientific use, determine when and where it was manufactured and how it was used in the cult and funerary practice. Objectives: morphological and stylistic description of the item and the context in which the vessel was found; determining the object's chronological range of use and its cultural affiliation; searching for analogues to the object among the archaeological sites of Siberia and other territories; analyzing later graffiti, interpreting their type and determining the sequence of application.
According to the research findings, the bowl dates back to the 10th–11th centuries AD. It is the only silver vessel found among the artefacts of the Yudinskaya culture. Based on the analysis of technological methods and comparison with published items, the place of the bowl’s manufacture was identified as the Perm jewelry center workshops. With later depictions of moose, bear and the presence of hang holes, as well as relying on the information found in ethnographic literature, it was assumed that the silver vessel was once used as a cult object at one of the sanctuaries in the Lower Tobol Basin. Furthermore, the bowl appeared to be used during funeral and memorial rites: it served as the source material for plates used as funeral masks); later the bowl became part of funeral accessories or a memorial complex.
Abstract: The article describes the data from the Noghaic-Kazakh heroic epos containing information about various types of body armour of nomads of the Eurasia of the late Middle Ages and Modern Age. Previously, this material was not translated into Russian and was not an object of special scientific research. Based on a comprehensive analysis of folklore, artefacts and written sources, an attempt was made to identify the original names as well as the design features and design systems of the bodyarmor of the Turkic warriors in the western part of the Great Steppe in the Middle Ages and Modern Age. Based on the research of the collected, systematized and analyzed data, the main terms used in Noghaic-Kazakh heroic epos have been identified and attributed to denote the samples of defensive arms. Thus, it has been notably determined that in the Middle Ages and Modern Age, the nomadic warriors of Kazakhstan and adjacent territories used the armor kübe, the chain mail and the mail and plate armours kirӓwgӓ, badänäh, and bäktär, the plates sewn armour beren, the armour plates chahār-ā'īneh, the quilted soft armour qataʼū, armor torghout, etc. It has been determined that during the Middle Ages, the meaning of the term denoting one or another type of the armor could change. So, for example, the term kübe originally denoted chain mail, then lamellar armor. The analysis of the Kazakh term qataʼū showed that it goes back to the Medieval Mongol χɑtɑγu (qataʼū) dehel (khatangku dehel). The comparison of weapon descriptions in Noghaic-Kazakh heroic epos with authentic samples of defensive arms from archaeological monuments and written sources showed a high level of correlation between folklore and artefacts. The analysis of the collected data showed within the framework of a comprehensive analysis of sources of Noghaic-Kazakh epos can be applied in the study of the military-cultural heritage of the Turkic peoples of Kazakhstan and adjacent territories of the late Middle Ages and early Modern Age.
Abstract: The article deals with issues related to the work of the interstate commission to determine the borders between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Moscow kingdom in the first half of the 17th century. Based on the analysis of written and visual sources, the authors identified the problems that arose during the work of this commission. They are connected, first of all, with the identification of toponyms mentioned in the texts, and specific geographical and archaeological sites. The basis for the work was a map compiled by Guillaume Levasseur de Beauplan during the work of the commission. Particular attention of the cartographer was riveted to the eastern borders of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Not only cities and villages were marked there, but also separate settlements. Their names repeat toponyms in the central part of the Commonwealth. These names are also mentioned in act documents of the XV-XVII centuries. They became weighty arguments in border disputes, and as a result, these territories were recognized as the possession of the Polish Crown.
Upon careful study of the texts of letters that are available today, such conclusions are not so unambiguous. Names were put on the map that, with rare exceptions, had not been mentioned before. In addition, similar names are often found on the territory of the Ukrainian and Polish lands of the Commonwealth. Without accurate maps, it was almost impossible to prove the fact that this particular place or region was mentioned in a border dispute. It was the coincidence of most of the names of border toponyms in uninhabited territories that allowed the Polish side to prevail in polemics with Moscow boundary judges and defend their right to disputed lands.
Abstract: This article attempts to analyze the position of women in Tibeto-Mongolian Buddhism. The authors conclude that due to the dominance of the tantric tradition in it, where the feminine has always been given great importance, the status of women here was quite high. At the same time, due to the prevailing social, historical and cultural circumstances, there was no higher level of Buddhist monasticism (gelongma) in the institute of female clergy. Under these conditions, the female monasteries of Tibet played a subordinate role in relation to the male monasteries. In Mongolia and the Buddhist regions of Russia, a women's monastic system did not historically develop, and women here became nuns of the lowest level of initiation (shabagan) mainly in old age, remaining in the family circle. Because of this, the spiritual statuses of a nun and a laywoman who took the Ubasan vows did not differ much. In the modern period, the situation in Tibeto-Mongolian Buddhism has changed significantly. In the context of cultural and confessional globalization, Buddhism spread in the West, which led to the inclusion of feminist discourse related to the rights of women in religion. As a result, a movement for the revival of the institution of nuns of the highest level of initiation developed. Among the representatives of the Western branch of Tibeto-Mongolian Buddhism, a number of charismatic personalities appeared - nuns who made a significant contribution to the spread of Buddhism in the West. In modern Mongolia, Buryatia, Kalmykia and Tuva, despite the fact that the bulk of the clergy here are still men, one can state a significant religious activity of women, not only clergymen, but also lay women. There is no doubt that the women of Mongolia and the Buddhist regions of Russia, being members of various Buddhist centers, are making a significant contribution to the revival of Buddhism. Modern women actively participate in the daily life of the Buddhist community, comprehend Buddhist philosophy and practice, conduct religious services, and contribute to the transfer of Buddhist knowledge to the younger generation. An important event in the history of Russian Buddhism was the appearance of the first female Buddhist datsan in Buryatia.
Abstract: The article examines the formation and development of the idea and cult of Old Believers in the Russian Empire. The doctrine of the Antichrist in the Russian Orthodox tradition, which had a literal character, is analyzed. It is shown that in the Western Christian tradition there was no clear and distinct doctrine of the Antichrist. Antichrists were usually called opponents of the Church and political opponents. These views later influenced the formation of the Old Believer theory of the dismembered Antichrist. In intra-Protestant polemics, representatives of other, ideologically hostile, Protestant currents were called antichrists.
It is proved that the Old Believers' doctrine of the spiritual Antichrist was most influenced by two books published before the split: «The Book of Cyril of Jerusalem» and «The Book of Faith». Moreover, they both gained authority among the various versions of Old Believers.
The crisis of the concept of the Third Rome, the decline of piety and other events, influenced the further development of the Old Believers, who did not accept Nikon's reforms, and who became in rigid religious opposition to them.
As the Antichrist the Old Believers had in mind a particular person, such as Patriarch Nikon, king Alexei Mikhailovich, Arseniy the Greek – a prominent figure in Nikon's reforms, Emperor Peter I, etc., thus expressing their opposition to them.
Another part of Old Believers tried to think about the Antichrist not literally, but allegorically. Thus, the theory that the Antichrist is a departure from the true faith was gradually consolidated. Thus, Old Believers divided into those who understand the Antichrist spiritually, and the «sensualists» − supporters of a literal interpretation of this image. The difference in views on the figure of the Antichrist became decisive in the division of Old Believers into two directions: popovtsy and nepopovtsy.
Abstract: The article is devoted to the analysis of the images of the antipodes of Peter I in Russian pre-revolutionary historiography. The authors proceed from the fact that a historical narrative can be not only a scientific, but also a figurative and artistic work. In the latter case, it is fundamentally important how the historian builds images in his narrative. The article analyzes the works of I.I. Golikov, N.G. Ustryalov, N.I. Krasnov, M.N. Pokrovsky and P.N. Krasnov. The authors come to the conclusion that in all the cases they analyzed, the construction of the images of antipodes pursued primarily publicist and presentational goals. It helped the historian to reveal the current socio-political concept using historical examples. However, the difference between these concepts forced historians to choose different characters for the role of the antipodes of Peter I and build the relationship between the images of the hero and his antipode in different ways. In the case of I.I. Golikov and N.G. Ustryalov, the idealized Peter I was opposed by the demonized I.S. Mazep and tsarevna Sophia. N.I. Krasnov, on the contrary, revealed the shortcomings of the figure of Peter I by opposing him to K.A. Bulavin, and both of these characters in his narrative were rather positive, which made it possible to interpret their conflict as a tragedy. M.N. Pokrovsky, sharply criticizing Peter I, clearly contrasts his own author's image of the emperor with his traditional image in Russian historiography, drawing his own Peter I from the contrary. Finally, P.N. Krasnov, trying to restore the idealized image of the emperor, discredited image of K.A. Bulavin by N.I. Krasnov, creating an antipode to an antipode.
