Abstract: The history of Khan Kuchum from the Siberian branch of the Shibanidov dynasty is considered in the article. The ruler of the Siberian khanate had long military and political contacts with the state leaders of the Russian state. Eventually, some descendants of the Siberian Khan Kuchum, after his defeat, served the Russian crown and even received awards for it. In particular, Arslan, the grandson of Khan Kuchum, who supported the establishment of the Romanov dynasty then was appointed as the governor of the Kasimov kingdom in 1614, and later came the several times to reception of Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich Romanov. His descendants also faithfully served the rulers of this royal dynasty.
The special attention is paid to Khan Kuchum, whose personality causes the greatest discussions in historical literature. The interest to the history of medieval Siberian states, to studying of life and activities of historical figures have increased significantly in recent decades. The huge interest to the history of the past from the representatives of the broad scientific community significantly updated the process of knowledge to the history of Siberia, the period of the reign of Khan Kuchum and the fate of his descendants. The history of the Siberian Khanate, which became part of the territory of Russia as a result of Yermak's campaigns and the military actions of the Russian governors, is very significant. The annexed territory of Siberia subsequently became an important part in the process of the expanding influence of Russia to Asian countries. Currently, there is a revision of many established concepts in modern historiography, which based on the attraction of new sources and the development of new methodological approaches.
The Role of State Policy and Free Colonization in the Formation of the Rural Settlement Network of the Middle Irtysh Region in the 16th – early 20th centuries (on the Materials of Modern Historiography)
Abstract: The article is devoted to the study of the process of formation of the rural settlement network of the Middle Irtysh region in the 16th – early 20th centuries. The author focuses on the analysis of the factors that caused this process: the state policy in the field of development and settlement of Western Siberia in general and the Middle Irtysh region in particular and free peasant colonization.
The paper identifies key points in the process of forming a rural settlement network – the foundation of the Tara and Omsk fortresses, the construction of fortification lines, the construction of the Moscow-Siberian highway, the abolition of serfdom, the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway, the Stolypin agrarian reform – and the influence of the indicated factors on each of the selected points. During the analysis of a wide range of local history material, the dates of the founding of rural settlements were established, the geographical, natural-climatic and social conditions for the emergence of settlements were analyzed, and vectors for the settlement of the territory were established.
The author comes to the conclusion about the organic combination of state policy and free peasant colonization during the late 16th – early 20th centuries, which resulted in the established network of rural settlements on the territory of the Omsk region. Throughout the entire period of settlement of the territory, each of the identified factors determined its vector of movement of migrants and the type of settlements founded (settlement, farm, and others).
Within the framework of free colonization, the author pays considerable attention to internal peasant migration and shows its role in the formation of a network of rural settlements. The combination of internal and external colonization was determined by the characteristics of the territory, such as the combination of taiga, forest-steppe and steppe regions, the historical pattern of the settlement of the indigenous population (the first Russian settlers, Kazakhs, Siberian Tatars), the presence of large water arteries (the rivers Irtysh, Tara, Om, Osh, large lakes), the construction of a tract and a railway.
Abstract: This article examines the diplomatic preparation of Mikhail Romanov for the Smolensk War of 1632–1634, which took place during the pan-European Thirty Years' War, which covered the period from 1618 to 1648. The motives and goals of diplomatic relations between the Russian Kingdom, Sweden and the Ottoman Empire are investigated. The article analyzes the mutual political rivalry between the Swedish leader Gustav II Adolf and the Polish ruler Sigismund III, which eventually contributed to the rapprochement and cooperation between Moscow and Stockholm. In conclusion, the authors come to a number of conclusions, in particular, the goal pursued by Mikhail Romanov in diplomatic relations with the Ottoman Empire during the Smolensk War, to stop the invasion of the Crimean Tatars and, if possible, to get help against the Poles. In turn, negotiations with Sweden turned out to be beneficial for both sides, in foreign trade affairs, during these years Russia sold cheap and tax-free food and other goods only to Swedes. The authors also note that as a result of Mikhail Romanov's skillful diplomacy carried out during the 30-year war, the military system of the Russian Kingdom moved to the next stage of development.
Abstract: The paper analyzes the economic processes in Russia in the 17th–18th centuries taking into account the main provisions of the modernization theory. The mentioned theory is the foundation of the methodological apparatus in this research, and regarding the indicated period it is interpreted in its classical formulation as a transition from a traditional (agrarian) society to a modern (industrial) one. Particular attention is paid to such features of the Russian modernization model as ‘catching up’ nature, as well as determination of the starting point, factor and mechanism of modernization processes in the national history. The correlation of the economic development of the Russian state and the main trends of transition from tradition to modernity is carried out on the basis of transformation of the key features inherent in the traditional economy into characteristics that are present in the market/mixed system. At the same time, the emphasis is made on such changes as transition of the priority position of agriculture to industry; presence of basic signs of industrial revolution; establishment of pluralism of ownership forms instead of the predominance of the collective-community; elimination of tendencies that distinguish natural economy; formation of basic principles of state regulation of economic relations; widespread functioning of the laws of value, supply and demand, as well as the competition mechanism; introducing freedom of the producer and consumer’s actions into mass practice. Based on these criteria, it is concluded that the Russian society of the 17th century should be characterized as a traditional society. The shifts that have emerged in the economy of the Russian Empire of the 18th century allow speaking only of protomodernization, since the industrial revolution was identified in a series of economic realities of the historical development of Russia not earlier than the 30s of the 19th century.
