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Bylye Gody – Russian Historical Journal

E-ISSN 2310-0028
Publication frequency – issued 4 times a year.

Issued from 2006.

3 September 01, 2021


1. Goran Rajović, Larisa G. Berezovskaya, Lyudmila A. Posokhova, Ilya V. Tyurin
The Russian Historical Journal "Bylye Gody" (2006–2021 years): Some Results

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(3): 1056-1061.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.3.1056CrossRef

The article discusses the history of the development of the russian historical journal “Bylye Gody” in 2006–2016 years. The attention is paid to the process of the formation of the journal, the change of format and thematic direction of the publication. The authors have selected as materials the open resources, which provide the information about the journal. The bibliometrical and statistical data were brought from the platforms of Russian scientific citation index, Directory of Open Access Journals, Open Academic Journals Index, Scopus and Web of Science. In conclusion, the authors state that over the 15 years of its existence, the journal has occupied its own niche – the world history of the period 1613−1917, which was due to the weak study of this era and the presence of a sufficient number of various sources. The most cited publications of the journal are in several thematic areas: the history of pedagogy, the history of the Caucasus and the history of the Russian Empire or its regions. As a rule, the authors of the journal are grant holders from the countries of Eurasia and America. At the same time, according to Scopus data, about 20−25 % of articles in recent years have been carried out by international research groups.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1630503806.pdf
Number of views: 162      Download in PDF

2. Artyom Yu. Peretyatko
Articles about the Cossacks History in the Historical Journal «Bylye Gody» (2006−2021)

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(3): 1063-1074.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.3.1063CrossRef

The article is devoted to the analysis of the significance of the Russian historical journal «Bylye Gody» for actual Cossack studies. «Bylye Gody» is not a specialized journal for Cossack studies. But the original place of publication of the journal (Sochi) contributed to the establishment of contacts between the journal and the historians of the South of Russia, for whom the Cossack studies is traditional. Therefore, analyzing whose articles about the history of the Cossacks were published in the journal «Bylye Gody», one can understand the significance of this journal for the scientific community of the South of Russia. The article examines publications in the journal «Bylye Gody» about the history of the Cossacks and publications of recognized Cossack researchers on other topics from 2006 to 2021. It is shown that Cossack topics played an increasing role as the journal's authority grew (the first articles about the history of the Cossacks were published in 2010, in 2010−2014 publications about the history of the Cossacks have repeatedly opened issues, and since 2018 Cossack topics have been presented in each issue of the magazine). It is concluded that for the Cossack researchers of the South of Russia journal «Bylye Gody» are a kind of «exhibition platform». The journal presents most of the scientific centers of the region, in which the study of the Cossacks is conducted. Often the authors of published materials are leaders of scientific schools/organizers of science. However, each of these centers published a relatively small number of articles about the history of the Cossack. Cossack studies publications on the in the journal «Bylye Gody» make it possible to form a fairly adequate picture of the study of the history of the Cossacks in the South of Russia. In addition, the journal periodically publishes materials about the history of the Cossacks, researchers of the history of the Cossacks from outside the South of Russia, including fairly significant figures.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1630503858.pdf
Number of views: 133      Download in PDF

3. Pavel A. Merkulov, Eugene A. Turin, Elena N. Savinova
Historical Background of the Emergence of the Islamic Sociocultural Factor of the Social and Political Process Transformation in Scotland

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(3): 1075-1086.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.3.1075CrossRef

The article examines the historical background of the emergence of the Islamic socio-cultural factor of transformation of the socio-political process in Scotland. The authors believe that the study of this problem has not only scientific and theoretical, but also significant practical and managerial significance (especially for non-Muslim countries with positive dynamics of the Muslim population). The authors note that the countries that historically belong to the Christian civilization are currently experiencing an alien civilizational presence, which significantly transforms the established socio-cultural foundations of socio-political processes. As an example, the article considers Scotland (and, in part, England). At the same time, the authors believe that the scientific understanding of civilizational and national styles of development of socio-political processes should largely be based on an understanding of the corresponding historical imperatives. Therefore, the purpose of the article is to consider and scientifically analyze the historical background of the emergence of the Islamic socio-cultural factor of transformation of the socio-political process in Scotland from the end of the XVI century to the first quarter of the XX century. The article concludes that during this period, the presence of Muslims in Britain gradually expanded and their socio-cultural influence increased. At the end of the XVI century – the beginning of the XVII century there was only indirect evidence of a Muslim presence in Scotland (and England), but since the first quarter of the twentieth century, the role of Muslims in Scottish society has become so prominent that it allows us to talk about the real appearance of an Islamic socio-cultural factor of transformational changes in the socio-political process in Scotland. In this article, a wide range of historical sources was used, which served as empirical material for justifying the authors' conclusions.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1630503906.pdf
Number of views: 110      Download in PDF

4. Anton M. Tuzin, Marina V. Danilina, Irina A. Guseva, Yilmaz Bayar
The Evolution of Approaches of the Russian State to the Fight against Infectious Disease Epidemics in the Period from the Moscow State to the beginning of the XX century

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(3): 1087-1097.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.3.1087CrossRef

The article discusses experience of struggle against epidemics of infectious diseases in Russia from the Moscow state to the beginning of the XX century. This experience is analyzed through a retrospective of the fight against the plague epidemic in the Russian Empire at the end of the XVIII century and the cholera epidemic in the middle of the XIX century. The main phase of struggle against infection diseases has begun in Russia in the middle of the XIX century only. Russia has got an experience of such situation late enough. Since the earliest times of its history Russian approaches for the fight against epidemics in both the bureaucratic and medicine spheres has been extremely backward and only in the 18th century the situation began to change for the better. But even after reforms of Peter the Great the fight against epidemics was conducted ineffectively, which was supplemented by the global problems in understanding the nature of various infectious diseases. Thus we have to agree involuntarily with Soviet sources, despite a certain degree of their ideological bias that the fight against cholera, as well as with all diseases, was possible in pre-revolutionary Russia only after a radical change in the political system and broad social reforms.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1630503984.pdf
Number of views: 112      Download in PDF

5. Petr A. Kuz'minov, Anzhela A. Zhurtova
Transformation of the Political and Legal Status of the Supreme Prince of Kabarda in the XVI – first quarter of the XIX century

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(3): 1098-1105.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.3.1098CrossRef

In historical Caucasian studies in recent decades, many «copies» have been broken in discussions on the political role of Kabarda in the North Caucasus region in the XVI – early XIX centuries. The key figure in the system of the power hierarchy of the Kabardian principality was the supreme/senior prince. An analysis of the change in the status of the senior prince of Kabarda allows us to give an answer about the reasons for the weakening of the principality, the loss of sovereignty and entry into the Russian Empire. After the death of the legendary prince Inal, the early feudal state of Circassia created by him disintegrated into many possessions. One of the most powerful was Kabarda, divided into four lands. The consolidating figure in the principality was the supreme prince of all Kabarda – pshishkho/oliypsh, elected at the congresses of «all the land» in turn from each inheritance, but his functions were significantly limited by the sovereign appanage princes. In the public consciousness and practical activities of the descendants of Inal, a view was established that did not allow the rise of some princes over others. The seizure of power by the descendants of Psheapshoka Kaitukin (late XVI – early XVII century) led to their usurpation of the right to elect «grand princes» only from representatives of their clan. The split of the political elite of Kabarda in the 20s of the XVIII century into the Baksan and Kashkatau parties, oriented towards the Crimean Khanate and the Russian Empire, strengthened centrifugal tendencies, weakened its military potential, and led to the maximum weakening of the power of the supreme prince. This led to the intensification of internecine clashes, led to the military and political weakening of all institutions of power, and in 1822 the Russian administrative and judicial system was finally established in Kabarda.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1630504038.pdf
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6. Bulat A. Aznabaev, Aleksey I. Kortunov
The Problem of the Subject in the Contractual Relations of the Bashkirs with the Russian state in the XVII – first third of the XVIII centuries

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(3): 1106-1115.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.3.1106CrossRef

Since the Bashkirs in the XVI-XVIII centuries. did not possess statehood, the concept of their contractual citizenship to Russia still evokes well-founded criticism. In foreign and domestic historiography, two points of view have developed, one of which denies the existence of any bilateral agreement between the Russian state and the Bashkirs, the other considers these relations from the position of feudal vassalage. However, none of these interpretations can explain the phenomenon of the Bashkir uprisings of the XVII-XVIII centuries, during which the Bashkirs did not create their own state. As a rule, the insurgents' demands were limited to appeals to observe patrimonial rights and not violate their religious freedom. To resolve this contradiction, the authors considered it necessary to introduce into scientific circulation the materials of the Bashkir embassy in 1733. In the process of their analysis, it was possible to establish that contractual relations with Russia were concluded not by individual representatives of the Bashkir tribal structures, but by a single political structure, called in official documents the "Bashkir Horde" ... This polity solved exclusively foreign policy tasks. She was responsible for organizing the protection of the southeastern borders of the Ufa province and regulating relations with the Russian state. Within this polity, tribal associations did not form any hierarchical structure crowned by the figure of a khan. For this reason, the most acute conflicts between the Bashkir communities (land litigation and criminal offenses) were submitted to the supreme power of the state. Thus, the Bashkir Horde could exist only as an autonomous union within the empire. However, in the first third of the 18th century. Bashkir unification is going through a political crisis caused by a wide influx of agricultural migrants from neighboring provinces. The Bashkir volosts could not come to a common decision on the issue of accepting migrants. The exacerbation of the internal conflict in the Bashkir Horde was facilitated by the capture by the Yaik Cossacks in 1725 of the salt deposits on the Ilek, which were traditionally considered the property of the entire Bashkir people.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1630504109.pdf
Number of views: 106      Download in PDF

7. Andrey S. Ryazhev
Catholic Missionaries, Armenian Communities and the Austrian Ambassador: Political and Diplomatic Communication in the Religious Conflict in South of the Russian Empire, 1755–1760

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(3): 1116-1123.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.3.1116CrossRef

The article mainly concentrates on the state religious policy during the final period of the Empress Elizaveta Petrovna's reign. The role of the Board of Foreign Affairs in the solution of the conflict between Austrian Capuchin missionaries and Armenian Gregorian community in the towns in the south of the Russian Empire, complicated by the intervention of the Austrian Ambassador N. Esterházy, is studied for the first time in historiography. The proposed research bases on little-known materials of the collegiate investigation of the conflict. Taking into account the information extracted from sources, the article reconstructs the conflict situation and traces the political and diplomatic communication, in which the Foreign Board was the organizer and the most important actor. Most attention is paid to the characteristics of the interaction of the collegium with other actors, and communicative features are revealed in each specific case. It is shown the inclusion in the communicative toolkit of language and concepts that reflect the trend of religious tolerance in Russian domestic politics. The author states in conclusion the flexibility and variability of communication built by the diplomatic department at different levels, the reflection in it of the ethno-religious processes inherent in the development of the Russian outlying territories of the early modern period, the mastering of the discourse of religious tolerance by Russian diplomacy on the eve of the aggravation of the “dissident issue” in Rzeczpospolita Polska (the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth).