Abstract: On the example of one of the peripheral territories of the Russian Empire of the XVIII century – Volga-Caspian fishing region – the article discusses the role of migration as an important element of the state policy of land development and settlement. The main wealth of the Volga-Caspian region was the presence of rich fish resources. Fish products and delicacies were in high demand both within the country and abroad. However, the remoteness of the territory from the central regions and the lack of a free labor market under serfdom hindered successful colonization. The paper proves that throughout the entire 18th century, through the struggle of various power groups in the ruling elite for control over fisheries, there was a search for an effective strategy for the development of the Volga-Caspian fishing region. The problems of the political center could not but affect the problems of the periphery, including migration to the region, setting its qualitative and quantitative character.
The article analyzes the state laws adopted during the study period, the implementation of which contributed to the development and development of the Volga-Caspian fishing region. The study is based on a significant number of documents that contribute to a better understanding of the problems of integrating the Volga-Caspian fishing region into the economic life of the Russian Empire in the 18th century. Most of the documents from the collections of the State Archives of the Astrakhan Region are introduced into scientific circulation for the first time.
Abstract: The uniqueness and specificity of customary law regulation of various legal institutions is clearly manifested in the historical past, reflecting not only the established traditional ideas of peoples, but also the originality of the ethno-legal history of development. The study of the customary legal nature of the institution of marriage among the Permian peoples in the 18th – 19th centuries in modern conditions is especially relevant, as it allows us to show the national color and ethnic code of the Eastern Finno-Ugric peoples, as well as traditional ideas about marriage, enshrined in customary law, noting trends and ways of transforming this legal institution.
The customary law of the Permian peoples in the 18th – 19th centuries regulated the institution of marriage on a par with the norms of positive law. At the state level, it was forbidden to marry people with dementia or mental disabilities; a ban was introduced on marriage without the mutual consent of the spouses; degrees of kinship that did not allow marriage were legalized; age criteria for marriage; prohibition of marriage without the consent to this action on the part of guardians or trustees.
The institution of marriage among the Permian peoples underwent changes during the period under review. Not only legal customs changed, but also the norms of positive law. However, customary law was of great importance, since it regulated especially those areas of public life that the legislator did not always have time to regulate. The customary law of the Permian peoples, adapted to the economic and economic structure, supplemented the norms of positive law, without contradicting the latter. It detailed the institution of marriage, obliging the parties to be married to observe the wedding ceremony and ritual and traditional rites. The ritualization of wedding actions and the inclusion of customary legal elements in them made it possible not only to preserve, but also to transfer the value of the institutions of marriage and the traditional Perm family to future generations.
Abstract: The article deals with the problems of modern historiography on the topic of the history and evolution of the khan's power in the traditional Kazakh society of the modern period. Khan power of the Kazakhs has deep roots of its origin in the period of antiquity, but institutionally it takes shape in the era of the Middle Ages, the time of the Mongol conquests. In Russian pre-revolutionary historiography, the institution of khan power was not generally distinguished from the general context of Kazakh history into a separate subject of study. The situation began to change in the Soviet period, when special attention was paid to the state-legal aspects of the development of the Kazakh society of modern times. Modern Kazakh and Russian historiography of the problem is represented by works written using new scientific approaches and theoretical concepts. At the same time, in the study of the institute of khan power, there are still a number of unexplored aspects, as well as an assessment of the khan power of the Kazakhs, and its role in the weakening and decline of the Kazakh Khanate.
Abstract: The article deals with the ideas of Buddhist Kalmyks, who became Russian subjects in the 17th century and made a significant contribution to the strengthening of Russian statehood, about violent and non-violent methods of conflict resolution. Kalmyks traditionally profess Buddhism, which organically entered their ethnic culture and had a noticeable impact on their worldview. It is determined that the Kalmyks faithfully carried out military service for centuries, often being at the forefront of the Russian army. They guarded the southern borders of the country, participated in many Russian military campaigns. At the same time, the Kalmyks formed specific views based on the Buddhist ethics of non-violence, which was reflected in their legislative acts. The combination of the Buddhist ethics of non-violence and military prowess for the Kalmyks themselves might not seem contradictory to them due to their specific views on “skilful means” and spiritual development in accordance with Vajrayana Buddhism. Idealizing the image of angry protector deities, the Kalmyks could justify the military methods they used to influence their opponents, since they were defending the holy teaching and their people. However, it is important to bear in mind that the ideas of the Kalmyks cannot be equated with the very Buddhist idea of worshiping angry deities. According to Buddhist sources, the essence of this idea lies in the symbolic use of destructive states of mind on the path of rapid spiritual transformation. The Kalmyks could literally, that is, not quite correctly, interpret the Tantric teaching. At the same time, this interpretation allowed them to maintain spiritual strength to protect not only the Buddhist religion and their people, but also the entire population of Russia. The conclusions drawn allow us to expand the view of the ethical ideals of peoples who traditionally practice Buddhism.
Abstract: The article analyzes the historiography of the Bashkir uprising of 1735−1740 as part of the key task of the study to identify the mechanism of formation of historical discourse and the special role of ideology in this process. The purpose of this work is to show how ideology determined the nature and content of historical discourses. As an example, discourses devoted to one of the largest and longest national uprisings in the history of Russia of the XVIII century were taken. The main sources of this research are discourses devoted to this event. They are numerous and different in their tasks, scale, breadth and depth of penetration into the topic. As a result of the study, the authors came to the conclusion that every historical discourse is the product of an ideology that determines (dictates) its interpretative component. Historiographical criticism can claim to be scientific and correct only if it is directed at discourses created in the same historical period and in the same ideological field in which the critic works.
Abstract: The article analyzes Imperial Russia’s policy towards the Kalmyk Khanate in the early-to-mid 1760s. The period witnessed a transfer of power, and the new ruler was to traditionally face the shaping of an opposing party. The latter was founded by noyons (landlords) of the Dorbet Ulus to be further joined by quite a number of smaller groups.
The critical and persisting ‘Dorbet’ question had arisen from the years-long dynastic feuds of the 1720s–1730s, which led not only to a power shift but also to an increase in mutual annexations of commoners. The Collegium of Foreign Affairs approached the tie of reciprocal claims with a proposal that households (yurts) to have left their landlords after Donduk-Dashi ascended to the throne be duly returned. In the face of new conditions, Khoshut landlord Zamyan started requesting a permission to adopt sedentary life. The Collegium examined consequences of sedentarization and – though did meet that very request – tended to disapprove it for the whole Kalmyk people since that would result in decreased defensive capacities across southern frontiers of the country.
Abstract: The article deals with the problem of the existence and transformation of the culture of family reading among the nobility in the second half of the XIX – early XX centuries. The features of the selection of literature for evenings with the family are analyzed, the features of the reader's interest among different social and age groups of nobles are characterized (including through reference to memoirs).
To develop sources of different content and types, historical-comparative and historical-typological methods were used to perform comparative characteristics of family reading of different noble families.
In the course of the study of the information culture of the Russian nobility, it was possible to establish the fundamental importance of family reading for the formation of interests, creative abilities, moral qualities of the upper class. Daily reference to books formed an unobtrusive perception of book culture, determined interest in the printed word. The formation was the development of works of different linguistic affiliation and genres, which developed the horizons and erudition of family members.
Through the active development of the book heritage, the early socialization of noble youngsters took place, interest in certain topics and directions in literature was formed. At the same time, the image of reading parents became a role model and formed the necessary conditions for the reproduction of reading traditions in the future.
Abstract: For the first time in history researches, the article analyzes the life of Stechkin family as a complex phenomenon of the socio-cultural life of the provincial gentry. The authors seek to reveal the factors that influenced the formation of a whole cohort of remarkable representatives of this genus, who left a noticeable mark in the history of the country in the XX century. In contrast to non-fiction narratives, usually devoted to the Stechkins, the article is written on the basis of a wide range of archival materials that have been introduced into research for the first time. The authors pay priority attention to ups and downs of Stechkin kin in the XVIII century, trying to explain the characteristic features of their social rise caused by the impulse of Peter's reforms, and analyze their role in the social life of the Russian province. Revealed by a dotted line the impoverishment of the genus in the XIX century, the authors come to the conclusion that it was the combination of two opposite factors – stressful and difficult service, replaced by freedom and sybaritism – that eventually led to the formation of the phenomenon of the Stechkins of the XX century.