Abstract: There is a difficult question about the time of the reign of Peter I – this is the question of fluctuations in the population of Russia. It was a difficult time of transformation and a long Northern War. Scientists turned to this topic only at the beginning of the 20th century, focusing on the study of mass household censuses of this time. During discussions, the scientific community has questioned the credibility of these sources. As a result, although this topic remained relevant, a tradition arose to ignore the data of the Petrine censuses and consider them unreliable. This article continues a series of works by the author aimed at revising the skeptical view of the censuses of Peter the Great. The article shows the possibilities of censuses as a source for studying fluctuations in the population of Russia in the first quarter of the 18th century. It is concluded that the population of specific regions at that time significantly decreased. A total of ten Landrat censuses were studied. They should be considered together with the data of the description of 1710, from which they all start. Data from the Landrat books indicate that the population of specific regions at that time significantly decreased. In places, the decline since 1710 was 50 %. The main reason for the decline was the high mortality rate. It is concluded that the Landrat census remains undeservedly outside the attention of the scientific community. This is connected not only with the historiographical tradition. The problem is the complexity of working with these sources. It is a difficult task to obtain summary systematic data from this information. This requires a lot of long work. Scribal accounts are often complex and confusing, books do not have a single form. However, Landrat books can be a valuable source for studying population fluctuations.
Abstract: In methodological terms, the provisions and conclusions of the article correlate with the subject field of the concept of “lived religion”, aimed at transmitting the specifics of the manifestation of religion in people's daily lives. Considering the religious beliefs of the Kazakhs from the standpoint of this concept allows, in our opinion, to go beyond the “either-or” dichotomy: Islam/pre-Islamic beliefs, official Islam /popular Islam values. The purpose of the work is to show that publications of different origin of the XIX – early XX centuries can serve as a basis for determining the nature of the religious beliefs of the Kazakhs of this period. Despite the presence of polemical discourses focused on different values in modern historiography, the authors of the research do not deny the existence of a synthesis of pre-Islamic and Islamic cultures, even those who stand on the positions of the long-standing historical tradition of Islam on the territory of Kazakhstan. Results. The publications of the XVIII – early XX centuries, which we took as the basis of the analysis, we divided into five groups. Most of them were created by outside observers. Of particular importance are the works of Kazakh authors, who can be called ethnic, linguistic and religious insiders who had the opportunity to see hidden social connections that are not obvious to an outside observer. It is shown that the publications of contemporaries help to form a complete picture on the issue of the peculiarities of the religious beliefs of the Kazakhs. They allow us to talk about the syncretism of the religious views of the Kazakhs. It was a harmonious synthesis of the traditional complex of ideas about the world with Islam, because for all its inconsistency with orthodox requirements, it was present in the national consciousness of the Kazakhs. Everyday practices, habits and models of social life of Kazakhs were determined by both Islam and pre-Islamic views, and they can be defined by the term “lived religion”.
Abstract: To date, the historical literature has not raised the question of which political form of the state corresponded to the administrative transformations of Peter I on the southeastern outskirts of Russia. Some authors claim that the ideal of the tsar was embodied in the creation of a “regular state”. Adherents of the “new imperial history” believe that the converter was guided by the concept of a “cameralist state”. In our opinion, in Bashkiria, the government of Peter the Great made the most radical scrapping of the traditional management system. The analysis of administrative transformations shows that Peter the Great's policy towards non-Russian suburbs demonstrated a desire to homogenize the population, erase tax and administrative differences in the situation of numerous groups of non-Russian population. The liquidation of the Order of the Kazan Palace and the provincial reform destroyed the system of indirect connections of the center with the southeastern periphery. Bashkirs have lost the privilege of direct appeal to the supreme power. Followers of the new imperial history claim that the executors of Peter I's plans were inspired by the teachings of cameralism, which declared the need for equality of all subjects before the law. This policy reflected the idea of a new political form – the nation-state, and, consequently, objectively had an anti-imperial character. Due to the absolute impossibility of introducing cameralist methods in foreign provinces, the specific measures of the authorities differed significantly from the basic principles of this doctrine. So, at the beginning of the XVIII century in Ufa County, all fiscal functions were transferred to the Ingermanland Chancellery. This department, designed to invent new objects of taxation, did not report even to the government, which contradicted the strict functional division of powers declared by the principles of cameralist doctrine. Their activities provoked the longest Bashkir uprising of 1704–1711. The resumption of Russian citizenship of the Bashkirs took place only in 1722 after the government officially confirmed the rejection of all innovations and the return to the pre-Petrine, essentially imperial, Bashkir management system.