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1630504161.pdf
Number of views: 110      Download in PDF

8. Sergey S. Belousov
Migration of Peasants to Landowners' Lands in the North-Western Caspian Region (the second half of the XVIII – first half of the XIX century)

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(3): 1124-1131.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.3.1124CrossRef

The article examines the activities of landowners aimed at creating settlements in the North-Western Caspian region in 1765-1861. The author analyzes the goals, content and results of the landowners ' resettlement policy, shows the role of the state in it, examines the history of the creation of landowner settlements, the geography of the places of emigration, the influence of the natural factor on the process of resettlement and on the formation of the economic profile of new settlements. The study showed that the resettlement activities of landowners were initiated by the state authorities, which sought to use their human and material resources to solve the problem of settling a sparsely populated region. The results of the landowners' migrations, however, did not meet the expectations of the authorities. The landowners founded a small number of settlements with a small population. The landowners directed their main efforts not to the creation of settlement infrastructure and centers of agriculture and cattle breeding, but to the development of fishing, which in the natural conditions of the North-Western Caspian region turned out to be more profitable. As a result, at the beginning of the XIX century, the authorities abandoned the policy of attracting landowners to settle the North-Western Caspian region. Landowners' settlements were located exclusively in the coastal areas of the Caspian Sea and in the Volga River basin. There were no landowners and settlements on the territory of the Kazakhs and Kalmyks, whose land rights were protected by Russian legislation.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1630522064.pdf
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9. Vladimir G. Ivantsov, Violetta S. Molchanova, Irina I. Potapova, Yurii N. Makarov
Russian Customs System and Its Functioning in Western Transcaucasia (early 19th century – 1861)

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(3): 1132-1140.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.3.1132CrossRef

The article deals with the process of creating state customs houses in the Western Transcaucasia, primarily in the Tiflis province, their formation and functioning in the context of customs policy development, taking into account the competition of foreign goods and the peculiarities of the region. The main sources of the study were the documents and materials contained in the Acts of the Caucasian Archeographic Commission. These sources made it possible to identify and analyze both the national directions of customs policy and the peculiarities of its implementation in terms of the Western Transcaucasia. In conclusion, the authors state that the experience of customs policy in the Western Transcaucasia in the first half of the XIX century and the results obtained cannot be recognized as unambiguously positive dynamics in terms of obtaining the expected income. The difficulties in solving the tasks were caused by both objective and subjective factors: the remoteness of the territory; the lack of necessary and convenient roads; the social situation of the region; commodity competition of Western powers that actively promoted goods to the region; smuggling; difficulties in developing an effective customs policy; establishing an acceptable customs tariff for different directions of trade flows; discussions about the introduction, restriction, abolition of the principle of free trade, the requirement to correct customs policy, etc. All this together led to delays and discrepancies in innovations and, as a result, significant fluctuations in the receipt of customs revenues during the study time. In general, the customs policy has borne fruit and has enriched the Tiflis authorities with methods of effective response to the circumstances and peculiarities that have taken place. The recommendations of E.F. Kankrin, based on the strategy of the Minister of Finance in the field of financial and economic policy of Russia, were of great importance for the Transcaucasia.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1630504266.pdf
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10. Evgenij V. Il’in, Victoria Berednikova, Tatiana E. Sokhor
Modeling the Semiotic Space of the “Unknown Soldier” Concept in the Russian Empire

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(3): 1141-1152.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.3.1141CrossRef

The article examines the history of the creation of the "unknown soldier" concept from a retrospective point of view, identifies the main stages of its modeling and organization of semiotic space. The formation of the concept in the public mind took place over several centuries, starting with the era of Peter I, when European culture was introduced into the patriarchal Russian state. In historical researches devoted to major Russian military events, the concept of the “unknown soldier” was poorly marked by the transition from a memorial temple as gratitude to God for the granted victory, to a monumental sculpture that unites the religious and secular fixation of historical memory. Many different works have been written about the problem of perpetuating and preserving the memory of the defenders of the Motherland in the late XX — early XXI centuries, however, the domestic scientific community did not address the history of the emergence and development of the concept of “unknown soldier”. The lack of a clear framework in the definition of the concept under study actualizes this topic, contributing to its comprehensive study. The innumerable victims of the Great Patriotic War caused cultural self-reflection in Russian (Soviet) society in relation to nameless heroes, which led to the need to create the concept of “unknown soldier”, to form a semiotic space around it and to introduce the concept into state ideology.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1630504337.pdf
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11. Aleksey M. Erokhin, Evgenij A. Avdeev, Sergej M. Vorobev
National Policy Of the Russian Empire in the North Caucasus in the 19th — early 20th centuries

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(3): 1153-1161.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.3.1153CrossRef

The article reviews the national policy of the Russian Empire in the North Caucasus in the 19th – early 20th centuries. The purpose of the research is the historical and political reconstruction of the inclusion of the peoples of the North Caucasus into a single state and socio-cultural space of Russia in the imperial period. The research methodology is based on a combination of elements of historiographic, historical-comparative and historical-political analysis. The imperial nationality policy of this period was based on the desire to build a national state based on the principle of unitarity, linguistic and cultural Russification, and the formation of imperial identity. The characteristic features of the national policy of the Russian Empire in the North Caucasus were the desire to eliminate the economic and socio-cultural backwardness of the region, to pursue a course towards Russification and the inclusion of mountain peoples in the Russian socio-cultural space. At the same time, a certain flexibility of approaches to the formation of the public administration system can be traced, expressed in the preservation of elements of administrative and cultural autonomy of mountain peoples. Until the end of its existence, the Russian Empire retained a complex class hierarchy, laws and administrative practices that hindered the unification of the state and the strengthening of imperial identity. The reforms of the early 20th century were incomplete and largely declarative. The result of the reforms was not so much the strengthening of the civil law and state principle, as the further growth of the national self-awareness of the mountain peoples and the formation of North Caucasian political elite that was opposed to the tsarist government. The imperial national policy was unable to find a balance between preserving the unity and indivisibility of Russia and the implementation of the demand for national autonomy, which was one of the factors in the weakening of the state and the surge of nationalism and separatism in the North Caucasus during the revolutionary period.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1630504415.pdf
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12. Maсhach M. Vagabov, Abidat A. Gazieva, Vasily A. Rogozhkin
The Left Flank of the Caucasian Cordon Line: the Place and Role of Fortifications in the Military-Political Subordination of the Eastern Caucasus during the Caucasian War

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(3): 1162-1170.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.3.1162CrossRef

In the article, on the basis of the comprehensive use of the literature and sources at our disposal, a systematic study of the history of the construction and functioning of the fortifications of the Left Wing of the Caucasian Cordon Line in the context of the military-political subordination of the region is carried out. Having carried out an analytical analysis of the complex of sources, literature, and historical concepts at the research disposal, we made an attempt to systematically study the influence of cordon fortifications and fortresses in the Eastern Caucasus on the military-political subordination of the region during the Caucasian War. In addition, we are making an attempt to classify the methods of military and political subordination. The study attempts to reveal the role and significance of the fortifications of the Left Wing of the Caucasian Cordon Line in the subordination of the territory of the Eastern Caucasus to the Russian Empire in the 19th century, as well as to show the evolution of the regional management system during the Caucasian War. The topic of the history of the creation of cordon lines in the Eastern Caucasus, the goals and objectives of their construction is poorly covered in the scientific literature. To achieve the designated research goals and objectives, the use of the value approach was of great importance. This approach allowed not only to develop a certain attitude and assess the processes under study, but also contributed to the franking of historical events, using such scientific categories as “place”, “role”, “meaning”, “experience”. Cordon fortifications and fortresses were the conductors of the Caucasian policy in the Russian Empire in the Eastern Caucasus. Until the 30s of the XIX century, the tsarist administration of the Russian Empire mainly used the tactics of military conquest of territories by means of punitive operations to subjugate the territories of the Eastern Caucasus. The harsh methods of military subordination were gradually replaced by methods of political control, the dissemination of Russian legislation and orders. It is worth talking about political development only in those territories that were initially subordinated by force of arms, and only after a lapse of time, by means of acculturation, everyday communication and trade and economic contacts, did they become mentally closer to Russia. On the border territories, to the cordon Lines, colonization was actively carried out, first military, then civil, which also contributed to the military-political subordination of the region. The personal factor was of great importance in matters of military-political subordination of the Eastern Caucasus, the managers changed, transformed the internal vector of the Caucasian policy, changing it depending on their ideas about the conquest of the region. During the 19th century, the tactics of military subordination of the region began to evolve and transform into the military-political development of the region, with the predominant use of military resources, which was due to the ongoing Caucasian war.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1630504579.pdf
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13. Ivan A. Ermachkov, Evgeniya V. Vidishcheva, Elena K. Mineeva, Leonid L. Balanyuk
The Features of the Capture of Russian People by Asian Nomadic Tribes (the first half of the XIX century)

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(3): 1171-1180.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.3.1171CrossRef