Abstract: As a methodological basis, this article relies on the concept of a new imperial history. It analyzes the features of the ethno-confessional policy of the Russian government at the first stage of the “nominal annexation” of the steppe territory, when Islam was seen as a tool to appease the Kazakhs. It was not unambiguously unifying in nature, did not aim to radically change the Kazakh environment by forcibly imposing “progressive” cultural and historical traditions, ignoring the existing ones and breaking the established foundations. At this stage, the Russian government not only allowed, but even ensured the propaganda of Islam in its Russian version, seeing it as an important means of administrative control. This policy can be called complementary, because the authorities were forced to reckon with the religious traditions of the subject population, and maintained tolerance and religious pluralism. The presence in the steppe of a combination of Russian legal norms and legal customs of Kazakh nomads is noted. It is shown that archival documents, together with the publications of contemporaries, help to form a complete picture on the issue of the features of the state-confessional and ethno-cultural policy.
Abstract: The paper treats the infosphere of the spiritual educational institutions of Russian Empire in the second half of the XIX – early XX centuries in the field of psychology of religion. Special attention is paid to the psychology of religion at the St. Petersburg theological academy. The article presents the history of the formation and development of the psychology of religion among the St. Petersburg clergy, traces its path from experience psychology to experimental psychology, highlights the specific characteristics of the St. Petersburg theological academy psychology of religion school. It is demonstrated that the psychology of religion in prerevolutionary Russian spiritual educational centers, although developed within the Orthodox theological tradition, was located within the world information field of the period, and was significantly influenced by advanced philosophical and scientific theories of that time, and in some particular issues was even ahead the Western tradition of the psychology of religion. Special attention is paid to the interpretation of the theories of A.A. Fischer, the founder of experience psychology in Russia, I.A. Chistovich and his course of “Experience Psychology”, V.N. Karpov’s approach to psychology of religion as the foundation of ethics, V.S. Serebrennikov and the shift from experience psychology to experimental psychology, mostly inspired by W. Wundt’s ideas. The paper demonstrates that a more natural-scientific and, to a lesser extent, humanitarian approach to the psychology of religion was formed among the St. Petersburg clergy than in other theological academies of Russia, which corresponded to the status of St. Petersburg as a world center for the research of physiology and psycho-neurology of that time.
Abstract: The article is devoted to the reading circle of students of theological schools of the 19th – early 20th centuries. In the Russian Empire, libraries played an exceptional role in religious education, being part of the system of state disciplinary practices aimed at building a "new world". The goal is to analyze the infosphere of Orthodox theological schools, which implies research of the reading circle of both teachers and students based on a study of the book collections of theological seminaries and academies, personal book collections of teachers and bishops, and periodical literature. Archival documents and memoirs are also valuable sources. The composition of libraries, as a component of the infosphere of the Orthodox religious institutions of the Russian Empire in the 19th – early 20th centuries, seems to be a clear catalyst in the analysis of Russian cultural and historical discourse and the history of religious, philosophical, and theological thought. The formation and replenishment of the collections of the libraries of theological schools, seminaries and academies reflects the history of these educational institutions themselves. The student’s and teacher’s circle of reading was not limited only by various kinds of philosophical and theological literature, but secular fiction and periodicals were also popular. The composition of the collections, especially student’s libraries, reflected the socio-cultural dynamics within the Russian Empire. The fundamental reason for this proposal is that the infosphere of Orthodox theological schools of the Russian Empire in the 19th-early 20th century deserves a comprehensive analysis, especially relevant in the time of active growth of theological education in modern-day Russia.
Abstract: The article provides an analysis of the controversy between Nikolai Mikhailovich Karamzin and Mikhail Mikhailovich Speransky on the fate of monarchical statehood in Russia. It is noted that it was N.M. Karamzin and M.M. Speransky with the types of state they proposed (pro-Western-liberal or conservative-autocratic), having begun an important discussion about the further development of the Russian state, became a kind of “mirror” of the probabilistic modernization of the Russian state. Reformer M.M. Speransky worked out in detail and actually began to implement the Russian state model with a new (liberal) type of constitutionalism. In his project, the legislature dominates the decisions of other authorities. N.M. Karamzin opposed this with his concept of Russian statehood, speaking from the standpoint of protective conservatism, uniting them with liberal elements, opposing parliamentarism and limiting autocracy, believing that this could lead to constitutionalism, which would destroy monarchical power. Having initially a contractual nature of its formation, the Russian monarchy is characterized by strict legality, which is based on the principles of natural law. Monarchical power is limited by “root” laws. Refusing Western borrowing, he stakes on the development of a natural, traditional form of the Russian state.
The article states that in the studied projects M.M. Speransky and N.M. Karamzin, which were a conservative or liberal reaction to the revolutionary and post-revolutionary events in France, reflected as in a mirror the main dilemma in the development of the Russian statehood of that time – the need to achieve the same goal – the modernization of the monarchy – by choosing one of the opposite means.
Abstract: The article examines the trends of the existence of the patriotic consciousness of the population of the Russian province during the Patriotic War of 1812 and the Crimean War of 1853–1856 using the example of the materials of the Penza province. The work is based on the materials of the State Archive of the Penza region, the data of the periodical press (“Penza Provincial Vedomosti”), as well as on the data contained in various ego sources (letters and memoirs). Based on the revealed patterns of transformation of various components of patriotism of the population of the Russian province, three phases are distinguished, different in nature, time duration and intensity of patriotic upsurge. The first phase associated with the outbreak of war is characterized by a patriotic upsurge, the stability and intensity of which depend on the nature of the war, which determines the value attitude of the population.
The conditions of the Patriotic War of 1812 and the Crimean War are characterized by a lack of up-to-date information about the course of hostilities, and therefore receiving news about the failures of the Russian army leads to a crisis – a short-term phase of “shock”, followed by an intense patriotic upsurge, the potential of which, after the end of hostilities and the end of the war, is transformed into a modernization wave.
Abstract: The article provides a source analysis of the publication «Siberian Bulletin» (the initiator of the publication and its editor – G.I. Spassky), published in St. Petersburg in 1818−1824 and including information on the history, archeology and ethnography of Siberia. The basis of the research was the articles of G.I. Spassky, V.V. Dmitriev (as well as anonymous publications) in the issues of 1818. The Siberian Bulletin refers to the monuments of culture and art of the ancient peoples of Siberia, which are represented by inscriptions, inscriptions, images on stones, from mounds or graves, from ruins, heterogeneous buildings and military fortresses; from the remains of mining operations. Also, the authors of the publication consider them historical and anthropological sources for the knowledge of man, the way of life of that time period. The publication under study has significance in connection with the activities of its authors in the study and description of samples of the culture of ancient Siberia. "Siberian Bulletin" as a historical source contains unique factual and descriptive information about early examples of ancient Siberian art, as well as its primary processing, classification of objects.
Abstract: The article is devoted to the analysis of slavery and slave trade relations in the Caucasus in the first half of the XIX century among the highlanders. The work is based on sources on the research problem, namely the materials of the State Archive of the Krasnodar Krai, as well as the memoirs of F. Tornau, A. Fonville, P. Butkov, S. Smolensky, A. Berger, etc.
The methodology includes historical-systemic, historical-genetic, synthetic research methods, as well as the method of historiographic (content) analysis.
Based on the research, it was concluded that slavery was widespread in the Caucasus, since the slave trade was a profitable business. Most of the slaves were sold abroad to Turkey.
With the arrival of Russia in the Caucasus, the slave trade becomes contraband, but the mountain aristocracy saw the prohibition of the slave trade as a violation of their economic interests. The mountain poorest strata saw protection in the face of Russia and turned to russian military settlements for help, massively becoming subjects of the Russian Empire. The main source of slaves was their own poorest population; the captured russian-speaking people were the second largest source during the Caucasian War.
Slavery in the Caucasus has taken very unusual forms, as there is mass evidence that not only prisoners and tribesmen, but even relatives and guests were sold as slaves. The profits of the slavers led to the fact that turkish smugglers took very high risks. There were also cases of corruption on the part of russian officials and the military, who turned a blind eye to the slave trade, also receiving profit or other bonuses from this business.
With the end of the Caucasian War and the inclusion of the Caucasus in the legal system of Russia, slavery and the slave trade as a social institution gradually came to naught.