Abstract: The article is devoted to a problem little studied in modern oriental studies – the status of the Kalmyk zaisangs, especially its economic and administrative role in the historical life of the Kalmyk people in the Khan period. The work is based on archival materials, introduced into scientific circulation for the first time. In the course of their analysis, historical-genetic, historical-comparative, and historical-systemic methods were used. The zaisang estate played an important role in the history of the Kalmyk people. Occupying a middle position in the class hierarchy of the Kalmyks, they were the link between the upper and lower classes of the entire people. Zaisangs were the mainstay and closest assistants of their owners (noyans), could be used for special assignments or as advisers. In case of serious difficulties, the owners could turn to their zaisangs. At the same time, the zaisangs were completely at the mercy of their noyan, who could take away the aimag entrusted to him or even kill him under certain circumstances. However, the zaisangs could act against noyan as a cohesive group and succeed, especially when he violated established laws and generally accepted customs. In relation to the commoners, the zaisangs had broad powers, especially in matters of tax collection and distribution of public duties, including military mobilizations. Historical circumstances led to the situation that in the zaisang realm there was a large percentage of people from the realm of commoners. At the same time, in some aimags, the position of zaisang becomes hereditary. In general, as a class, the zaisangs had great potential and had effective leverage to manage the Kalmyk society in the direction it needed.
Abstract: Customary law, based on legal customs, originating from popular legal consciousness, has historically been the most important factor that played a regulatory role in the life support of the peasant world (community) among the northern peoples. It regulated various spheres of social relations that arose in ethno-local societies, including matrimonial, family-hereditary, trade, contractual, etc. The largest sphere of use of customary law among the Zyryans and Votyaks were relations that arose during marriage and the creation of a family. It was the family, its status, the position of its members, including representatives of several generations of relatives, that for a long time remained an area in which customary law was widely applied, which for a fairly long period was practically the main regulator of emerging social relations.
As a result of the study, the authors came to the following conclusions. Zyryanskaya and Votskaya women were not disenfranchised members of the family. The norms of customary law determined the dual nature of the legal status of women. So, on the one hand, women, being married and living in a large family, were subordinate not only to their spouse, but also to their age relatives, and there was a system of traditional prohibitions regarding their behavior. However, on the other hand, such subordination cannot be called absolute, since the woman retained a significant economic and social status, as evidenced primarily by archival materials. The woman possessed and disposed of the dowry, as well as all the property that was made by her. In addition, zyryanka often remained independent mistresses when her husband was absent.
Abstract: This scientific article presents a study of the process of formation of national elites in the Kazakh steppe in the XIX century. The Kazakh aristocracy, which previously acted as intermediaries between Kazakh society and Russia, subsequently became direct representatives of the Russian government. The article highlights the role of Kazakh representatives in the structure of the Russian Empire and their function as intermediaries between the Russian authorities and the local population. The article analyzes the important influence of Kazakh intermediaries on the establishment of contacts and cooperation between different cultures, which in turn contributed to the preservation of traditional Kazakh culture in the conditions of Russian domination. The article deeply examines the challenges and difficulties faced by Kazakh representatives, including the impact of the new management system on their lifestyle and traditional power structures. Special attention is paid to the mechanisms and factors that contributed to the formation of national elites in the Kazakh steppe. The article analyzes the role of education, culture and social mobility in the formation of Kazakh leaders, intellectuals and cultural figures during this period. The contribution of the Russian Empire to the training and retraining of personnel, the development of education, the construction of schools, as well as the policy of the Empire to preserve the cultural traditions of the local population in the Kazakh steppe is considered.
Abstract: The proposed work is dedicated to the prominent Ukrainian cultural and public figure Panteleimon Kulish (1819–1897). The article attempts to comprehend the phenomenon of P. Kulish as a factor that positively influenced the XIX century, not just the development of Ukrainian history and culture, but more significant processes, including the formation of national consciousness in Ukrainian society and the return of historical memory. Based on a large body of scientific literature and historical sources, the authors have identified several areas of P. Kulish's professional and public activities that most strongly influenced these processes. His social and political activity was realized in his participation in secret political organizations. He defended the idea of national revival and democratic development of Ukraine, enhancing the national-cultural rights and autonomy of the Ukrainian people. P. Kulish's educational and publishing activities were also significant, as they influenced all layers of Ukrainian society (from poor peasants to representatives of social and intellectual elites). An important place in Kulish's activity is occupied by popularizing works by Ukrainian authors on Ukrainian topics and publishing and distributing books in Ukrainian devoted to Ukrainian history, culture, language, etc. P. Kulish's activities as a historian, ethnographer, writer, and poet significantly influenced the revival of historical memory in the Ukrainian public environment. In his scientific, journalistic, and literary works, he paid particular attention to the traditions and customs of the Ukrainian people, issues of the revival of Ukrainian statehood, and the search for ways to solidarize Ukrainian society. Thus, the influence of P.A. Kulish on Ukrainian culture and the social and political life of Ukrainian society was colossal and undoubtedly played a positive role in forming the Ukrainian people as a nation.