The article considers the capture of 80 Russian prisoners as a phenomenon in the first half of the XIX century, using the example of the case of the return of 80 Russian prisoners from the Khiva Khanate. There are used as sources the archival documents of the State Archive of the Orenburg Region (Orenburg, Russian Federation), namely case No. 4993 “The case of 80 Russian prisoners taken out of Khiva in 1839”. It contains 80 questionnaires about the circumstances of the capture of Russian people, their sale, as well as their stay in captivity. The documents are being introduced into scientific circulation for the first time. In conclusion, the authors note state that the “The case of 80 Russian prisoners taken out of Khiva in 1839” is a very valuable source for studying the peculiarities of the capture of Russian people by Asian tribes in the first half of the XIX century. Thanks to this source, it was found that, as a rule, Asian predatory parties carried out attacks at night, which achieved suddenness and surprise. At the same time, daytime attacks were accompanied by a chase and the use of military cunning. The number of attackers varied depending on the task being solved. If it was planned to capture a prisoner on Russian territory, then a group of only a few people was needed for this, but if it was a robbery in the Caspian Sea, the number of the party of predators could reach 160 people with four boats. The duration of the raid also had its own peculiarities. Most of them were fleeting: the way from the Turkmen coast to the Russian coast, the exploration of the territory, the night attack with the capture of prisoners and the return journey. However, there were cases when a robber party was engaged in capturing people for 20 days along the Russian coast, during which time the robbers could capture a significant number of Russian fishermen. During the clashes between predators and fishermen, various weapons were used. The fishermen had guns, and sometimes a small-caliber gun, while the predators used a whole arsenal of offensive weapons, from small-caliber cannons and rifles to spears, darts and sabers.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1630504637.pdf
Number of views: 100      Download in PDF

14. Michail G. Тarasov
Cossacks in the Khiva Crusade of 1839–1840

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(3): 1181-1190.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.3.1181CrossRef

The article is devoted to the participation of the Cossacks in the unsuccessful crusade of the Russian troops in the Khiva Khanate in 1839–1840. Organized and led by the Orenburg military governor, General V.A. Perovsky, the expedition was to ensure the elevation of a ruler loyal to Russia to the Khiva throne. Due to the specific conditions – the need to make huge transitions in the winter steppe, the main Russian detachment was cavalry units, most of them from the Ural and Orenburg Cossack troops. Incorrectly chosen time for the expedition, abnormally unfavorable weather conditions, as well as mistakes in the organization led to its failure. The death of the majority of pack and riding animals necessitated the termination of the campaign, and then the death of a significant proportion of its participants from cold and disease. In these circumstances, the Cossacks participating in the expedition showed themselves from the best side, actually preventing the death of the Russian detachment. The article discusses in detail the participation of the Cossacks in the preparation of the expedition, in particular in the organization of intermediate strongpoints. The composition of the Cossack units, their placement in marching columns and in parking lots, management, participation in hostilities, the implementation of military-police functions are considered in detail. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of the factors that contributed to the relatively successful actions of the Cossacks during the campaign, their effectiveness in resisting the extreme natural and climatic conditions of the campaign, the number and reasons for the relatively low mortality rate of the Cossacks during the expedition. The article, in particular, analyzes the features of the weapons and uniforms of the Cossacks, their combat tactics. Considerable attention is paid to the moral and psychological state of the Cossacks during the campaign.

URL: https://bg.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1638477068.pdf
Number of views: 104      Download in PDF

15. Anvar M. Mamadaliev, Lyudmila Yu. Novitskaya, Natalia V. Svechnikova, Larisa A. Koroleva
The System of Public Education in the Kutaisi Province in 1846−1917. Part 3

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(3): 1191-1202.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.3.1191CrossRef

A series of articles is devoted to the study of the education system in the Kutaisi province of the Russian Empire in the period from 1846 to 1917. In this, the third and final article of the cycle, the educational system of the Kutaisi province in the period from 1902 to 1917 is analyzed. The main source was the annual “Reports of the trustee of the Caucasian Educational District on the state of educational institutions” of the Ministry of Public Education for 1904−1914. The methodological basis of the research was both special historical (historical-comparative, historical-system, historical-statistical (quantitative/mathematical), and general scientific (synthesis, analysis, generalization, classification and categorization) methods. Based on the analyzed data, it is concluded that education in the province developed quite inconsistently. The growth of male students of secondary educational institutions was 1.31 times, female students – 1.43 times. The total number of secondary school students has increased by 1.36 times over 11 years. The growth was provided primarily by the consolidation of educational institutions, and the years of a sharp increase in students were replaced by falls. The lower educational institutions did not grow at all in terms of the number of students, but the number of educational institutions founded in remote sparsely populated corners of the province increased (the number of lower educational organizations increased by one and a half times during the period 1904−1915). Primary educational institutions began to develop rapidly with the adoption of the law of May 3, 1908, as a result of which the number of children enrolled in primary education increased by 1.7 times. The women's education has also been developing very actively: the number of female students has steadily increased from year to year.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1630504772.pdf
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16. Ekaterina V. Bykova, Konstantin N. Tarasov
The Problem of the Old Believers in Russian Journalism in the second half of the 19th – early 20th centuries: the Question of Preserving Traditional Values and the Historical Memory of the Russian People

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(3): 1203-1210.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.3.1203CrossRef

The article examines the issue of the reflection of Old Believers' themes in Russian socio-political journalism of the second half of the 19th – early 20th centuries. The source base of the research is made up of materials from Russian newspaper and magazine periodicals. The views on the Old Believers of representatives of the main directions of the ideological and political spectrum of social thought in Russia of the specified period (conservatives, liberals, soil people, revolutionary and liberal populists), as well as publicists – adherents of official Orthodoxy and the Russian Orthodox Church are analyzed. The assessments by publicists of different political directions of the historical potential, socio-cultural heritage, social and political protest potential of the Old Believers are compared. The dynamics of the development of domestic socio-political journalism dedicated to the Old Believers for the period of the end of the 1850s is revealed – 1905. It was established that during the second half of the 19th – early 20th century. The Old Believers were in the sphere of attention of all political forces of Russian society, and each direction of the social movement interpreted the split based on its own doctrinal provisions. Most representatives of the social movement are beginning to perceive the split as an important social, cultural and even political factor in the historical renewal of Russia.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1630504822.pdf
Number of views: 100      Download in PDF

17. Аndrii E. Lebid, Natal'ya A. Shevchenko
Review of Pre-Revolutionary Historiography of Schismatics, Heresies and Sectarianism in The Russian Empire

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(3): 1211-1224.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.3.1211CrossRef

The article reviews the pre-revolutionary historiography of the history of schismatics, heresies and sectarianism in the Russian Empire. The topicality of the solution of the problem of schism and sects by the Russian government is outlined. The main classifications of all sects existing on the territory of the Russian state were established: "harmful", "particularly harmful", "less harmful", and "disfiguring sects". For a fuller understanding of the problem posed, the concepts of schism, heresy and sect, very often used synonymously, but having not only semantic but also legal differences in the context of scientific debates of the 19th and early 20th centuries, are specified. It is shown that scholarly works of pre-revolutionary authors were often published not only as monographic studies, but were very often published on the pages of Orthodox magazines: Christian Reading, Missionary Review and others. Some of these journals were specifically published as a means of countering schism, sectarianism and mysticism. In the article four approaches are outlined to classify the whole body of historiographical material on the history of schism and sects in the Russian Empire: chronological - to select the complex of scientific works published after 1850s; typological – to distinguish trends and interpretations in Russian schism, sectarianism and dissent with the identification of their specific and universal characteristics; thematic – to outline the main directions and problems of research, which were emphasized by the pre-revolutionary scholars; method of attribution – to determine the main problems of schism and sectarianism.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1630504876.pdf
Number of views: 97      Download in PDF

18. Bakyt Zh. Atantayeva, Raushan D. Akhmetova, Gulnur A. Abenova, Toty A. Kariyeva
Russian-Chinese Borderlands and Frontier Migrations of the population in the XIX century

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(3): 1225-1232.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.3.1225CrossRef

The research of the historical experience of population movements in border areas is based on an analysis of the causes and consequences of frontier migrations, which are the result of socio-economic and political changes in the Central Asian region during the period under study. This article analyzes the issues of changing the nature of frontier migrations in the border area of the Russian state and Qing China in the 19th century. The article presents documentary sources from the archives of some countries (Russia, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan). These sources show that the rapprochement of the possessions of Russia with the possessions of the Qing Empire in Central Asia dictated the need to establish a clear Russian-Chinese border and clarify relations and priorities in the region. The article is based on a study of state treaties and agreements between the Russian Empire and Qing China. These treaties established the rules of trade in Central Asia, which determined the rules for crossing the border and processing trade documents. Some of the articles of the treaties concerned measures against illegal migrants. An analysis of state treaties and agreements of the second half of the 19th century, including the St. Petersburg Treaty of 1881, as a result of which permanent nomadic routes and the resettlement of clans were disrupted, is important for understanding the meaning and directions of frontier migration of the region's population. In conclusion, the authors state that the specificity of frontier migrations of the population is due to the state division of border territories and the development of trade between two neighboring countries in Central Asia in the second half of the 19th century.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1630504935.pdf
Number of views: 106      Download in PDF

19. Victor V. Barabash, Bella A. Bulgarova, Natalia V. Poplavskaya, Liudmila B. Terechik
The Expertise in Analyzing the Regional Education Systems of the Russian Empire (based on the Articles of the International Network Center for Fundamental and Applied Research). Part 2

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(3): 1233-1245.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.3.1233CrossRef

The history of education in the Russian Empire remains a controversial and politicized topic. If in Soviet times the achievements of the imperial system were ignored, now, on the contrary, there is a certain idealization of it. This article attempts to look at the education system of the Russian Empire as a set of regional education systems, between which there were serious differences. To achieve this goal, statistical data on 5 provinces and 2 Cossack regions were analyzed. It is concluded that by the beginning of the XX century the differences between the regional education systems of the Russian Empire have significantly leveled off. Thus, in all the regions under consideration, two school systems were functioning in parallel – the schools of the Ministry of Public Education and the schools of the spiritual department. In addition, in 3 regions out of 7 examined, approximately the same proportion of school-age children (about 40 %) studied. However, the differences between regional education systems remained, moreover, two ways of their further development were outlined: either continuing to increase the number of schools and students in order to achieve universal primary education, or improving the quality of education by closing the worst schools.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1630504990.pdf
Number of views: 95      Download in PDF