Abstract: The article is devoted to the fate of the Pension Statute of 1827. The Pension Statute of 1827 became the basis of the system of pensions for civil servants in the Russian Empire. He completed the formation of the Russian bureaucracy. During the adoption of the Statute, the financial capabilities of the state were not taken into account. But very soon it became clear that the payment of pensions to retired employees placed a heavy burden on the State Treasury. At the same time, the amount of pensions lagged more and more behind the salaries of officials and was clearly insufficient. As a result, a project was born to switch to a “funded pension system” by creating an Emerital fund (following the example of the Kingdom of Poland). But the Emeritus Committee, specially created in 1843 to develop this project, found that the creation of such a system was unrealistic. When discussing the reform of the Pension Statute in the Committee of Ministers in 1850–1851. Count D.N. Bludov proposed to return to the practice of the 18th century, when pensions were paid only to those who did not have their own means of subsistence. This proposal was unanimously rejected by all ministers. There was also a proposal to abolish all pension benefits for "special types of service" – educational, medical, customs, etc. This proposal was also not supported by the majority of ministers. The Decree of Nicholas I on November 6, 1852 made only partial changes to the Pension Statute of 1827. These changes mainly concerned the length of service required to receive a pension. But the problem of the need, on the one hand, to reduce state spending on the payment of pensions, and on the other hand, to increase the size of pensions remained. In 1866, a special commission was created under the Ministry of Finance to prepare a new pension statute, but its proposals were never implemented, and in 1883 the commission was closed. Archaism of the Pension Statute of 1827 to the end XIX – early of the 20th centuries was obvious, but until 1917 this charter remained almost unchanged.
Abstract: The article is about dendrochronological dating of stone sites in East Siberia. This work based on Troickij cathedral (the XIX century) of Kyakhta, Republic of Buryatia. In the discussion we compared the use of dendrochronological analysis for dating stone sites from North America (USA), European countries and Russia. The results are about dendrohistory analysis of the Troickij cathedral: a) showed the available historical sources and literary bases and illustrated the stages of the construction and functioning of the cathedral; b) revealed chronological difference in the official data of the cultural heritage passport and historical sources; c) dendrochronological analysis showed the calendar date of Troickij Cathedral roof details (1829) d) interpreted the built history of the Troickij Cathedral of Kyakhta. The outmost ring of wooden samples (1829) confirmed the information contained in paper of Transbaikalian diocesan sources which not reflected in official data.
As a result, in the article we made dendrochronological dating of Siberian stone historical site. We proved that the previously publicly available historical information can be substantially corrected.
Thus, this work represents a unique experience of interdisciplinary analysis of the stone architecture sites of Transbaikalia and prospects of such researches. We illustrated that calendar-linked information helps to significantly correct the data of stone construction in the Siberian region.
Abstract: An epidemic is an emergency situation during which conflicts hidden in ordinary times appear. Epidemic riots become such a manifestation. Their special concentration fell on the 1830s and the first cholera epidemic in the Russian Empire. The implementation of anti-epidemic measures, which most often led to a riot, allows us to look at the activities of the local administration. Through the history of rumors, we will also learn about whom the population endowed with power, and whom and for what reasons they considered enemies. Important cases were the events of 1830 in Sevastopol and the so-called “Plague” or “Women's riot”, the St. Petersburg “Riot on Sennaya Square”, the events in St. Petersburg, Olonets and Kazan provinces, in Pskov, Tula and Tver. Speaking about epidemic riots, one should not forget that not in every locality engulfed by an epidemic, the population destroyed hospitals and killed doctors or officials. Such places are characterized by the presence of an active local society, primarily represented by the merchant class. Active actors who from the very beginning of the epidemic participate in the organization of cholera hospitals, which do not represent a “transitional place” from the house to the cemetery, provide food or ready meals to the needy and help the orphans. Through epidemic riots, we will consider general imperial problems and their regional specifics during the reign of Emperor Nicholas I. Through individual cases of plague or cholera riots, it becomes possible to study regional problems, ideas about authorities and enemies. You can also refer to the history of society in the Russian Empire and confirm the thesis that it should be viewed through the regions and speak of a local society, and not a general imperial one.
Abstract: Children's asylums played an important role in the organization of social assistance to convicts and their families in the second half of the 19th and early 20th centuries. By the mid-1880s, the vast majority of such institutions were located in the European part of Russia. At the same time, in the territory of Siberia, the possibilities for placing and educating the children of prisoners outside prisons were extremely limited. That is why the opening, in 1886, at the initiative of the Krasnoyarsk provincial prison committee, of an asylum for prisoners' children within the local prison castle was an important event for the region. Based on an analysis of extensive archival data, the author reconstructs a picture of the life and activities of the asylum. One by one the issues of management, relations with city and provincial authorities, organization of children admission, educational and upbringing process, and leisure time of the asylum inmates are examined in detail. A special place within the study is taken by the problem of financing the orphanage. Statistical data allows one to speak about the gradual increase of its welfare from 7 thousand rubles in 1886 to 24 thousand rubles in 1915. But its resources remained rather modest, especially compared to, e.g., the T.I. Shegoleva Orphanage, which had a charter capital of 50,000 rubles. Despite this, the orphanage performed its functions in full, taking in about a hundred children a year. As a result, it played an important role in the organization of social assistance in the penitentiary institutions of Siberia in the pre-revolutionary period.
Abstract: Using the example of the family of I.F. Cherkasov (1856−1900), the article considers a set of available historical sources of a genealogical nature. In methodological terms, the work is based on the generalization of various facts from the family history of Ivan Filippovich Cherkasov, which is why the work is a narrative with a large number of events. This enabled the author to create a holistic picture of a family's life in the Keret village. Besides this, the identification of historical sources made it possible to systematize a set of available archival materials for further genealogical research both in the Keret village and in the whole territory of the Republic of Karelia (Russian Federation).
The author concludes that historical sources on the Keret village of the mid–XIX – early XX centuries are located in two regional archives of the Russian Federation (the State Archive of the Arkhangelsk Region and the National Archive of the Republic of Karelia). Among these sources there are materials of revisions (the 10th revision – 1858), spiritual murals from confessional books, metrics from metric books, as well as materials of the First All-Russian Population Census of 1897. Despite the incompleteness of information from the metric books, in general, thanks to information from other listed sources, according to the author, it is possible to create a fairly complete picture of the composition of the family under study. In these documents, you can find not only information about birth, marriage and death, but also about the class origin, literacy and basic occupations of every single individual. Thus, the author summarizes that the researcher has at his disposal a sufficient set of historical sources for conducting genealogical research on the village of Keret during the mid–XIX – early XX centuries.
Abstract: The article highlights certain factors that prevented the spread of Orthodoxy among the Kazakhs in the second half of the 19th – early 20th centuries (on the basis of documentary sources, introduced into scientific circulation for the first time). The difficulties encountered in the activities of Orthodox missionaries were not always associated with indigenous population’s and Islam priests’ negative attitude towards the new religion. Often, the Kazakhs listened to the speeches of Orthodox preachers with interest and curiosity, and the preachers noticed this reaction of the nomads. Using this attitude, they focused on the points of interest in their enlightening conversation.
Some obstacles in the way of the propaganda of Orthodoxy were created by Russian settlers, which the missionaries could not foresee at all. Russian officials of the colonial administration, for example, verbally supported the activities of Orthodox missionaries. In fact, quite often, they “forgot” about their promises when the missionary left the newly baptized alone with the official. A number of other factors associated with the difficulties of introducing Orthodoxy among the Kazakhs were also created by Russian settlers. These include some traditions regarding the use of alcoholic beverages. The article provides information about the other obstacles.
Abstract: The foreign economic relations of the states include cooperation in various fields of the economy, including business partnership in mining. Russian spiritual missions organized in China in the XVIII century were also the political representation of Russia. The interests of the spiritual missions were not only in missionary work, but also in establishing special contacts in the mining industry. Participation in international processes of mining engineers of Russia (until the end of the XIX century. exclusively graduates of the St. Petersburg Mining Institute as the only higher educational institution of mining profile in the country) was explained by the mutual need to exchange experience in the field of technology and technological processes, to receive assistance in the development of minerals, as well as in the organization of labor and safety during the operation of deposits. The practice of cooperation in mining has shown that mutually enriching experience, it is possible to find optimal solutions to facilitate the work of miners and environmental protection. It was important to think over or adopt ways of rational use of natural resources to provide the country with minerals, etc. It is obvious that the tasks of the past centuries are still relevant, since international cooperation in the mining industry now consists of the work of international and global organizations. This article discusses diplomatic missions in the XIX – early XX centuries, led by mining engineers of Russia: their tasks and results.