Abstract: The authors examine the pedagogical views of the outstanding Russian historian I.E. Zabelin (1820–1908). The historical and archaeological concepts of the scientist attracted the attention of contemporaries and followers, while the pedagogical views of I.E. Zabelin are being considered for the first time. Turning to the history of Russian pedagogical thought is especially relevant in the Year of the Teacher and Mentor, as it allows you to learn from the examples of the past to see the civic essence of teaching history and literature, especially in the situation of information warfare. The authors introduce archival materials into scientific circulation, uses the diary entries of the scientist and the memories of his students. I.E. Zabelin's pedagogical activity unfolded in 1853–1869 at the Konstantinovsky Land Surveying Institute and the School of Land Surveying Topographers in the era of acute discussions about the future of the Russian education system. I.E. Zabelin stood outside the political forces of that time, but his pedagogical views were clearly progressive, echoed the ideas of the father of Russian pedagogy, K. D. Ushinsky (1823–1871). I.E. Zabelin was outside the political forces of that time, but his pedagogical views were clearly progressive, echoed the ideas of the father of Russian pedagogy, K. D. Ushinsky (1823–1871). I.E. Zabelin taught his students to love and understand the ideas and aspirations of his people, educated them into worthy citizens and patriots of his country, instilled a culture of thinking and expressing his thoughts. The scientist's attention to reading, to students' understanding of historical facts and a sober assessment of the political situation sounds relevant today. I.E. Zabelin applied advanced scientific methods, used progressive educational publications, developed author's courses based on historical sources, realized the need for the principle of clarity in teaching. The pedagogical community and the management of educational institutions highly appreciated the efforts of the historian. He read his subject in a fascinating and emotional way, his lectures were remembered by students for many years. The personality of I.E. Zabelin, who brilliantly combined the traits of both a scientist and a teacher, who saw the need not only to teach the subject, but also to educate the younger generation, is a worthy example for our contemporaries.
Abstract: The article is devoted to the financial situation of officials of the Russian Empire after their retirement in the period from 1827 (editions of the Pension Statute) to 1917. When adopting the Pension Statute, it was assumed that the pension of officials should be equal (on average) to their salary received in the service. But in connection with the subsequent repeated increase in salaries, the size of the pension became much less than this salary. The article examines the dynamics of the “replacement rate” of pensions of Russian officials (in the period from the 1840s to the beginning of the 20th century), i.e. relationship between pension and salary. The article shows that the size of the pension of almost all categories of officials gradually made up an ever smaller share of their salary. The main reason for such a lag in pensions from the gradually increasing salaries was the constant lack of funds in the state treasury.
The article shows that after retirement, the financial situation of Russian officials deteriorated sharply. For an official, resignation meant a decrease in the level of income by at least 2-3 steps on the hierarchical career ladder.
In parallel with this process, there were changes in the purchasing power of the ruble, an increase in prices for housing and basic foodstuffs, i.e. changes in the real size of pensions. These changes also affected the financial situation of retired officials.
The article illustrates, using examples from fiction, a sharp decline in the standard of living of Russian officials after their retirement.
At the same time, to the beginning 20th century the vast majority of Russian officials had no other sources of income other than salaries and, therefore, in old age they had to rely only on pensions.
The government's refusal to index pensions predetermined the archaism and inefficiency of the pension system in the Russian Empire.
Abstract: The article considers the influence of merchants on the development of female education in the Russian province during the second third of the 19th century (based on the materials of Vologda province). Women’s education started being differentiated from the common school system in 1800–1820. It became possible due to the adoption of such educational documents as “Statute of educational institutions subordinated to universities” and “Statute of gymnasiums and schools of district and parish” that were released in 1804 and 1828 respectively. In 1830–1850 women’s parochial schools started appearing in Vologda Province thanks to the big support of local merchants. The examples of such schools were Kadnikovskoe (1838), Gryazovetskoe (1840), Yarenskoe (1843), Veliko-Ustyugskoe (1844). Another important educational document devoted to female education was implemented in 1858. It was “Regulations on women's schools” that contributed to the establishment of women’s schools in Vologda, Totma, Ust-Sysolsk and Yarensk. All of this happened thanks to the huge support of local merchants, who became the initiators of the opening of women’s schools in Totma and Ust-Sysolsk. At the same time the merchants’ wives became the trustees of such schools (however, there was an exceptional case in Ust-Sysolsk where the merchant of the 1st guild Latkin V.N. got to be the trustee according to the particular rule of law). Among the significant sources of women’s schools support were means of local merchants who bought a lot of books, schools supplies and furniture. Besides, they were really involved into the charity and donated money during such holidays as Easter and Christmas. The buildings – where the women’s schools were situated – also were taken care of by merchants. For instance, in 1858–1859 in Ust-Sysolsk the merchant Zaboev I.N. built a wooden building for the women’s school using his own money. Thus, the local merchants gave wide and complex support to the development of female education in Vologda province.