20. Anna Geifman
St. Petersburg as the Gradle of Revolution and a Symbol of Russian Political Psychology

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(3): 1246-1254.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.3.1246CrossRef

This article analyzes the city of St. Petersburg, Russia’s imperial capital, as a psychocultural setting conducive for the upsurge of political extremism. The new type of radicalism, which emerged around the turn of the 20th century, targeted the existing sociopolitical establishment and cultural conventions, rather than specific political leaders or institutions; the revolutionaries’ aim was to uproot the entire traditional way of life. The article scrutinizes the emergence of St. Petersburg as the embodiment of the country’s historical and cultural inconsistencies and contradictions, as well as the city’s uncanny development. Psychologically, its “as-if” setting and experience contributed to the undermining of the customary way of life not only in the capital, but also across the empire, for which St. Petersburg defined cultural tends and modes of behavior. The article examines the reasons why Russian radicals intentionally choose St. Petersburg to be the “cradle of the revolution.” Few, if any of them, however, were conscious of the fact that, due to its impact on the inhabitants’ mentality, the city was a genuine player in Russia’s prerevolutionary politics and a potent subversive agent.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1630924594.pdf
Number of views: 95      Download in PDF

21. Ekaterina V. Krasavina, Evgeniya V. Shubenkova, Ekaterina V. Novikova, Yuri V. Zabaykin
The Reform of the Banking and Сredit System in 1860−1890 in Russian Empire: A Historiographical Analysis

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(3): 1255-1266.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.3.1255CrossRef

In the second half of the XIX century, financiers and politicians of the Russian Empire had to respond to the challenges of the time with clear reformation steps in the banking sector. Since the results of the scientific and technological revolution required active financing, new forms and methods of supporting entrepreneurship, the state embarked on the path of reforming the banking and credit system. The politicians of that time gained considerable experience in the field of reforming the banking system, which has not lost its relevance for modern generations of reformers, especially in terms of realizing the depth of the mistakes made. On the eve of the progressive reforms of the 1860s, the problem of attracting foreign investment in the industry and transport network of the Russian Empire became acute, because roads have already become an instrument of transnational politics and at the same time more diverse forms of entrepreneurship. The network of banks and insurance companies was rapidly expanding in Europe, and the lack of a clear regulatory framework for the activities of these institutions in the Russian Empire hindered both economic progress and the interaction of the banking system at the international level. All historiographical sources of the pre-Soviet, Soviet and modern era on this topic can be conditionally divided into several groups, depending on the problems chosen by the authors, to which they are devoted. The first group should include sources devoted to the development of reforms. To the second-works that concerned the reform of specific banking institutions, in particular State, peasant, Noble and others. The third category includes studies on the evolution of the credit system within the banking system. Depending on the assessments of events and the attitude of the authors to the results of the reform, we can distinguish those works that contain positive assessments of events, and, of course, another group – with sharp criticism of the results obtained.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1630505169.pdf
Number of views: 98      Download in PDF

22. Elena A. Loktionova
To the Issue of Training Prison Officers in the Russian Empire

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(3): 1267-1276.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.3.1267CrossRef

The article highlights the historical aspects of activities related to the training of personnel of penitentiary institutions. The measures taken by the State in this area were designed to improve the moral and professional level of penitentiary workers. The time frame of the study covers the period of the XVII –early XX centuries, which is due to the circumstances that influenced the content of the prison system in Russia. In fact, during this period, the foundations of the education of penitentiary workers were born, which have been preserved to this day. Turning to history in this case will allow us to see the original meaning and significance of this activity. The article is intended to draw attention to the importance of this issue and show the historical connection between the goals and tasks facing penitentiary institutions and those who implement them. The source base was made up of legal acts indicating the implementation of state measures, as well as materials from the archival funds of the State Archive of the Kursk Region, which made it possible to see and analyze the results of local transformations. Of particular importance is the assessment of contemporaries, presented in the materials of a scientific and journalistic nature. The issues of training prison officers were actualized in the middle of the XIX century due to the fact that the prison from a place of isolation of criminals began to be reorganized into a penitentiary-type institution. In this regard, it became necessary to develop a model of a prison employee who meets the new requirements and conditions of activity. In fact, this resulted in a number of changes in the course of reforming the prison system, such as the reorganization of positions, salary increases, the establishment of a uniform uniform, the introduction of a system of incentives and penalties, information and explanatory work, etc. The concepts of education or educational influence on prison staff were not openly proclaimed. They were, as it were, implied as the final result of the successful implementation of these measures. The use of educational means of influence was a component of the process of general professional training of personnel.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1630505222.pdf
Number of views: 85      Download in PDF

23. Yuliya A. Lysenko, Oksana I. Chekryzhova
Formation of System of Fishing Fees from Industry and Trade in the Central Asian Outskirts of the Russian Empire

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(3): 1277-1287.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.3.1277CrossRef

The article reconstructs the process of forming a system of fishing fees from industry and trade in the Central Asian outskirts of the Russian Empire – the Steppe and Turkestan governorships, on the basis of legislative and clerical sources. The introduction of taxation on trade and business in this ethnoregion in the second half of the 19th century was carried out in line with the policy of unification of its financial and tax space and bringing it to all-Russian standards. However, in practice, the implementation of the tax reform has acquired specific features. In particular, from the late 60s to the middle of 80s of the XIX century in Turkestan, the Russian model of tax collection on trades and trade was combined with the traditional zyaket system that operated in the region prior to its accession to the Russian Empire. In the Central Asian outskirts, the 1885 Regulations on imposing an additional tax on commercial and industrial enterprises, which legally determined an additional tax on the profits of commercial and industrial enterprises, were not enacted. The situation was explained by the incompleteness of the formation of regional financial bodies in the Steppe and Turkestan general-governorships, the ethno-confessional specifics of the region, its focus on agrarian modernization associated with peasant resettlement and excluding high rates of development of the industrial sector of the economy. The main income to the Russian treasury came from the sale of fishing certificates for the right to conduct trade operations. However, these fees were extremely insignificant, which was associated with the predominance of distribution (steppe) and bazaar trade and the actual impossibility of its accounting by tax inspectorates.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1630505276.pdf
Number of views: 90      Download in PDF

24. Vladimir A. Miroshnik, Sergey V. Ivlev, Oksana S. Krasilnikova, Christina Yu. Markova
The Role of Zemstvo Reform of Alexander II in Formation and Development of Russian Local Selfgovernment

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(3): 1288-1298.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.3.1288CrossRef

The article analyzes the zemstvo reform of 1864 and its positive role in the formation of the Russian local selfgovernment. The views of various researchers on the system of local selfgovernment in Russia are presented. The authors give an objective assessment of the reform. The formation and development of the local selfgovernment is important in the Russian state policy, and it is an urgent research topic. Studying one's own historical experience of local self-government is of particular importance. The study is based on the study of the document − "Regulations on provincial and district zemstvo institutions on January 1, 1864" and a complex of archival sources, including archival materials from the history of regions such as the Kemerovo region. This makes it possible to assess the impact of the zemstvo reform in different parts of the Russian Empire, the unevenness and inconsistency in the organization of zemstvo institutions on the ground, the specifics of their activities in different territories of the country. The study provides a historiographic review of the Zemstvo reform, including pre-revolutionary, Soviet and post-Soviet historiography, analyzes opinions on the effectiveness of the Zemstvo self-government. Attention is drawn to the established stereotype in the negative assessment of the Zemskaya reform, including due to the dominant criticism of the reform in Soviet historiography. In the article, the authors assess the reform of 1864, to a greater extent, not from the organizational and legal side, but from the point of view of the role of zemstvos in improving the economic and economic situation of Russia in the 19th century. The authors note the significant role of zemstvos in improving the situation in almost all social spheres of the state: culture, education, health care, communication, etc.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1630505328.pdf
Number of views: 93      Download in PDF

25. Alexander G. Gryaznukhin, Tatiana V. Gryaznukhina, Tatyana G. Karchaeva, Anna S. Zhulaeva
Conservatism as an Alternative Form of Civilizational Development of Russia after the Great Reforms

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(3): 1299-1307.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.3.1299CrossRef

The subject matter of the present paper is conservatism as a political trend and its place in the development of Russia in the post-reform period. The ideology of conservatism depended largely on the views and personal qualities of the representatives of the movement, for this reason, the paper brings up the background and addresses the works of its most distinguished figures. Assessment of the socio-political situation, created in Russia in the 70-80s of the XIX century, analyzed based on scientific facts, as well as revealed through the spectacle of its perception by contemporaries, gives an idea of the conditions, the conservatives conducted their affairs in. Analysis of the processes under way in the society helps to identify the grounds of evolution of the views of many leaders of the movement from liberalism towards conservatism. The conservatives' attitude to the press, being an important component of their political activity, which they used as a means to influence the public opinion, bespeaks of the ambition to scale up their support base. Analysis of relations of the followers of conservatism with the representatives of the liberal movement, social democrats, and government structures helps to determine the place and role of conservatism in the political system of the society. The mistakes, the conservatives made in the course of their political activities, analyzed in the paper, assist understanding the reasons for their main objective, which was ensuring stability in the development of Russia, not to be attained.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1630505382.pdf
Number of views: 96      Download in PDF

26. Alexey G. Topilsky, Ruslan M. Zhitin
Representation of the Russo-Ukrainian Population of Galicia and Bukovina in the Habsburg Monarchy in the late XIX – early XX century

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(3): 1308-1315.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.3.1308CrossRef