Abstract: This article is the second part of the study devoted to the analysis of the judicial system of the Russian Empire before and after the Judicial Reform of 1864. In continuation of the first part of the study, which examined the state of the justice system of the pre-reform period, the authors consider the main changes made to the justice system after the Judicial Reform in 1864. The authors examine the key provisions of such documents as: the Statute of Criminal Proceedings, the Statute of Civil Proceedings, the Statute of the World Court, as well as the Statute of Judicial Places. The authors of the scientific article examined in detail the new judicial system of the Russian Empire, where the competence of courts, namely general courts and magistrates, was also investigated. The article analyzes such key principles of the new judicial system after the reform of 1864 as: the principles of independence of both the judicial system in general and judges in particular, as well as the principles of transparency and adversarial proceedings. Such an innovation as the institute of advocacy (sworn attorneys) was also considered. Particular attention was paid to the emergence and functioning of the institute of jurors. In addition, the key shortcomings of the format of the application of the new judicial system in the Russian Empire were identified, which, among other things, contributed to an increase in the growth of revolutionary sentiments among the population of the state. As an example, the rather revealing trial of Vera Zasulich in 1878 was considered.
Abstract: This article is devoted to one of the largest transformations in the era of the Great Reforms of Alexander II – the Zemstvo Reform of 1864. In this study, the authors analyzed the reasons that became prerequisites for the need to introduce Zemstvo reform, and also considered the contribution to the development of this reform of such statesmen as the director of the Economic Department of Internal Affairs Milyutin N.A., as well as the Minister of Internal Affairs Valuev P.A. The article discusses the concept of zemstvo, as well as its key principles: omniscience and electability. The authors of the article studied in detail the structure of zemstvo assemblies, the procedure for appointing their members, the procedure for forming zemstvo assemblies, as well as the competence of zemstvos and their key functions. In addition, the authors analyzed the order of formation and sources of the zemstvo budget. The authors paid special attention to the issues of the significance of the Zemstvo Reform and its impact on the development of the Russian Empire, as well as opinions and disputes expressed in periodicals and confidential notes regarding the local self-government bodies themselves and their competence. The positive aspects of the Zemstvo reform were analyzed, as well as the criticism of well-known statesmen, including the Minister of Finance of the Russian Empire S.Yu. Witte towards reform. The authors of the article provide statistical data confirming the success of the Zemstvo reform and its successful impact on the development of the Russian Empire. At the same time, the authors discuss the significant impact of the Zemstvo reform on the arrival of revolutionary upheavals at the beginning of the XX century.
Abstract: The study is devoted to the study of the functional potential of the Finnish gendarmes during the great reforms of Alexander II. The methodological basis of the work includes elements of structural, comparative and genetic analysis. The source base was formed by attracting office materials deposited in the fund of the Third Branch of His Own Imperial Majesty's Chancellery. The study of the collected material led to the conclusion that the functional potential of the gendarmes operating on the territory of the Grand Duchy during the reforms of Alexander II was significantly limited. The scope of the rights of employees of the local gendarmerie department gave them the opportunity to fully implement only tasks related to monitoring the situation inside Finland. Many significant functions traditionally associated with the work of the secret police were delegated to the governor-general, whose position allowed him to pursue a policy independent of the opinion of the leadership of the regional gendarmes. In this situation, the gendarmes could implement their initiatives only with the support of the governor-general and, in some cases, the emperor himself. The central leadership of the Gendarmes Corps did not always react in the expected way to the signals coming from the regional administration. The state of affairs was aggravated both by the small number of gendarmerie apparatus in the Grand Duchy and by the excessively wide range of duties of the Corps employees. In the latter case, the actions of the gendarmes were also hampered by the fact that they often did not have the proper amount of rights, while the local departments vested with them were staffed mainly by representatives of the indigenous population, many of whom were opposed. The most striking example in this case is the participation of gendarmes in censorship activities. As a result, the effectiveness of the work of the gendarme apparatus in the Grand Duchy directly depended on the support of its initiatives from the local and central leadership.
Abstract: This paper presents, drawing on archival records and published sources, problems in the local governments functioning that have emerged as a result of the Great Reforms. Theoretical and methodological background of the work are ideas of B. N. Mironov, A. Ribera, M. de Certeau. The authors emphasize that the responsibilities of the municipal government bodies had not been clearly defined, therefore, in practice, there were conflicts between them and the provincial administration or the estates bodies. Often the personal authority of powerful officials had precedence over the formal laws. Duma did not come into open conflict, but it used a variety of delays, which had a negative effect on the possibilities of dialogue between the local government and the previous government authorities. A work of self-government bodies was complicated by the fact that they almost did not have any material resources; new social and political institutions could not earn social respect without a demonstration of its concrete and practical effectiveness, which could not be achieved without public backing. Thus, it is possible to state a lack of independence of public self-governance in the analyzed period, as well as difficulties in the practical implementation of its activities. The reason is the fact that the modernized socio-political institutions have been functioning and interacting with each other in an environment of mainly traditional concepts.
Abstract: The article raises the problem of Russian kerosene trade on the market of the Qing Empire in the late 19th – early 20th centuries. During the second half of the 19th century, the oil industry of the Russian Empire began to actively explore foreign markets in Europe and Asia, including the Chinese market. At the same time, other major world exporters of petroleum products – the American company Standard Oil, the Dutch company Royal Dutch and the English Shell were also interested in developing the Chinese market. As a result, at the beginning of the 20th century, Russian kerosene was practically ousted from the Chinese market. The article examines the general situation of foreign kerosene trade in China; the activities of the main companies selling kerosene; the reconstruction of the process of kerosene delivery to China; the organization of trade in goods on the Chinese market. The materials of the central archives of Russia (Archive of the foreign policy of the Russian Empire, Russian state historical archive) also helped to reconstruct the process of trading Russian kerosene in certain "open" ports of the Qing Empire – Tianjin, Fuzhou, etc. The main difficulties associated with the Russian kerosene trade in China are shown, the main reasons for the decline of this trade direction are identified.
Abstract: The article examines the development of the system of interaction between the state and business from the perspective of the socio-economic modernization of the Russian Empire in the late XX – early XX centuries. The source base of the research includes unpublished office documents from the funds of the Russian State Historical Archive. The мmethodological frame of the study is based on comparative and structural analysis.
It is concluded that in the end XX - early XX centuries. In Russia, the institutions of representation of the entire business community were extremely poorly developed, which was largely due to resistance from conservative-minded representatives of the political leadership of the empire. At the same time, a network of non-integrated sectoral and territorial associations of entrepreneurs was being formed quite actively in the Russian Empire. At the same time, the continuing disunity of the Russian business stratum, the inconsistency of the interests of representatives of leading industries seriously limited their effectiveness. It should also be noted that the most active representative structures of entrepreneurs expressed mainly the interests of large manufacturers. At the beginning of the 20th century, after the emergence of parliamentary institutions, the possibilities of domestic business in terms of lobbying their own interests increased slightly, since the parties expressing the interests of the business community (the Cadets and the Octobrists) were either in conflict with the government, or, on the contrary, were forced to coordinate their political position with it. Thus, the system of interaction between government and business in Russia in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries did not receive an acceptable institutional formalization, could not ensure effective coordination and expression of the interests of all layers of the business community and sectors of the economy within the framework of a continuous dialogue with the state. This, in turn, made it difficult to implement the plans of the reformist wing of the Russian political elite, since the potential of business could not be fully used to modernize the country, and the existing institutional environment created prerequisites for conflict between the business community and government structures.
Abstract: Modern archaeological education in Russia, as the archaeologists themselves note, is in a state of crisis. Therefore, it is relevant to study the experience of teaching archaeology in the XIX century. This experience is often undeservedly forgotten. The authors of this article introduce into scientific circulation a new archival document – lectures given by the outstanding Russian archaeologist Count A.S. Uvarov to Grand Dukes Sergei Alexandrovich and Pavel Alexandrovich, use the memories of contemporaries to realize the influence of archaeological education on the life and work of Grand Dukes, on the development of higher education in Russia. The novelty of this work lies in the analysis of lectures to representatives of the House of Romanov and the speech of Count A.S. Uvarov at the III Archaeological Congress in the context of the development of Russian and world archaeological thought at the end of the XIX century. As a result, the authors came to the conclusion that the concept of archaeological education proposed by Count A.S. Uvarov was ahead of its time. It included the theory of archaeology from the definition of this science to the interpretation of its basic concepts, the empirical part based on the latest achievements of world archaeological thought, the idea of protecting ancient monuments, which is reflected in the concept of the State Historical Museum and educational Archaeological Museums, and a number of provisions that archaeologists began to address only in the XXI century.
Abstract: The article is devoted to the analysis of the “Irkutskie Eparkhial'nye Vedomosti” newspaper as a source covering the events of the Russian-Turkish War of 1877−1878 from an Orthodox-spiritual point of view. The main source was the issues of the newspaper from the 15th to the 52nd for 1877 and from the 1st to the 7th for 1878, that is, those issues that corresponded to the chronological framework of the war. The memoirs of participants and contemporaries of this war were used as additional sources.
The historiographical method (or content analysis) was used as the main research method; the historical-system, historical-comparative method and the method of synthetic analysis were also used.