Abstract: The development of blood transfusion in Russia began in the XIX century due to the revived worldwide interest in the study and application of this procedure after a series of prohibitions in Europe two centuries earlier. The purpose of the article is to systematize and analyze Russian initiatives in hemotransfusion in the XIX century, which include both well-known facts and insufficiently studied and new evidence. The following stages in the development of blood transfusion are determined: the initial period in 1830–1840, in which the first attempts were made to use blood transfusion in medical practice, and the prospects of this method were comprehended; in 1860–1870 it was a period of a surge of interest in blood transfusion when fundamental physiological studies were conducted and a significant number of cases of transfusions were carried out. The peak of interest in hemotransfusion in 1873–1875 was caused by the intensification of military operations in the international arena and the related needs of military field surgery; the activities of J.A. Roussel and F.F. Gesellius to promote their blood transfusion devices in Russia, which included public demonstrations and experimental clinical trials; active study of blood transfusion in European medical science. In the 1880s, the popularity of blood transfusion began to decline sharply due to the lack of substantiated results confirming the safety of its use in clinical practice.
Abstract: The article considers a group of annual publications of the Arkhangelsk Provincial Statistical Committee of the period 1850–1875, which reflect the theme of socio-economic development of the province.
The source base of the study is represented by the annual publications of the Arkhangelsk Provincial Statistical Committee of the period 1850–1875. At the study time, the following were published: “Spravochnye knizhki Arkhangel'skoi gubernii”, “Pamyatnye knizhki Arkhangel'skoi gubernii”, “Arkhangel'skii sbornik”, “Trudy Arkhangel'skogo gubernskogo statisticheskogo komiteta” and Reports of the provincial Statistical Committee.
In conclusion, the authors state that the annual publications of the Arkhangelsk Provincial Statistical Committee of the period 1850–1875 are represented by the following publications: “Spravochnye knizhki Arkhangel'skoi gubernii”, “Pamyatnye knizhki Arkhangel'skoi gubernii”, “Arkhangel'skii sbornik”, “Trudy Arkhangel'skogo gubernskogo statisticheskogo komiteta” and Reports of the provincial Statistical Committee. At the study time, the greatest scientific and publication activity of officials of the statistical committee was recorded in 1861–1866 (immediately after the abolition of serfdom). And the least active – in the first five years of the 1870s.
In total, in 1850–1875, about 90 research papers on the socio-economic development of the Arkhangelsk province were published in the annual publications of the Arkhangelsk Statistical Committee. At the same time, the unique ethnographic materials were introduced into scientific circulation.
Abstract: The article deals with the situation in the Russian army in the period of 1856–1862. These several post-war years are presented as a transitional stage, in which Alexander II and his close generals had to draw conclusions from the defeat of Russia in the Crimean War of 1853–1856, develop a program of reforms in the army and begin its implementation. However, these tasks were not completed, and the government took only a few isolated measures (for example, the abolition of military settlements). A careful examination of archival and published sources that reflected the discussions that took place at that time makes it possible to assess the reasons for the unsuccessful start of military reforms. Instead of an unequivocal conclusion about the causes of the military failure, which assumed a clear sequence of actions to correct the situation, several competing explanations (myths) were in circulation among the military leadership. These views suggested various strategies for reforming the armed forces. The main lines of judgment were either the need for a “moral cleansing” of the army from abuses, or gradual internal improvement. At the same time, the question of a qualitative restructuring of the military system was not raised. The uncertainty of the direction of further development was intensified by the struggle of various groups in the highest military administration, which were grouped around the War Ministry or the most authoritative figures in the combat command. 1858, when the investigation of the general F.K. Satler and there was a change of editorial board in the journal “Voennyi Sbornik”, can be considered the culmination of these clashes. The War Ministry was able to strengthen its position and move its competitors away from decision-making. This redistribution of influence had important consequences, predetermining the rise of the ministry under D.A. Milyutin. Finally, the financial difficulties of the Russian Empire further limited the range of possible actions to reform the army. Period 1856–1862 can be called "slippage" on the eve of the start of military reforms in Russia.
Abstract: According to censuses, Argentina’s population quadrupled over fifty years due to migration: 1.8 million in 1869 and 7.8 million in 1914. Between 1857 and 1914, 4.6 million migrants entered Argentina. Taking into account the departure of 1.6 million people, 3 million people “settled” in the country, adding to the Argentine population. The proportion of foreigners in Argentine society was also rising: 8 per cent in 1869 and 30 per cent in 1914. Research objective: to assess the socio-demographic characteristics of the migration flow from the Russian Empire during the “pioneering” stage of the settlement of Argentina. Method of historical-demographic analysis of Russian migration in the context of other ethnic migration waves was used.
Migrants from the Russian Empire ranked fourth among the foreigners who entered the country. Argentine census data from 1914 showed that migrants from the Russian Empire made up 1 per cent of the population, contributing to the economy. Migration from the Russian Empire to Argentina included three major ethnic waves: German, Jewish, and Polish-Lithuanian. The German-Mennonites came with capital and contributed to the development of agriculture. The Jewish wave of immigration to Argentina developed with the support of Baron Hirsch and the Jewish Colonisation Society. The migration of the inhabitants of the western border regions of the Russian Empire was represented by Jews, Poles, Lithuanians and Finns. The share of Russian (Orthodox) population among Russian migrants was insignificant, but has been steadily increasing since the beginning of the 20th century. Argentina's migration policy was open to foreigners, including Russian nationals. The integration of Russian immigrants into Argentine society proceeded rather quickly and successfully.