This article examines the formation of electoral organizations of Rusyn political forces in the second half of the XIX – early XX century. Their necessity was determined by the desire to overcome the predominance of Polish parties in the traditional curial system of representation of the Habsburg monarchy. The ensuring both the nomination of candidates for deputies to the Sejm and the Reichsrat, and their conduct of the election campaign, required coordination of efforts between various movements of Russo-Ukrainian politics, primarily Russophile and Ukrainophile forces. Since the curial system in the cities guaranteed that Polish and Jewish voters would win the majority of votes, initially the efforts of Russo-Ukrainian political parties were focused on rural residents as a category with a predominant East Slavic population. Using the examples of the election campaigns of 1897 and 1907, the interaction of Rusyn (mainly Russophile, Ukrainophile and radical), Polish (Ludovce) and Jewish (Zionist) political parties in the struggle for the promotion of deputies is analyzed. Attempts to counteract Russian-Ukrainian organizations through the press and the submission of petitions and interpellations in the Austrian Reichsrat to falsifications during election campaigns are considered. The party composition of the Sejm and the Reichsrat is analyzed. Based on the material of the evolution of political parties, the adaptation of their underlying ideas to the interests of Ruthenian-Ukrainian voters, as well as the change in these interests in connection with Ruthenian-Polish and Ruthenian-Jewish relations, is characterized. The activity of the factions of the Ruthenian-Ukrainian deputies in the Austrian Reichstag and the Galician Sejm is shown, their interaction with both Ruthenian-Ukrainian deputies from Bukovina and representatives of other lands of the Habsburg monarchy is considered.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1630505429.pdf
Number of views: 94      Download in PDF

27. Pavel V. Fedorov, Аlexey А. Malashenkov
«Government Colonization» of the Murmanskiy Coast of the Barents Sea: Demographic View According to the Parish Registers (1873−1920)

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(3): 1316-1325.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.3.1316CrossRef

The article notes that the lack of demographic statistics is a significant problem for studying the history of Russian colonization. One of the ways to solve it may be the reconstruction of demographic data on the sources of primary population accounting, in particular, on parish registers. This article presents some results of processing the Orthodox parish registers of the Murmanskiy coast of the Barents Sea for 1873−1920. The resulting picture significantly complements and corrects the ideas existing in historical science about the project of «government colonization» launched in this area of the Russian Arctic during the era of the «Great Reforms», based on the provisions approved by Alexander II in 1868 and 1876. The revealed demographic statistics show that in the process of «government colonization» of the Murmanskij coast, the social adaptation of the Orthodox population had a positive dynamics. Not only the number of residents increased, but also the family-related structure was actively formed. The local population preserved their moral character and observed Orthodox church customs, as evidenced by the data on the extreme rarity of the «third marriage», the refusal to marry during the fasts before Easter and Christmas, as well as a decrease in the proportion of conception during these periods. The success of the social adaptation of Orthodox believers on the Barents Sea coast was prepared during the seasonal colonization by Russian fishermen who for many centuries came to the Murmanskij coast from the shores of the White Sea. The territory of the Arkhangelskaya guberniya has become the main supplier of residents of the Murmanskij coast. At the same time, since the beginning of the XX century, migrants from other places of the Russian Empire have also moved here.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1630924574.pdf
Number of views: 92      Download in PDF

28. Aleksandr А. Cherkasov, Sergei N. Bratanovskii, Ludmila G. Zimovets
The Long-Livers of the Russian Empire (1836–1914): Historical and Statistical Research. Part 3

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(3): 1326-1345.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.3.1326CrossRef

The article attempts a comprehensive historical and statistical study of the question of the centenarians of the Russian Empire in the period of 1836−1914. This part of the work analyzes the time of 1876−1900, when the male and female population of the Orthodox faith was recorded. The attention is paid to the number of centenarians, namely, persons whose age has exceeded 101 years, their places of residence, as well as the proportion of the number of centenarians to the total population. As materials, we used the reports of the Chief Prosecutor of the Holy Synod on the spiritual department of the Orthodox faith for 1836−1914. The work is constructed using the basic principles of historicism, consistency and objectivity. The statistical method is of great importance in it, which made it possible to fully analyze the available statistical data on mortality on the territory of the Russian Empire in the period of 1876−1900, as well as to detect important characteristic features. Besides, the use of this method made it possible to identify territories with a large number of centenarians. In conclusion, the authors state that by 1900, the territories with a large number of centenarians were clearly defined. In the European part of the Russian Empire, these were the territories of the Caucasus (Georgia and the Astrakhan diocese), the territories of Little Russia (the Taurida and Kherson dioceses) and Great Russia (the Podolsk diocese). The remaining territories belonged to the Asian part of Russia: the Yenisei, Turkestan, Ufa, Irkutsk and Tobolsk dioceses. In 1876−1900, the territory of the Yenisei Diocese became the leader in longevity in the Russian Empire, the territory of the Georgian Exarchate took the second place. The Top 5 also included the Turkestan, Podolsk and Tauride dioceses.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1630505542.pdf
Number of views: 99      Download in PDF

29. Nugzar K. Ter-Oganov
From the Epistolary Legacy of V.F. Minorsky: his Three Letters to the Military Orientalist K.N. Smirnov

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(3): 1346-1361.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.3.1346CrossRef

The article is devoted to the study of three unknown letters of the outstanding Russian Imperial Orientalist and diplomat Vladimir Fedorovich Minorsky to his colleague, Soltan Ahmad Shah Qajar's tutor Staff-Captain K.N. Smirnov. As it is known, V.F. Minorsky left behind a rich epistolary legacy of great cultural and scholar value. V.F. Minorsky's above-mentioned letters reveal many details of his diplomatic activities related to Qajar Iran. V.F. Minorsky's letters make it possible not only to judge about the Russian Imperial policy in that country, but also to have an idea of him as a person with a wide circle of friends and colleagues with whom he often corresponded. Among those people who were part of the closest circle of colleagues and friends of the venerable scholar was a military Orientalist, who during years served with V.F. Minorsky at the Russian diplomatic mission in Tehran, Konstantin Nikolaevich Smirnov. The following three letters from V.F. Minorsky to K.N. Smirnov, discovered by us at the end of XX c. in the personal archives of K.N. Smirnov, kept at the National Center of Georgian Manuscripts, in Tbilisi, attest to their close, friendly ties, so close that V.F. Minorsky confides in his friend even the details of the personal life of the Russian mission staff. These letters of V.F. Minorsky are dated 1909 and sent from St.-Petersburg and Tashkent. Despite private character, they nevertheless give some idea of the activities of the Russian diplomatic mission in this country, as well as of individual historical figures. The content of V.F. Minorsky's letters will be of considerable interest to researchers, as well as to the public, interested in his epistolary legacy.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1630924812.pdf
Number of views: 104      Download in PDF

30. Maxim I. Bogachev, Ekaterina A. Nazirova, Nadezhda I. Shelkopliasova
Bankruptcy of the "Tula City Public, I.D. Sushkin, Bank": A Historical Excursion

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(3): 1362-1372.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.3.1362CrossRef

The article is devoted to the problem of bankruptcy of public banks in provincial Russia in the 80s of the XIXth century. On the example of the "Tula city public, I.D. Sushkin, bank", the process that covered a significant part of the city public banks at this time is considered. The reasons for the mass phenomenon were the absence of necessity for the Russian business of a variety of forms of credit institutions, a shortage of banking specialists. The new banking sector of the economy had no work experience yet, there were gaps in regulatory law, and control by supervisory authorities was insufficient. The main sources of the study were the documents of the State Archive of the Tula region and the memories of the participants in the process. Using the source analysis and historical-comparative, analytical, system, typology methods, the authors restored the chronology of the bankruptcy procedure. The reconstruction was carried out based on the legal norms of this period. The bank was one of the eleven municipal public credit institutions opened in the Tula province in order to resolve financial issues of local governments. Due to objective and subjective reasons seven banks were soon closed. The incompetence and self-confidence of the managers, lack of responsibility, manifested in the investment of resources in poor-quality assets, their inability and unwillingness to assess the creditworthiness of borrowers, led to the liquidation of this credit institution. The authors established the role of the creditors ' meeting, sworn trustees, private attorneys, Bankruptcy Management, the Tula District Court, and the Moscow Court Chamber in the bankruptcy procedure. In conclusion, the authors determine the contribution of the "Tula City Public, I.D. Sushkin, Bank" to the formation of the institution of lending in provincial Russia in the 80s of the XIXth century.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1630505690.pdf
Number of views: 94      Download in PDF

31. Alexsandr V. Brega, Galina V. Brega, Yaroslavna S. Artamonova
Emigration of Ethnic Germans from the Russian Empire to the United States: Causes and Social Consequences

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(3): 1373-1380.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.3.1373CrossRef

Within the framework of the presented study, the issue of the specifics and driving factors of the emigration of ethnic Germans from the Russian Empire to the United States in the late 19th – early 20th centuries is highlighted. The aim of the work is to highlight the features of this process, including from the point of view of the motivation of the migrants. The source base of the work was formed by attracting archival materials, data from pre-revolutionary statistics and sources of personal origin. The research methodology is based on a combination of structural and comparative analysis. The author comes to the conclusion that the emigration of Germans from the Russian Empire did not take on a large scale, comparable to the resettlement of such ethnic groups as Jews or Poles. This process mainly covered the Baltic provinces and the territory of the Western Territory. The move of the Germans to the United States was motivated primarily by economic considerations. At the same time, the Germans used migration mainly as a source of accumulation of funds for solving development problems (for expanding the economy, acquiring technology, etc.). The national policy of the Russian authorities had little effect on the models of migration behavior chosen by ethnic Germans. Both the move to the United States and the process of adaptation in the new society were more comfortable for the Germans than in the case of representatives of other ethnic groups who came from the Russian Empire. First of all, this was facilitated by the presence of sufficient savings at the time of emigration, a fairly high level of literacy, a high proportion of artisans and highly skilled workers in the structure of German immigrants, and a great readiness for naturalization.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1630505780.pdf
Number of views: 97      Download in PDF

32. Aleksandr A. Kartskhiya, Sergey A. Tyrtychnyy, Mikhail G. Smirnov, Mariya D. Zhulidova
Oil Tanker Transportation and Entrepreneurial Competition in Russia at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries: Historical Retrospective and Modern Assessments

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(3): 1381-1398.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.3.1381CrossRef