Russian Russian-Turkish War of 1877−1878, which had the widest voluntary and charitable response in Russian society, was not only the mouthpiece of the church-Orthodox life of Irkutsk province, but also covered the events of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877−1878, which was very relevant for Russia.
The issues of the newspaper published the decrees of the emperor, the definitions of the Holy Synod (which contained reports on charitable assistance to the wounded and the families of the fallen soldiers), as well as speeches (“words”) of Irkutsk clergy who called for patriotism, volunteer and charitable activities. Thus, the conclusion is made about the unconditional support of the Russian-Turkish war by the Irkutsk diocese.
At the same time, most of the issues did not cover military topics, preferring to publish data on regional Orthodox-church events of a small scale, which, in our opinion, is due to the remoteness from the theater of military operations and, consequently, the lack of corresponding hardships of military life, which were borne by residents of the western regions of the Russian Empire.
Abstract: The article is devoted to the analysis of the famous memoirs of participants and contemporaries of the Russian-Turkish War of 1877−1878. There were used as sources the memoirs of participants in the fighting and contemporaries, such as A.I. Kosich, V.V. Krestovsky, N.V. Maksimov, K.N. Favrikodorov, L.V. Shakhovskaya, A. Robush, V.V. Guryev, etc.
The research methodology includes the following methods: historiographical (content analysis), historical-system and historical-comparative, as well as the method of synthetic analysis.
The paper classifies the memoirs on this war, conditionally identifies three of their types: memoirs of military personnel, memoirs of volunteers and civilian civilian employees, memoirs of contemporaries.
The memoirs of servicemen are distinguished by scrupulousness, the use of a special terminological apparatus, and an emphasis on combat and organizational elements. The memoirs of volunteers and civilian civilian employees focus on the emotional and sensual elements of war, camp life, as well as psychological features and deviations in war conditions. The memoirs of contemporaries who were not participants in the war emphasize the psychological aspect of family relations, including in the case of prolonged absence, loss or injury of a loved one, some economic and everyday difficulties associated with the war. The memoirs are imbued with the spirit of patriotism, thoughts about the inevitability of war and its just nature; at the same time, they point to its severity and complexity, the stubbornness of the enemy, etc.
The analysis carried out allowed us to conclude that only a comprehensive analysis of all types of memoirs can give an objective conclusion about the Russian-Turkish war of 1877–1878, since each of the indicated types of memoirs of participants/contemporaries focuses on certain areas of the military life of Russian society.
Abstract: The construction of the railway in Siberia has greatly increased the economic and cultural development of the region. The effect of putting the railway into operation exceeded all expectations in the first years. The railway played a significant role both in the life of Siberia and the country as a whole in subsequent periods of historical development. This circumstance causes the constant interest of researchers to the history of the railway. The object of this article is the process of making decisions on the direction of the Siberian railway line: from the first projects to survey work that finally determined the paths of the railway lines.
The importance of the railroad from the Chinese border to European Russia was first raised in public space in the 1830s. The authors paid considerable attention to the railway construction projects that were sent to St. Petersburg from Siberia in the following decades, as well as to the personalities who influenced the promotion of the projects. The reasons that contributed to the delay in the decision to build a railway in Siberia are shown: the lack of consensus in the capital circles, which manifested itself in the discussion in the press, disagreements among the Siberian public, government fears about the foreign capital domination in the transport industry. The authors noted the proposed directions of the railway line, when the government had already made a fundamental decision on the construction of the railway, considered the factors that influenced the final decision on the choice of the route: geological conditions, the cost of construction, the population of the territories, the difficulties in constructing access roads, the expected time of economic effect.
Abstract: The article from the historical and legal positions shows the causes and conditions, characteristic features and statistics of terror against the ranks of the Russian prison department at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries. The authors analyze the actions of the prison administration, the supervision of the staff, the police and military formations to neutralize terrorist manifestations in Russian places of detention. The influence on the level of terror against the ranks of the prison administration and the supervision of the placement by the opposition press of falsified information about the lawlessness and violence committed against prisoners is shown. The authors draw a direct dependence of terror on the development of the revolutionary situation and socio-political conditions that have developed in the Russian Empire, and come to the conclusion that it has become one of the most radical forms of revolutionary struggle. The influence on the level of terror against the ranks of the prison administration and the supervision of the placement by the opposition press of falsified information about the lawlessness and violence committed against prisoners is shown. The authors draw a direct dependence of terror on the development of the revolutionary situation and socio-political conditions that have developed in the Russian Empire, and come to the conclusion that it has become one of the most radical forms of revolutionary struggle. The article is prepared on the basis of a variety of sources, including regulations and archival materials, many of which were introduced into scientific circulation for the first time. The article uses not only general scientific (historical, dialectical, logical, system-functional analysis and synthesis), but also special-historical (historical-comparative and statistical) methods of cognition. The study analyzes statistical data from various sources on violent acts committed against the ranks of the prison department, including their murders and injuries. The authors come to the conclusion about the significant scale and great social danger of terrorist manifestations against the leadership and personnel of Russian penitentiary institutions. Their level was associated with the development of the revolutionary movement, the state of prisons and the regime of serving sentences.
Abstract: The article is devoted to the historiographical analysis of the pedagogical periodical press of the church department of the Russian Empire of the late XIX – early XX centuries.
The authors analyzed such publications as “Tserkovno-prikhodskaya shkola”, “Narodnoe obrazovanie”, “Bozh'ya Niva”, “Zapadno-russkaya nachal'naya shkola”, “Zakonouchitel'”; as well as “Tsirkulyar po dukhovno-uchebnomu vedomstvu” journals and “Listok Vserossiiskoi tserkovno-shkol'noi vystavki” catalog.
The research methodology includes the following methods: historical-systemic, historiographical (or content analysis) and historical-chronological.
The results of the study showed that the church press has become an integral part of russian pedagogical thought, since well-known methodist teachers, such as S.I. Miropolsky, S.A. Rachinsky, P.P. Mironositsky, and others published their didactic views in journals. The journals also became a platform for publishing Orthodox-Russian pedagogical ideas of many clergymen of the Russian Empire. The teachers and clergymen of very high rank recognized in the world community were the editors.
The publications were created at the end of the XIX and (most of) the beginning of the XX centuries, but after the socialist revolution of 1917 they were naturally curtailed, since the Bolshevik communist ideology did not imply the existence of any religion and its influence on secular life. The soviet authors subjected the church-pedagogical publications to very harsh criticism, some editors of journals died during investigative measures (in particular, P.P. Mironositsky).
Abstract: The institutions of guardianship and charity in the 21st century are again in demand in order to preserve and increase the cultural and intellectual potential of Russia, to provide assistance and support to socially vulnerable categories of the population. The content of charity is currently dictated by the search for forms and methods to ensure the effectiveness and expediency of priority social support for the population and regions. The historical experience accumulated, including at the turn of the 19th-20th centuries, is an invaluable proven basis for regulatory and organizational action in this area, not only at the national, but at the regional and local levels.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the development of public initiative in charity work, the growth in the number of charitable societies, and increased public attention to social issues led to the emergence of an alternative to privileged departments in the field of charity, the promotion of socially active and enterprising citizens – representatives of different classes of Russian society.
In Novorossiysk, the following groups of actors emerged during the indicated period: individual projects of M.A. Veksler, E.E., Ballion, N.P. Bogarsukova, L.E. Adamovich and others; at the level of organizations – the Novorossiysk Committee of the Russian branch of the Red Cross, boards of trustees of educational, socio-cultural and medical institutions, activation of charitable initiatives among the national communities of the city. An unconditional coordinating role was played by state, provincial and city structures (the Emperor and the Imperial Humanitarian Society, the Governor of the Black Sea Governorate, the City Duma of Novorossiysk, the Chief Police Chief of Novorossiysk (Ministry of Internal Affairs)).
The creation and commissioning of educational, socio-cultural and medical institutions (city library, women's and men's gymnasiums, a maternity hospital, objects of religious worship (Orthodox and Greek Catholic churches and others) contributed to the harmonization of the social climate in the context of the empowerment and general socialization of women , creating social lifts for representatives of the third estate.