The migration from the Russian Empire to Argentina was multinational. Among the natives of Russia were Jews, Germans, Poles and Lithuanians, while the proportion of ethnic Russians was insignificant.
Abstract: The article discusses the creation and activity of church-charitable institutions of the Penza Diocese for the care of the Orthodox clergy in the second half of the XIX – early XX centuries – the guardianship of the poor of the clergy and the Mutual Assistance Society of the clergy of the Penza diocese. There are analyzed the organizational structure of institutions, their financial condition, the volume of charitable assistance, as well as problematic issues related to the functioning of societies. These organizations implemented various services related to social protection and financial assistance.
The authors came to the conclusion that due to limited financial resources, the district guardianship of the poor of the clergy could not provide the necessary assistance to those in need. The opening of a special mutual assistance fund – the Mutual Assistance Society of the Clergy of the Penza Diocese was a necessary step to ensure effective support for the clergy and their families. But still, despite the increase in the amounts of the Society in the first years of its existence, these funds were not enough to provide decent assistance to all those in need.
Abstract: The article deals with the issues related to the crisis of traditional Muslim education in the Kazakh steppe in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and attempts to modernize it by the Russian authorities and Muslim intellectuals, which resulted the opening of Russian-Kazakh and new method schools. On the basis of archival documents, studies and testimonies of direct participants in the processes under study, as well as authors of later periods, the features of reforming the education system in the Kazakh steppe have been studied. When considering processes and phenomena, the literature of various historical periods was used, which contributes, both to the utmost detail of the processes and phenomena under consideration, and to the abstraction and generalization required in certain cases, using the advantages of a certain chronological remoteness. The paper considers the school programs of both new educational institutions and old ones (mektebs and madrasas), attention is paid to the peculiarities of each type of school and the processes of modernization, adaptation to the situation on the ground. The issues under study are considered in the context of the processes of modernization within the Russian Empire itself, the development of the newly attached territories of the Kazakh steppe and their further integration into the all-Russian agenda, significant socio-economic transformations in the state.
Abstract: The national historical experience of using labor migration as an instrument of state policy for the development of marginal territories contains many interesting and significant stories for the present, one of which is the history of the development and settlement of the Volga-Caspian fishing region. Moreover, in order to implement this project, the state in different historical periods used different forms of labor migration.
The transformations that took place in the fisheries of the region during the period under study were part of the Great Reforms of the 1860s. The successful transformation of the labor migration model was relate with the general transition of the country's economy from a serf model to a capitalist one. An important consequence of this transition was the formation of the labor market after 1861, which had a positive effect on the increase in migration flows to the Volga-Caspian fishing region.
The paper provides an analysis of the Charter of the Caspian-Volga fish and seal trades adopted by the Government in 1865, the implementation of which contributed to the successful reform of the fishing industry and the settlement of the region. In this article considered the socio-economic consequences of the transformations carried out on the example of such social groups as landowners-nobles, merchants-fishermen, workers of fishing enterprises and catchers. It is revealed achievements and shortcomings in the current in the second half of the XIX century models of state regulation of labor migration. Based on the collected material, some of which introduced into scientific circulation for the first time, authors made an original judgment that the main beneficiaries from the introduction of the Charter of 1865 were sea trappers, as well as small and medium-sized entrepreneurs working in the fishing industry.
Abstract: The implementation of the peasant reform of 1861 represented a fundamental step towards meeting the new round of development of the Russian Empire. However, as a result of this reform, a number of new issues and tasks have arisen, one of which is the order of land distribution among peasants. This article is devoted to the study of the policy of the agrarian course of the Russian Empire in the second half of the XIX century – after the grandiose reform of Emperor Alexander II on the abolition of serfdom. The authors of the article describe in detail the role of the peasant community in the life of peasants. The article examines in detail the legal order of land distribution among peasants, as well as the peasant community as a subject of land ownership. In addition, the role of the elders of the community in the distribution of land plots, as well as in the resolution of disputes between peasants, is considered. The key principles of the distribution and redistribution of the land fund, such as the principles of equality and equalizing justice, are also analyzed. Their advantages and disadvantages are investigated. The authors analyzed quotes from statesmen regarding their proposals on the abolition of the peasant community and the transition to the European capitalist system, in particular, the Head of the Third Department of His Imperial Majesty's Own Chancellery, Count P.A. Shuvalov. At the same time, key obstacles to the implementation of these ideas were identified. The authors pay special attention to the issue of the ambiguity of the consequences of the rapid demographic growth of the population of the Russian Empire. The authors provided specific statistical data on the population in the period from 1858 to 1914, which showed a record increase in the population over the entire history of the state.
Abstract: The article considers the Russian periodical press devoted to the reference publications on public education. In total, 12 publications were considered, which were published in the period 1862–1916. The source base of the study was a variety of reference literature on the periodical press of the period of the Russian Empire.
In conclusion, the authors state that reference publications on public education had their own regional specifics. Of the twelve titles, eleven were published in the capitals (9 in St. Petersburg, 2 in Moscow) and only the latest edition is the “Byulleten' spravochnogo byuro…” in Samara. This geographical distribution was due to the fact that it was in the capitals that most of the pedagogical works were published or the most significant events were held.