The article analyzes the experience of transporting oil and oil products in the second half of the 19th century. Carried out a comprehensive analysis of the prerequisites for the creation of specialized vessels for the transportation of oil - tankers. Made a comparison with the American experience of oil transportation in the 19th century. For the first time in Russian historiography, the authors attempt to show a multifaceted comprehensive approach to the problems of oil transportation by water transport in the Russian Empire. At the same time, analyzed the negative experience of competing with foreign companies in the oil production markets in the Transcaucasia. The work shows that in conditions of weak logistics and long routes, the only economical means of transporting oil turned out to be water transport, which predetermined the scientific and technical development of specialized vessels - tankers. Simultaneously, it is proved that with an inconsistent state policy in relation to foreign capital in the oil markets of the Russian Empire, national companies will not be able to develop in conditions of the dominance of foreign competing companies on international markets. The article analyzes various examples of the non-competitive struggle of foreign oil companies to seize the domestic market. The article examines the origin and subsequent development of tanker transportation in chronological order – from the first primitive schooners with sealed compartments to the creation of high-speed steamers with pumping systems and a tank protection system. For the first time in the research of tankers of the 19th century, the authors studied the scientific, technical, economic, logistic and financial reasons for the development of the private tanker fleet in Russia in the aggregate.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1630505844.pdf
Number of views: 96      Download in PDF

33. Irina B. Bochkareva
The Irrigation Issue in Russia's Policy in Turkestan (end of the XIX – beginning XX centuries)

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(3): 1399-1408.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.3.1399CrossRef

Agricultural specialization and irrigated agriculture in Turkestan have identified the irrigation issue as an important component of the overall modernization program of the region and a condition for the realization of Russia's economic interests: the development of cotton growing and the Russian colonization expansion. The Russian political elite’s understanding of economic interests in Turkestan was formed already in the early 1890s. At the same time, the Turkestan border position, the difficult international situation in the region caused by the rivalry between Russia and Great Britain in Central Asia have influenced the nature of the state's efforts to solve the region’s economic modernization problems. The irrigation issue was clearly not among the priorities of the metropolis economic policy in Turkestan. The state invested in the modern modes of transport and communication construction, primarily railways. Solving the irrigation issue in the spirit of modern approaches required a lot of preliminary work and capital: conducting land-tax division, determining the amount of free state land, assessing the water resources of the region, developing a new water law. A complex of measures to address the irrigation issue began to be implemented systematically only by 1910. This is due to the general change of emphasis in the metropolis policy, the final formalization of the region’s economic development strategy, in which the expansion of the area of irrigated land was of most importance. It can be said that only the first steps were taken in the modernization process of the irrigation system during the imperial period: approaches to the legal formalization of the water use process were formed; areas for the construction of new irrigation systems were identified. Then the Soviet government has already carried out a systematic solution to this issue, taking into account the challenges of the time.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1630505953.pdf
Number of views: 95      Download in PDF

34. Olga L. Protasova
Ideological Self-Determination and Inter-Party Rotations in the Russian Democratic Environment (late XIX – early XX centuries)

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(3): 1409-1420.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.3.1409CrossRef

The relevance of this work is due to the need to study the experience of political socialization received by the leading representatives of Russian democratic parties in the late XIX – early XX centuries. The nature of the events of a socio-political nature that took place in the Russian Empire during this period is to a large extent consonant with what is observed in modern Russia: this is the growth of civic consciousness and activism, the noticeable democratization of the political (especially the opposition) elite, the emergence and formation of political and public organizations. Using the examples of biographies of prominent figures of democratic socialism in Russia at the beginning of the twentieth century, the main factors of a social and demographic nature that contributed to the choice of one or another ideological and, as a result, organizational and party orientation of representatives of socially active youth of the modernization period are shown for the first time in a complex. The regularities of the formation of political preferences of future politicians are revealed. It is noted that inter-party rotations in this environment were not mass, but individual, and the political self-determination of representatives of the parties of democratic socialism was, as a rule, conscious and firm.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1630505998.pdf
Number of views: 95      Download in PDF

35. Igor V. Kryuchkov
Armenian Pogroms in the Ottoman Empire in 1894–1896 and Politics of Russia (according to the Diary of V.N. Lamzdorf)

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(3): 1421-1432.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.3.1421CrossRef

The presented material examines the attitude of the ruling elite of Russia to the pogroms of the Armenian population that took place on the territory of the Ottoman Empire in 1894-1896. The main historical source in the article is the diary of Count V.N. Lamzdorf, Director of the Chancellery of the Russian Foreign Ministry. Analysis of V.N. Lamzdorf's diary allows us to understand the mechanisms of decision-making in St. Petersburg on the Armenian issue in the context of Russia's relations with the Ottoman Empire and other European states. The article notes the impact of the change in Russia's foreign policy strategy in view of its claims in the Far East on the policy of the Empire in the Balkans and the Middle East. V.N. Lamzdorf shows that the Russian ruling elite strove to preserve the territorial integrity of the Ottoman Empire and the status quo in the Balkans and Asia Minor on the eve of grandiose changes in the Far East. This factor led to the dominance in the Russian Foreign Ministry of the policy of a peaceful resolution of the Armenian issue in the Ottoman Empire, with the help of convincing the Sultan of the need for voluntary concessions in this direction. The general policy of European states in resolving this problem was hampered by disagreements between Great Britain, Russia, France, Germany, Italy and Austria-Hungary. The text of the article repeatedly cites the opinion of V.N. Lamzdorf, demonstrating the distrust of St. Petersburg to the tough policy of Great Britain in relation to the Ottoman Empire. A study of the diary of the Director of the Foreign Ministry Chancellery shows the disdainful attitude of Emperor Nicholas II and Foreign Minister A.B. Lobanov-Rostovsky towards the national movement of Armenians in Western Armenia. The article notes that V.N. Lamzdorf himself and the Russian ambassador to Istanbul A.I. Nelidov, as the crisis grew, became increasingly aware of the futility of the policy of peaceful persuasion of the Sultan in the need to present administrative-territorial autonomy to the Armenians of the Ottoman Empire without its reinforcement with power resources. The failure of the reforms could lead to a new wave of pogroms against Christians in the Ottoman Empire, including Armenians and Greeks, as it happened in 1898 in Crete.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1630522111.pdf
Number of views: 93      Download in PDF

36. Liudmila M. Medvedeva
Chinese Eastern Railway as a Means of Implementing Russia's Far Eastern Policy in the late 19th – early 20th centuries

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(3): 1433-1442.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.3.1433CrossRef

The article deals with the role that the Chinese Eastern Railway (CER) played in the implementation of the Russian strategies at the late 19th – early 20th centuries. Based on published and archival materials it provides a glimpse of the aspects of Russia’s foreign policy as well as conditions and factors affecting the construction and operation of the railway. It gives attention to the relations of Russia with the countries competing for spheres of influence in China and Korea and provides an assessment of material resources involved in the construction and maintenance of the railway as well as that of its freight operations. The analysis of the impact that the railway had on the colonization of the territory and the development of the productive base and trade in Manchuria is proposed. The public attitude of Russia towards the situation in the CER zone is shown. Conclusions concerning the appropriateness of the construction of the railway on the territory of Northeast China and its consequences are drawn. It is noted that the expectations for the CER as a tool of political and economic expansion of Russia had but a non-lasting effect and eventually failed. Russia’s trade and productive capacity against the leading and growing economic and financial systems of other countries lagged behind in terms of dynamics and scale. As a result of the short-sighted policies pursued by the government and erroneous prioritizations, the Russian Far East lost viable opportunities to develop available resources and achieve socio-economic growth. Losses that Russian suffered in the East in the early 20th century made the tsarist government to adopt more considered strategies in the region.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1630668249.pdf
Number of views: 94      Download in PDF

37. Vera P. Bogdanova, Olga I. Golovanova
Charity and Patronage in the Russian Province (on the Example of the Tyumen Province of the late 19th early 20th centuries)

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(3): 1443-1453.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.3.1443CrossRef

The traditions of charity in Russia are rooted in the deep past, to the good deeds of the Russian Orthodox Church and the ancient Russian princes. Since the time of St. Vladimir, who is listed in history as the first Christian prince, whose concern for the poor and gentleness “went even beyond the limits of state benefit,” the traditions of charity and patronage in Russia originate. The traditions of compassion embedded in the mentality of a Russian person are not innate, they arise in a society that professes and develops in an atmosphere of goodness, devotion to the ideals of Christianity. Modern Russian society is going through a very difficult period of its development today. Researchers of social processes state the devaluation of the values of the older generation, which leads to the spiritual disorientation of society and its spiritual impoverishment. The adoption of the Western model of values by Russian society has led to the destruction of the foundations of moral and ethical norms, approved and historically accepted in Russia, such as kindness, spirituality, mercy, compassion. Returning to the origins of Russian spirituality through humane social activities supported and encouraged by the state and society is one of the main tasks of reviving spirituality in our country.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1630506175.pdf
Number of views: 95      Download in PDF

38. Elena G. Guschina, Tatiana T. Titova, Adelia I. Khairullina, Elena V. Frolova
Fairs and Bazaars in the Kazan Province (based on Materials from the Newspaper “Kazanskie Gubernskie Vedomosti”)

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(3): 1454-1462.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.3.1454CrossRef

The authors investigate the fairs and bazaars of the Kazan province of the second half of the 19th century in this article which is based on the analysis of the materials of the newspaper "Kazanskie Gubernskiye Vedomosti." Their investigation considers the development of fairs and market trades. In addition to that, they identify the features of the location as well as the functioning of fairs and bazaars. The authors analyze their role as a center of social interaction of different categories residents of the province. The authors concluded that bazaars and fairs had different forms of holding (duration, scale, goods, timing and infrastructure) and were oriented towards different consumers. The bazaars were held weekly and played an important role for the local community, while the fairs were held once a year and were focused on large scale trade and a greater number of visitors, which included other regions. In contrast with the bazaars, the fairs played a more important role in public life in the form of special cultural centers. These venues encouraged interaction of different participating social groups. Fairs and bazaars were perceived by the majority of visitors as a holiday and a desirable form of recreation, which was facilitated by the infrastructure and cultural and entertainment program of these sites.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1630506242.pdf
Number of views: 103      Download in PDF