Abstract: The article tells about biographical episodes from the service life of an official of the Russian Empire, who found himself on one of its outskirts in the late 19th - early 20th centuries. and linked his fate with the activities of the Statistical Committee and the museum of the Semirechensk region. Some aspects of the professional biography of the public figure of the city of Verny (now Almaty) - V.E. Nedzvetsky, restored by attracting and analyzing such a type of historical sources as photographic documents deposited in the fund of the Central State Museum of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The personal fund of the secretary of the Semirechye Statistical Committee also includes written sources telling about his service activities from 1882 to 1918 inclusive. In order to clarify a number of points in the professional life of V.E. Nedzvetsky, documentary materials were attracted from the funds of the Central State Archive of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The use of these archival documents made it possible to restore the chronological and other gaps in the photographic annotations. On the other hand, the visual information contained in the space of photographs made it possible to correct some of the contradictions and doubts deposited in the text of documentary sources. The proposed publication, thus describing the unknown pages of the life path of this person, demonstrates how, perhaps, to more fully reflect the historical canvas based on the use of photographic material in conjunction with a documentary complex of historical sources. Which is quite relevant in the light of the reconstruction of historical phenomena on the basis of an ever-expanding source base and against the backdrop of an ever-increasing number of audiovisual means.
Abstract: The article is devoted to the problem of ethnicization of urban space in the late imperial period of Russian history. On the example of Jewish communities that emerged in the cities of the Orenburg province – Orenburg, Troitsk and Chelyabinsk – the authors show how the ethnicization of the urban space took place, what mechanisms formed objects and locations marked in terms of confessionality, and later ethnicity. Not only “Jews” and “their communities” as such played an important role in this, but also representatives of local authorities, host communities, etc. The basis of the empirical base in the preparation of the presented manuscript was the Address-calendars of the Orenburg province for 1894−1915, as well as archival documents deposited in the funds of the United State Archive of the Chelyabinsk Region (OGACHO) and the State Archive of the Orenburg Region (SAOO). These sources used in combination are able to show the processes of emergence and development of the institutions of Jewish communities: prayer houses and synagogues, Jewish cemeteries, charitable societies and brotherhoods, schools, segments of economic and entrepreneurial activity, which in the optics of the host side acquired a pronounced "Jewish" appearance.
Abstract: Within the framework of the present study, the question of the specifics of the process of formation of the imperial model of the all-Russian national-state identity at the turn of the 19th – 20th centuries is revealed. The methodological basis of the work is formed through a combination of elements of comparative and structural analysis. The source base of the work includes office documents of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Empire and sources of personal origin that were not previously introduced into scientific circulation. On the basis of the conducted research, the author comes to the conclusion that the imperial model of the all-Russian national-state identity at the turn of the XIX–XX centuries formed largely in the inertial regime. The authorities reproduced the traditional system of practices for integrating new macrosocial groups through integration into the system of the imperial military and administrative elite of their establishment. This model demonstrated high efficiency in a traditional, agrarian society. However, the great reforms of Alexander II launched the process of large-scale modernization of Russian society, which resulted in the destruction of the traditional system of identities and the acquisition of subjectivity by new political and social groups. The situation was complicated by the active dissemination of nationalist ideas, including through the emergence of ethnic intelligentsia and the resuscitation of xenophobic stereotypes. At the same time, the authorities failed to form a system of universal primary education in Russian, which made it difficult for the integration of national outlying districts, and in some cases contributed to the stigmatization of the titular nation. The potential of Russian culture as a tool of «soft power» in the framework of building relationships with minorities was also not realized due to the relatively low degree of development of the network of primary and secondary educational institutions. The selective principle of applying universal military service to various peoples minimized the potential of the army as an institution of assimilation. At the same time, many national outskirts were much more closely connected economically and culturally with neighboring countries than with the core of the empire. It is also noted that the authorities considered the imperial identity in a simplified way, through the prism of the ideas of previous eras. It was actually built on the basis of loyalty to the sacralized figure of the monarch, belonging to the official church and a sense of belonging to a bureaucratic, military or class corporation. However, this model was inoperable in the conditions of an actively modernizing society, within which the process of building nations of the modern type began to proceed. Accordingly, the indicated problems of the formation of imperial identity were due to both subjective (rigidity of the establishment's thinking) and objective factors (lack of funds for the simultaneous solution of all modernization tasks in a historically short time frame).
Abstract: The present study is devoted to the question of the evolution of the tactics of the Social Revolutionary terror in the period 1902–1907. The aim of the work is to assess the dynamics of the terrorist tactics of the Social Revolutionaries in the period 1902–1907 taking into account the influence of external and internal factors. The research methodology includes elements of structural, diachronic and descriptive analysis. The source base of the work includes a corpus of sources of personal origin and documents from the funds of the Central Committee of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party (RGASPI), and the Police Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Empire (GARF). Based on the results of the research, it was concluded that initially the leadership of the Social Revolutionaries was not focused on the use of terror as the main element of the political struggle. However, the circumstances of the party's genesis associated with the participation of active supporters of terrorist methods in its creation, the absence of a broad social base in the early stages of its existence, and the image results of major actions of the period 1902–1904 contributed to a significant increase in the popularity of these methods. During the revolution of 1905–1907 the leadership of the party has repeatedly suspended terrorist acts for political reasons and even intended to completely abandon this form of activity. However, in practice, the significance of the relevant decisions was leveled by a rather high degree of autonomy of the local cells of the party. Initially, the party concentrated on the implementation of political terror, aimed exclusively at representatives of the top leadership of the empire. However, with the beginning of the revolution of 1905–1907, the terror not only acquired a mass character, but also acquired a multi-vector character. Not only representatives of the authorities, but also private individuals, who acted in the eyes of ordinary party supporters as “exploiters”, began to act as its objects. The leadership of the AKP eventually decided to abandon the “factory” and “agrarian” terror, despite the widespread support for these forms of activity on the ground. At the same time, over time, the local structures of the Social Revolutionary terrorists began to lose their original specialization due to the acquisition of new functions related to solving the pressing problems of party cells.
Abstract: The presented study is devoted to the dynamics of the content of the agrarian program of the Cadet Party in the period 1905–1907. The research methodology is formed to account for the synthesis of elements of the observed, structural and descriptive analysis. The basis of the basic work includes unpublished files and production documents of the Cadet Party, revealing the topics of internal discussions on the agrarian question. The author concludes that during the observed period, the agrarian program of the Cadets as a whole has undergone few changes, but the ways and possibilities of its changes have caused active discussions within the party. The reason for the fierce disputes was primarily the basic contradiction of the agrarian project of the Cadets. Initially, it was built around the idea of achieving a balance of interests between peasants and large landowners. In the end, however, this proved unattractive to the peasants and aroused a sensitivity of dislike towards the majority of the inhabitants. Under the circumstances, the party radicalizes its approach to solving the agrarian question and enlists the support of the majority of the peasants. However, there were moderates within the party opposed to this. In the end, the leaders of the Cadets refused to resolve this issue in any way, thereby "freezing" the problem of radiation prevention of a split within the party. In most cases, the Cadets limited themselves to the specific presence of the program. As a result, the party actually lost its side of expanding support both from the moderate liberals (who were impressed by the Octobrists) and from the broad masses of the peasantry, which led to a fall in its assessment among the bulk of the population in the future. The Cadets were forced to secure for themselves the image of the “party of an educated minority”. In the long term, the rejection of the long-term development of the agrarian program led to the political defeat of the Cadets already in the course of the events of 1917, since the “Milyukovites” and their allies could no longer offer the soldiers' mass initiative for their subject of bargaining as part of the pursuit of the thesis of war “to a victorious end”. At the same time, it is necessary to urge that during the period of the revolution of 1905−1907. The party had the potential to increase support for its agrarian program among all sections of the peasantry. It should be especially noted that, at the same time, the implementation of the agrarian program of the Cadets could exacerbate ethnic strife in some of the ethnic outskirts of the empire.
Abstract: The article is devoted to the historiographical analysis of the problems of colonization processes, published in the “Voprosy kolonizatsii” journal, which was published in the Russian Empire at the beginning of the 20th century in St. Petersburg. The source of the work was ten issues of the journal, published in the period from 1907 to 1917. The method of historiographic analysis (the so-called content analysis) became the main in the work, historical-systemic and historical-genetic methods and a complex of general scientific methods (as synthesis, analogy, etc.) were also used.
“Voprosy kolonizatsii” journal filled a narrow but relevant niche for the Russian Empire. The articles studied by authors analyze the process of colonization in the territories of the Caucasus, the Caspian and Black Sea regions, Turkestan and Siberia. The main idea of the analyzed articles is the need for russification of the colonized territories. Some authors (in particular, N. Shavrov) talk about the benefits of friendly relations with local residents (in particular, Cossacks and Chechens), while others (for example, V. Grunberg) believe that russification should be tough (if not violent) character. It can be noted that most of the analyzed articles are not free from the ideas of russian nationalism. Most authors insist on the need to create a special state agency that would coordinate the colonization processes and have the appropriate powers and means.