The reference publications were devoted to reviews of the latest literature for both teachers and students, the activities of Russian and foreign public schools, analysis of the organization of the educational process and much more. The publication history of all twelve reference publications did not differ in its duration. Only four of them were published for 5 or more years, four editions – 2 years, and the remaining four – less than 1 year (three of them ceased publication during the First World War).
Abstract: This study is devoted to the analysis of the political activity of Emperor Alexander III, who did not follow the path of his predecessor, the reformer Tsar Alexander II. The authors of this article investigated the issues concerning the causes and prerequisites for changing the vector of Russia's political development from the formation of liberal democratic principles to a return towards strengthening conservative views and autocracy. The article analyzes the personality of Alexander III, as well as the circumstances under which he became heir to the throne of the Russian Empire. The key events that became the root causes for the counter-reform policy were analyzed in detail. In addition, the authors examined the indirect causes and circumstances that became the motives for making a number of changes to legislative innovations that were previously adopted by Alexander II. The article also formulates the main policy goals pursued by Emperor Alexander III, the characteristic features of his rule, and analyzes the fundamental documents reflecting the given political direction. In this study, the authors tried to reveal as much as possible the essence of the ideological principles that became relevant again during the reign of Alexander III. The authors also paid attention to such topics as the mass change of the Cabinet of Ministers, as well as the Finnish issue. The authors attach particular importance to the so-called judicial counter-reform. The key normative legal acts regulating the activities of judicial bodies adopted during the reign of Alexander III, which made significant changes to the image of the new judicial system built by Alexander II during the judicial reform of 1864, were investigated.
Abstract: The article presents the results of a study of the Kommisarovsky almshouse, opened on the initiative of the Governor-General P.N. Zamyatnin in the village of Nazarovo, Yenisei province in 1868 in memory of the event of April 4, 1866. The sources were regulations, periodicals, office documentation extracted from the fund 595 “Yenisei Provincial Administration” of the State Archives of the Krasnoyarsk Territory For the first time, data on the organization and financing of the almshouse are introduced into scientific circulation. The definitions of “almshouse”, “eternal contribution” are given. The authors come to the conclusion that the Kommisarovsky almshouse became the largest in the Yenisei province in terms of the number of detainees, the first rural almshouse, which had its own charter, governing body, and provided full support for the detainees. An appeal to the factual material showed that an administrative resource played a significant role in the organization of the almshouse, the composition of the detainees was heterogeneous, the main contingent was exiled settlers. The scientific novelty of the study is seen in the fact that a significant number of new historical documents and facts of the regional level have been introduced into scientific circulation, which can be used as a basis for further scientific development of problems related to the history of charitable institutions in Siberia during the period of capitalist modernization (1860s – 1917).
Abstract: The article presents the experience of creating a full-fledged national production system on the example of the factories of Nikolai Ivanovich Putilov (later, the Society of Putilov Factories). The purpose of the study is to reconstruct the elements of the production system through the analysis of various historical publications, which reflect the main moments of the formation and development of production during the existence of the Putilov factories under the creator himself (N.I. Putilov). At that time, the concept of “production system” did not yet exist, but all the elements of the production system, as this study showed, are present and it is possible to confidently assert the existence of a domestic production system at that time.
The sources used in the article are important for understanding the contribution to the pre-revolutionary development of the national production system (work system), thanks to the existence of which Russian products were not only not inferior to foreign analogues, but sometimes surpassed them through the efforts of domestic entrepreneurs-researchers, since they met certain conditions more (the products produced were suitable for the Russian climate, for the specifics of the operation of facilities in our country and etc.).
The materials of the article demonstrate a certain chronological order of development of the national production system of N.I. Putilov – from the acquisition of the first plant to the large-scale deployment of production of high-quality strategic products.
Abstract: This study is devoted to the topic of problematic factors that blocked the process of forming a positive image of the Russian monarch among students in the Kingdom of Poland in the late 19th – early 20th centuries. The source base of the work includes materials deposited in the funds of the State Archive of the Russian Federation and the Russian State Historical Archive. The research methodology includes elements of structural and comparative analysis. The author comes to the conclusion that in the structure of factors that blocked the promotion of a positive image of the emperor among Polish students, three levels can be distinguished. Firstly, geopolitical considerations and the experience of past conflicts pushed the political leadership of the empire to implement projects of accelerated integration of the Kingdom of Poland, which, taking into account the specifics of the structure of the social memory of the Poles, in itself formed a stable negative frame for the discursive perception of the images of autocrats. Secondly, the implementation of this program on the ground was carried out in an exaggerated form, either formally, or was of a half-hearted nature. At the same time, the quality of the corps of civil servants remained insufficiently high, and the general attitude of officials towards the Polish population was determined mainly by distrust. In conditions of chronic underfunding and poor quality of administration, integration projects did not give a positive effect, but only irritated ethnic Poles and, above all, the national intelligentsia. Thirdly, the efforts to Russify Warsaw University and limit the public activity of students, along with the selectively tough attitude of the authorities towards this university, initially formed negative attitudes towards the head of state among students.