39. Yerkin A. Abil, Amanzhol Kuzembayuly
“Materials on the Kyrgiz Land Use” as a Source for Studying the Historical Memory of the Kazakhs of Northern Kazakhstan

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(3): 1463-1472.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.3.1463CrossRef

The result of the statistical and economic survey of Kazakhstan in the late 19th and early 20th centuries was the publication of “Materials on the kyrgiz land use”. This multi-volume publication contains, in addition to the statistical information itself, records of historical legends of the Kazakhs about the time of their settlement in certain territories. These legends can be used to reconstruct the traditional historical memory of the Kazakhs. The historical legends of the Kazakhs, recorded by the authors of the “Materials”, correlate with the legends recorded in the works of other researchers and speak of the early settlement of some of the Kazakh communities of the territory of Northern Kazakhstan - from the 14th to the 16th centuries. At the same time, these historical legends contradict some of the written sources, which speak of the appearance of the Kazakhs on the borders of the Russian possessions in Western Siberia not earlier than the late 17th century. This contradiction is resolvable if one takes into account that the Northern Kazakh communities which declared their autochthonous origin, in the 15th – 16th centuries were not part of the Kazakh Khanate, and consequently did not appear in the sources under the polytonym “Kazak”. They appeared under other collective names – “Nogai”, “Siberian Tatars”, etc. and became part of the “Kazakhs” during the 17th century. “Materials” is an important and informative source not only on the socio-economic history of Kazakh society at the turn of the 19th – 20th centuries, but also contains interesting data on the traditional historical memory of the Kazakhs, allowing us to create models of ethnic and political history of steppe Eurasia in the 15th – 19th centuries.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1630506313.pdf
Number of views: 100      Download in PDF

40. Natalia P. Koptseva, Yuliya N. Avdeeva
On the History of Science in the Russian Empire (based on the Analysis of the Journal “Nauchnoe Obozrenie” for 1898)

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(3): 1473-1481.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.3.1473CrossRef

The article reviews the materials of the journal “Nauchnoe obozrenie”, which is a reliable source on the history of economic and socio-cultural development of the Russian Empire. The periodical press is one of the recognized historical sources containing the description of economic, political, social, religious, and cultural processes. The analysis of the methodology associated with the source value of periodicals indicates the validity of the choice of the journal “Nauchnoe obozrenie” as a source on the history of the development of the society of the Russian Empire at the end of the XIX century. The analysis of publications of 1898−1900 is made. The classification of publications by their subject is given: the materials of publications contain a large number of issues of an economic and industrial nature, as well as reflect geographical, environmental, physical-biological, anthropological, and philosophical data that either describe and supplement existing research by scientists, or are unique and accompanied by original author's judgments. It is worth noting that many publications reflect the research of not only Russian, but also German, French, Italian and Polish scientists, whose ideas and discoveries, in one way or another, were included in scientific discussions and influenced the further development of certain areas of scientific knowledge at the world level. The issues of the journal “Nauchnoe obozrenie” of 1898−1900 contain historical material that is valuable for the study of the history of the development of the Russian Empire, which was formed under the influence of many internal and external factors and discoveries. The journal also allows you to determine the course of the history of world civilization as a whole. Until now, the materials of this periodical have not been taken into account in historiography. This defect must be corrected, and the historical essays of the journal must be recognized as an important source for the study of the history of the development of the society of the Russian Empire.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1630506369.pdf
Number of views: 95      Download in PDF

41. Alexander B. Khramtsov
Incidents and Crimes in Western Siberia: Nature, Scope and Trends (1900−1914)

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(3): 1482-1490.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.3.1482CrossRef

The work examined the facts of incidents and offenses in the cities of the Siberian region, assessed their scale and trends in 1900-1914. The information basis was the reports of gendarmerie-police officials on the recorded facts of incidents and crimes, as well as notes of local newspapers. The instability of the socio-political situation contributed to the destruction of the traditional lifestyle and disorientation of the behavior of large masses of the population, as a result of which the criminalization of all aspects of the life of local society increased several times, street riots intensified, new types of crimes that were not characteristic of the region appeared: terrorist attacks, rape, assassination and assassination of officials and suicide. An attempt was made on the basis of causal relations to systematize incidents and crimes, with their division into 4 groups: "emergency incidents," "anti-state criminal acts": "crimes against the person and family" and "crimes against property." It is alleged that the prevailing object of offenses in the region during this period was replaced several times: in 1900−1904 – a surge of "extraordinary" incidents of both a man-made and criminal nature, in 1905−1907 – against the person, 1908−1914 – against property. It was established that the criminal situation in the cities was different. According to the results of counting the number of offenses, it was concluded that the most safe were the city of Biysk and small cities of the region: Bogotol, Kolyvan, Kuznetsk, Turinsk, Tyukalinsk and Slavgorod, and unsafe – large cities – Tomsk, Barnaul, Tyumen, Kurgan and Novonikolaevsk, and from small − "designated" by the place of exile – Narim, Berezov, Surgut, Mariinsk, Kainsk, Tatarsk and Taiga.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1630506410.pdf
Number of views: 105      Download in PDF

42. Vladimir N. Denisenko, Marina A. Bereznyatskaya, Anastasia V. Denisenko, Yuliya V. Yurova
The Journal “Voina s Yaponiei” as a Historical Source

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(3): 1491-1500.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.3.1491CrossRef

The article considers the journal of military events “Voina s Yaponiei” (“War with Japan”) as a historical source on the history of the Russian-Japanese war of 1904−1905. As materials for the preparation of the work there were used 35 issues of the weekly illustrated journal “Voina s Yaponiei”. In methodological terms, the work is based on the principle of historicism and objectivity. A great attention is paid to the method of source analysis, since the studied journal is considered as a historical source. The principle of historicism allowed us to consider the studied events in their historical sequence, and to achieve objectivity, the authors considered all issues of the journal “Voina s Yaponiei”. In conclusion, the authors state that the weekly illustrated journal “Voina s Yaponiei” was one of the first attempts to create a journal of military events of the period of the Russo-Japanese war in the Russian Empire. The period of the journal's existence was short, about 6 months (from June 13 to December 31, 1904) and during this time 35 issues of the journal were published. The journal had several permanent headings: stories, the history of military affairs, military review, as well as news from both the Russian and Japanese sides. Besides this, the journal also published materials of personal origin – notes and memoirs of war correspondents, soldiers and sailors. Throughout the entire period, the journal published well-known Russian writers, among whom were I.A. Lyubich-Koshurov, N.A. Turgenev, P. Krasnov and others.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1630506463.pdf
Number of views: 85      Download in PDF

43. Yongchen Ruan, Irina S. Karabulatova
The Experience of the Loss of the Motherland by Representatives of Russian Emigration in the Chinese Provinces (1905−1917)

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(3): 1501-1510.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.3.1501CrossRef

The authors consider the problem of separation from the mother culture in the conditions of forced emigration of officers of the tsarist army during the period of increasing Russian influence in the Chinese provinces of the Russian Empire before its collapse. The awareness of one's own mission and acceptance of one's destiny reflected in the way information was presented in the film and newspaper discourses of the Russian diaspora in China at the beginning of the twentieth century. Understanding the historical, cultural, psychological, and linguistic significance of Harbin's Russian culture is important in the context of the formation of the diaspora mentality, the viability of cultural values, ties with the historical homeland, and overcoming depressive moods caused by ethnic trauma and the loss of the homeland. a lever for managing ethno-cultural identity. Russian emigrants were able to record the Russian language in subtitles, as well as daily life and incidents, and discuss world and Russian news. This allows us to trace the evolution of the Russian diaspora in Harbin. Ethnotrauma due to the distance from Russia, the fall of the Tsarist Empire, the First World War forced us to look for new forms of preserving ethno-confessional, socio-cultural identity.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1630573364.pdf
Number of views: 85      Download in PDF

44. Elena V. Vititneva, Evgeny A. Akhtamov, Galina M. Lushchaeva, Natalya V. Pahomova
The National University named after P.I. Makushin in the Educational System of Tomsk at the beginning of the 20th century

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(3): 1511-1518.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.3.1511CrossRef

The article examines the role of National University named after P.I. Makushin in the educational system of Tomsk at the beginning of the 20th century. The article based on educational legal acts, the regulations of National Universities, annual proceedings dedicated to P.I. Makushin, as well as social and political journalism. In the first place, the National University was analyzed as a phenomenon. The authors have analyzed the history of private higher education, the history of transition from private classes to a special educational organization. The authors have emphasized the goals and project of National University in comparison to the actual situation in educational process. It has been revealed that the phenomenon of National University can be considered as an alternative to the state educational institutions of higher education and as a new phenomenon of urban culture. It has been revealed that despite the fact that educational goals have not been achieved in its entirety, the National University has had a significant impact on the development of educational system and cultural life of Tomsk. The National University became truly National since its lecture rooms were open not only for privileged, but for lowborn classes. The students could attend training sessions, as well as libraries, laboratories, exhibitions. As a result the National University has a significant impact in the cultural life of Tomsk.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1630506600.pdf
Number of views: 88      Download in PDF

45. Sergey I. Degtyarev, Timofiy Yu. Gerasymov, Jasmin Gut, Lyubov G. Polyakova
World War I and the Collective Visual Illusion: a Case in Zhitomir

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(3): 1519-1526.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.3.1519CrossRef

Based on materials from periodicals 1914–1915 and scientific studies by specialists in the history of the First World War and social psychology, the authors comprehensively studied the case of collective visual illusion. It was captured by the Zhitomir newspaper “Zhizn Volyn” in the late summer of 1915, when a crowd gathered in the city center mistakenly mistook the moonlight of the cross on the church for an enemy military airplane, anxiously awaiting an aerial bombardment. After analyzing the historical conditions under which this social phenomenon arose, the authors came to the conclusion that it was a consequence of the collective idea of war existing in the rear city, which has a predominantly irrational, imaginary character, formed mainly through rumors and biased periodicals. This is confirmed by newspaper and archival materials, which in the first year of the war did not record a single case of an air attack on the Volyn provincial center, as well as statistics on the use of military aviation of that period, which virtually completely excludes the possibility of an aerial bombardment of the city in the last days of August 1915. Authors in detail examined this event in Zhytomyr in a socio-psychological context, finding out the nature of the social fear inherent in that time, which caused a panic reaction of the crowd to an imaginary air threat, the mechanisms of its spread in crowds of people, the peculiarities of the imaginative perception of the crowd and the behavior of its participants.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1630506846.pdf
Number of views: 90      Download in PDF