The articles analyzed here are of great value in terms of containing a huge layer of statistical information on the ethnic, class and confessional composition of the above regions, as well as their economy, industry, geography, etc.
Abstract: The relevance of the study of the cinematography of the Russian Empire in the mirror of advertising and criticism on the pages of the leading film journals of the early 20th century is determined by the fact that at an early stage in the development of national cinematography, a successful model for the development of cinematography in the country (free enterprise) was formed, and meaningful directions for development of Russian cinema were outlined: staging patriotic pictures of national history, film adaptation of Russian classics as a quick introduction to a wide range of viewers with outstanding works of literature, entertainment films with criminal plots or didactic immersion in the sphere of love experiences, etc. The article analyzes such a direction in the development of the cinema of the Russian Empire as film adaptation of Russian literary classics. The study is based on the analysis of advertising and critical essays on Russian film adaptations on the pages of the “Сine-Fono” journal, which was published from 1907 to 1918 and was an independent edition, as well as on the material of the analysis of Russian literary film adaptations of 1909−1916 using the methods of V. Zhukovsky, N. Koptseva. Based on the results of the study, the characteristics of film adaptations in the work of directors P. Chardynin and V. Goncharov, as well as in the work of such directors as V. Viskovskiy, Y. Protazanov, N. Malikov, V. Gardin and others are presented. The literary preferences of the directors of the early Russian cinema when choosing books for making films are highlighted – these are the works of A.S. Pushkin, L.N. Tolstoy, I.S. Turgenev, as well as later in the cinema appeared the film adaptations of the works of A.P. Chekhov and N.V. Gogol. The article also highlights the trends in the development of the cinematographic skills of Russian directors from 1909 to 1916 and analyzes the features of presenting the achievements of Russian pre-revolutionary cinematography on the pages of the “Cine-Fono” journal.
Abstract: The article is devoted to the role of the Far East as a region of transit migration in the Russian Empire at the beginning of the 20th century. The author focuses on the period on the eve of the First World War, associated with the implementation of government resettlement policy in the framework of the agrarian reform of P.A. Stolypin. The source base for this study was the documents stored in the fund “Head of the Settlement of Settlers in the Khabarovsk District” of the State Archive of the Khabarovsk Territory (Khabarovsk, Russian Federation). In addition, materials from regional periodicals were used – the newspapers Priamurskiye Vedomosti (Khabarovsk), Priamurye (Khabarovsk), Priamurskaya Zhizn (Khabarovsk), and Dalniy Vostok (Vladivostok). The methodological basis of the study was the theoretical developments of national and foreign migration scientists. Using these conceptual approaches, the author shows a close connection between the failures of the government's resettlement policy and the development of the phenomenon of emigration from the Russian Empire. It is proved that the survival rate of new settlers remained an extremely acute problem in the Russian Far East at the beginning of the 20th century. At the same time, historical sources show that the reasons for this situation were not only the psychological unpreparedness of some of the settlers to settle in a certain place, but also the desire of some of them to use government loans for resettlement for selfish purposes. The documents involved allow substantiating the thesis that the expert community of the region associated with the structures of the administration of the Amur Governor-General realized that there were objective problems that prevented the successful consolidation of settlers in the region. These problems were associated with the underdevelopment of the socio-cultural infrastructure, unfavorable climatic conditions, and competition for the migrant peasants from agricultural producers from Manchuria. All these factors led to the fact that part of the settlers began to consider the Far East only as a transit region and moved on, emigrating to the USA, Australia and other countries.
Abstract: “Niva” journal intended for family reading and in many ways became the legislator of Russian journal periodicals: weekly issues contained news content about world and national life, scientific achievements and events, biographies of outstanding contemporaries and historical figures, political review (including photo reports of military operations), reproductions of paintings and illustrations for Russian art works occupied a significant amount and European artists. Since 1894, monthly literary and popular science applications containing various articles about literature, fashion novelties, an application for children and wall calendars have become available to subscribers of the journal. The genre variety of literary, artistic and scientific texts intertwined with rich illustrative material, the compositional logic of the text placement and visual material, the steady thematic practice content of the journal's almost half–century existence – all this contributed to the formation of “Niva” as a significant source on the artistic history culture of the Russian Empire. It is worth noting the special journal role in shaping the image of contemporary Russian artistic life and the state of art among a wide range of its readers. The journal fully corresponded to the model of the educational mission.
51. Dmitry N. Belyanin, Viktor N. Razgon, Anton V. Razgon
Crafts and Employment of Migrants in the Urman Zone of the Turinsk District of the Tobolsk Province According to the Results of a Statistical Survey Conducted under the Leadership of V.K. Kuznetsov in 1912
Abstract: In the article, based on the analysis of the materials of the statistical survey of settler farms conducted in 1911-1912 under the leadership of V.K. Kuznetsov, сrafts and employment of the settlers of the urman zone of the Turinsk district of the Tobolsk province are studied. About a third of the migrants, who settled in the Turinrk district, were involved in economic activities outside their farms. Migrants of the "Stolypin" period were less involved in these activities than the more "aged" ones. This is explained both by the incompleteness of their adaptation to new places, and by the need in the first years after settlement to use the main labor resources to clear their land plots from forest trees.
Among the economic occupations outside farms of migrants, work on the construction of unpaved roads and hiring for agricultural work prevailed. The natural habitat of the settlers determined the prevalence of economic activities related to the use of forest resources: hunting, sawing, logging, transportation and processing of wood. At the same time, fishing, beekeeping, handicrafts, trade, entrepreneurship were poorly developed. This was due to the remoteness of the urman sites from commercial and industrial centers and transport communications as well as the lack of the necessary funds for the settlers to create industrial and commercial enterprises.
Abstract: The article is devoted to the analysis of the development of the electric power generation system in the Caucasus in the Russian Empire. As a source, a filing of the statistical collection “Kavkazskii kalendar'” was used, which contains information about the generation of electricity by power plants and hydroelectric power plants in the Caucasus. The work used historical-systemic, historical-comparative, historical-genetic, statistical research methods, as well as content analysis and synthesis method.
As a result of this research, the conclusions were drawn that the active electrification of the Caucasus began at the beginning of the XX century. The electricity was used in industry and for lighting streets and households.
As of 1916, 134 state-owned power plants with a total capacity of 53,057.05 kilowatts operated in the Caucasian Viceroyalty. They were used to illuminate settlements and industrial productions (factories, mines, ports, etc.).
Private power plants were also very popular, the number of which exceeded state-owned stations by almost three times. At the same time, the capacity of private power plants was relatively small. There were 318 private power plants operating in the Caucasus with a total capacity of 37,116.86 kilowatts. They were involved, as a rule, in private industrial enterprises, as well as lighting villages, estates, etc.
The total number of power plants in the Caucasus reached 452 units, which together generated 90,173.91 kilowatts of electricity.
The territory of the Caucasus with mountain streams was very conducive to the construction of hydroelectric power stations. In the Caucasian viceroyalty there were 23 hydroelectric power stations, which were, as a rule, private and intended for lighting settlements or copper production plants. The total capacity of the turbines of the hydroelectric power stations of the Caucasus reached 8080 horsepower and they gave out a combined capacity of 5462 kilowatts of electricity.
Abstract: The article discusses the views of foreign researchers on the problems of the historical development of the socio-political and socio-cultural interaction of kindred Turkic peoples (Tatars, Bashkirs and Chuvashs), including in the process of acculturation of their enclave and transboundary groups. The Volga-Priural region is considered by foreign scientists as a “frontier”, “window to the East”, “focus” of Russia's colonization development of the eastern regions. At the same time, foreign historiography emphasizes the special role of the Tatar ethnic group as the most numerous, whose hegemony is based on the rich historical heritage of the Volga Bulgaria and the Golden Horde. The results of our work in 2022 Sociological surveys in Bashkortostan, Tatarstan, Chuvashia and the Sverdlovsk region indicate a calm interethnic climate in the Volga-Priural region, but the respondents also state certain problems. These interethnic problems can also be identified by analyzing the basic concepts of foreign historiography on this topic. The works of A. Kappeler, P. Werth, R. Gerasi, Ch. Hostler, L. Hyde, N. Devlet, D. Arik, H. Karadag and others deal with such problems as assimilation (Tatarization, Bashkirization, Russification), the impact of Islam and Orthodoxy on these processes, the role of national education in them. The complex, cross-border and enclave settlement of three kindred ethnic groups contributed to the acculturation of Tatars, Bashkirs and Chuvashs over the past two centuries. New problems arose in the first years of Soviet power, when large areas populated not only by the titular ethnic group, but also by representatives of other kindred Turkic peoples appeared on the territories of national autonomies.