46. Timur A. Magsumov, Teymur E. Zulfugarzade, Mikhail B. Kolotkov, Sergei B. Zinkovskii
To the Issue of Some Technical Means of Propaganda during the First World War

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(3): 1527-1532.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.3.1527CrossRef

The article discusses the technical means of propaganda during the First World War. The attention is paid to the French, German, British and American experience in delivering propaganda literature to the enemy's territory. There was used as sources the specialized literature on the history of military propaganda during the First World War. In methodological terms, the principles of objectivity and consistency were applied: the first allowed us to impartially consider the sources on the research topic, the second made it possible to analyze the technical means of delivering propaganda literature from different countries participating in the conflict. Summing up, the authors come to the conclusion that during the First World War, the propagandists of the opposing sides relied on the fact that the leaflets caused minimal rejection from the enemy. To this end, the propagandists refused to deliver leaflets using artillery ammunition (since artillery shelling had a negative psychological effect on the enemy) and after several alternative attempts (scattering leaflets with a tailwind from an observation tethered balloon, as well as a kite), they opted for a specially designed unmanned balloon, the range of which could reach 200 kilometers deep into enemy territory with a tailwind. Such a range of action was quite sufficient for psychological impact not only on the fortified areas of the front line, but also the concentration camps and the population located in the rear.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1630506940.pdf
Number of views: 93      Download in PDF

47. Pavel V. Ulyanov
The Idea of the "Unity of the Slavs" in Russian Propaganda during the First World War

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(3): 1533-1541.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.3.1533CrossRef

The idea in propaganda occupies an important place and is often the main component of the information content of centralized and mass propaganda to attract attention from any audience. During the First World War, in many countries participating in the military conflict, propaganda was based on a specific idea, the postulates of which served as a management function in shaping the assessment and attitude of a wide audience to the "ally" and the "enemy", as well as in identifying their own role in the life of the country and activities a ruler or leader seeking to protect public and defend state interests, aimed at achieving understanding of them by the broad masses. Along with the ideas of the "commonwealth of nations" in Great Britain and "sacred unity" in France, the idea of "unity of the Slavs" in Russia served not only as a motivation, but also reflected the elements of uniting all the inhabitants of the country (Russia) with people living in neighboring states (for example, the Serbs). Researchers note in their works the important role of ideology in uniting people in the face of an "external threat", but do not pay attention to the specifics of the content of the idea of "unity of the Slavs" in the process of forming the "image of the enemy" in relation to the ruler, state and people of the "enemy country". In this regard, the author aims to consider the idea of "unity of the Slavs" in Russian propaganda in order to highlight its features. Since a person simultaneously lives in both the symbolic and the real world, where each person reacts to the perception of information, and not to reality, the author seeks to answer the question about the role of this idea in motivating the population to fight the “enemy”. As a result of the study, it can be concluded that the idea of "Slavic unity" in Russian propaganda should have motivated Russians to fight against "external aggression" and served as a determinant of the "enemy object", and it also separated all "Slavic" from all "German" and even "Turkish" during the military conflict.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1630506980.pdf
Number of views: 84      Download in PDF

48. Ksenia A. Tishkina
Employment of Refugees in Siberian Cities during the First World War

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(3): 1542-1551.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.3.1542CrossRef

Based on a wide range of sources, the article examines the process of employment of refugees in the cities of Siberia during the First World War. The massive influx of forced migrants which included mostly women, children, and people who lost their ability to work (the elderly and the disabled) to the Siberian region began at the end of the summer of 1915. Refugee families preferred to settle in cities and on rare occasions moved to the countryside. The main source of income for forced migrants was benefits from the state. In the cities, there were Committees for Assistance to Refugees, as well as various public organizations that provided assistance to forced migrants, provided them with employment. One of the most demanded urban occupations were laborers and servants. Under the Committees for Assistance to Refugees, there were labor offices, whose employees were involved in looking for vacancies. Employment of refugees was hampered by difficulties associated with poor knowledge of the Russian language, difficult natural conditions, unwillingness to work for low wages, general psychological stress against the background of past events, etc. In the labor market, the main competitors for forced migrants were prisoners of war, whose work was valued much lower. Local departments of national public organizations took part in the employment of forced migrants. They organized special workshops (mainly shoemakers and sewing), in which they provided jobs to needy tribesmen. Despite a number of ongoing activities, the problem of employment of forced migrants in Siberian cities was not fully resolved.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1630620316.pdf
Number of views: 87      Download in PDF

49. Nicholas W. Mitiukov
Identification of the Steamer “Shtorm”, Acquired by Izhevsk’s Plants during the First World War

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(3): 1552-1559.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.3.1552CrossRef

The paper analyzes archival information from the funds of the Izhevsk Arms and Steel Works plants, as well as the memoirs of A.N. Berdnikov and G.M. Kutuzov concerning the steamer “Shtorm”. It was concluded that A.N. Berdnikov, in his diary under the delivery of two steamers to Izhevsk in January 1915, was most likely misled, describing the purchase of two steamers “Granata” and “Shtorm” by Izhevsk plants and the delivery of one steamer, “Granata”, to Izhevsk. G.M. Kutuzov, under the delivery by rail in ebruary 1916 of the steamer “Shtorm”, meant the delivery of a boat for transporting lumber, ordered in Votkinsk in 1913. In the description of G.M. Kutuzov of the plant's flotilla on the Izhevsk pond, under the guise of the “Shtorm” steamer, he also actually describes a boat for transporting lumber. Based on this, it was concluded that the steamer “Shtorm” spent the World War 1 on the Kama. On the basis of an analysis of river registers and lists of ships, it was concluded that there are at least three different screw tugboats “Shtorm” on the upper Volga and Kama, which could potentially be acquired by Izhevsk plants. Firstly, the steamer of Bykhovsky and Leites, built by Zhuravlev's plant (Rybinsk) in 1903. Secondly, the steamer of Grigoriev, formerly “Sluga”, built in 1891. And thirdly, the steamer of Kazansky, built by the Smith's plant (Moscow) in 1905 (eponymous wheeled and passenger steamers were not taken into consideration). On the basis of comparison of characteristics and the presence of a number of circumstantial evidence, it was concluded that the steamer “Shtorm” acquired in 1914 by the Izhevsk’s plants is the former steamer of F.V. Kazansky.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1630522184.pdf
Number of views: 85      Download in PDF

50. Olga V. Natоlochnaya, Ruslan M. Allalyev, Vladimir A. Svechnikov, Svetlana V. Petrova
Planning the Blockade of the Bosphorus by the Black Sea Fleet in 1916. Part 3

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(3): 1560-1567.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.3.1560CrossRef

The article deals with the issues of planning the blockade of the Bosphorus by the Black sea fleet during the 1916 campaign of the First World War. The special attention is paid to the calculations of the elements of force, as well as the ratio of the Turkish and Russian fleets. The study was carried out on the basis of previously unpublished documents of the Russian state archive of the navy (St. Petersburg, Russian Federation). Previously, these documents were not published. The plan for the blockade of the Bosphorus, which was prepared by Captain 2nd Rank B. Tyagin on July 1, 1916 at the Sevastopol roadstead, is important in the work. In methodological terms, the study is based on the basic principles of historical research, namely, the principles of objectivity and reliability. The problem-historical method, which allowed us to consider the planning of the blockade of the Bosphorus in the context of the specific historical situation that developed in 1916 is of great importance in the study. In conclusion, the authors state that, according to the planning of the operation to blockade the Bosphorus, it was assumed that it would be conducted by the Black sea fleet in three shifts. The blockade was to be accompanied by a barrier of the Bosphorus against submarines and surface vessels. It was to be preceded by serious secret and ship reconnaissance, as well as simultaneously active operations against submarines throughout the Black sea and the defense of the coasts and the fleet from submarine attacks in ports and the sea. The involvement of hydroaeroplanes in reconnaissance, fighter and bomber activities should have been sharply increased; new units have been formed to combat enemy submarine bases; civilian vessels have been re-equipped and equipped to perform military tasks. If we take into account the volume of available resources of the Black sea fleet on the Caucasian theater of operations, then the forces that the fleet had were quite sufficient to fulfill the task of blockading the Bosphorus.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1630573690.pdf
Number of views: 97      Download in PDF

51. Nikolay S. Lapin, Kuanysh G. Akanov
Diplomatic Relations of the Kazakh Khanates and the Russian Empire in late Soviet and Modern Historiography

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(3): 1568-1575.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.3.1568CrossRef

The article examines how the problem of the formation of Kazakh-Russian ambassadorial relations during the 18th century was studied in Soviet historical science in the 1940−1980s and modern Kazakhstan and Russian historiography. Recording the facts of mutual embassies starts much earlier in the 18th-19th centuries, however, as a separate problem, the diplomatic relations of Kazakh and Russia rulers began to be considered only from the middle of the 20th century. At this time, the history of the Soviet Asian republics began to be studied more deeply. The peculiarity of the study is the leading role of Russian historians – M.P. Vyatkin and N.G. Apollova whose scientific interests and a certain stage of life were associated with Kazakhstan. Since the 1960`s the main researchers of the issue of Kazakh-Russian ambassadorial relations in modern times were Kazakhstan’s historians V.Ya. Basin and A. Sabyrkhanov who were able to distinguish this problem. At the present stage, in works of D.V. Vasiliev, Zh.B. Kundakbaeva, V.V. Trepavlov, G.B. Izbasarova and others, the diplomatic ties of the Kazakh khanates and the Russian Empire various aspects of imperial practices and representations of Russian power among the elite of subordinate peoples and dependent states are investigated.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1631198245.pdf
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