Abstract: The purpose of the article is to identify and show the organic connection between the basic political, legal and socio-cultural narratives in the early ideological work of the leader of the movement of Siberian democratic regionalists (regionalists) – N.M. Yadrintsev. To achieve this goal, written sources were analyzed – articles and ego-documents, such as autobiographical information and epistolary materials. Appropriate tools were chosen – the methodology of a new cultural and intellectual history, which allows a comprehensive study of discourses and texts in their relation to the activities of a particular historical personality.
Within the framework of this study, it is shown that the range of political and legal problems considered by the ideologist of regionalism was extremely diverse and organically permeated with ideas to solve the pressing issues of the Siberian region. The subject of penal policy, the impact of penal colonization on the Eastern outskirts, reflections on the essence of criminal punishment, in symphony with the ideals of the democratic federal territorial structure of the Russian Empire, constituted the content of the policy-legal narrative of the early period of the ideological world of N.M. Yadrintsev, that is, in the 1870s.
Reflection on the ethno-cultural interaction of the Slavic-Russian peoples and the endemic peoples of Siberia, the problems of colonization and development of the eastern outskirts, together with educational concepts and proposals for reforming the cultural and educational policy of imperial Russia, constituted a system of socio-cultural discourses in the journalism of the Siberian educator. The position of the ideologist of regionalism was reduced to the ideologeme of the reciprocal influence of ethnic groups, which obviously had two vectors immanently built into one general process of cultural influence.
In general, the article found that the political, legal and socio-cultural narratives of the creative heritage of the famous Siberian were in dialectical unity.
Abstract: “Ship’s Lists” were annual periodicals that published information about the current state of the Russian Imperial Navy, including lists of ships and vessels. It is traditionally believed that in the period from 1871 to 1908, 28 editions of the “Ship's Lists” were published, but, apparently, this list is not complete, and at present, the creation of a complete selection of the “Ship's Lists” editions is an urgent task. The paper summarizes the author's experience in the reconstruction of ship's biographies according to the “Ship’s Lists”.
“Ship’s Lists” are a valuable and the only published source on the history of the watercraft of the Russian Imperial Navy. Of particular value is the periodicity of their publication, which makes it possible to reconstruct biographies with an accuracy of up to a year. This is demonstrated on the example of the watercraft of the Baltic Fleet. When reconstructing biographies, two main levels of methodology are proposed: reconstruction for the entire reference group and reconstruction for individual courts. Despite the simplicity of the latter, during the reconstruction with its help, some periods of the biography for individual courts may “fall out”. This is illustrated by the example of barge No. 35 of the Kronstadt port, which served as a diving boat for a long time, as well as barge No. 21, for which the period from 1882 to 1886 “fell out”.
However, the value of the “Ship’s Lists” lies in the fact that with their help it is possible to reduce the chronological framework by up to a year when conducting more thorough archival searches.
Abstract: The article is devoted to the study of repressive measures of the Russian autocracy against the zemstvo liberal opposition in Chernihiv province in the late 70s – early 80s. Having analyzed unique historical primary sources, the absolute majority of which are introduced into the international scientific turnover for the first time, the authors came to the conclusion that the main reason for the punitive measures of the Russian monarchy against the aristocratic opposition of the region was the unprecedented, public opposition activities of the liberal zemstvo in 1878–1879. The first strike of the Russian authorities against the Zemstvo opposition was the prompt arrest and administrative internment of its leader, I. Petrunkevich, in the ethnically Russian provinces of the country.
Top officials and the head of the political police of Chernihiv province proposed to the central authorities to take tough measures in the fight against the “liberal contagion”: to expel from the territory of Chernihiv province the most dangerous members of the aristocratic opposition; to establish supervision over the remaining representatives of the Zemstvo liberal party by the police and gendarmerie; to promptly amend the legislation of the Russian Empire in order to establish control and supervision of the institutions of state power over the elected institutions The authorities implemented the absolute majority of these recommendations. By the fall of 1886, the zemstvo liberal movement in Chernihiv province had been crushed and its personal composition reduced to a minimum.
Abstract: The Akhal-Tekin operation of General M.D. Skobelev is one of the most controversial and ambiguous campaigns in the history of the Russian military medical service. On the one hand, scientists note careful strategic planning and the personal interest of the commander-in-chief in its perfect arrangement, on the other hand, tactical decisions taken during the campaign cast doubt on the success of the medical service and discredited the military medical leadership. The situation was complicated by problems on communication lines, a specific climate, and an unfavorable epidemiological situation in the Trans-Caspian region. Under these conditions, private assistance in the form of the Russian Red Cross Society (RRCS) turned out to be the only guarantee of the necessary medical and sanitary support of the army both in the rear areas and on the front line. The forces and means of the RRCS actively participated in the supply of medical and clothing equipment, sanitary transport, food, the organization of infirmaries and dressing stations, and the evacuation of the wounded and sick. The incommensurable distribution of the burden between the military medical department and the RRCS led to tensions in the relationship between the two structures, the settlement of which required the personal intervention of the Commander-in-Chief M.D. Skobelev.
Abstract: The following article considers the history of Orthodox parish schooling in terms of the parish of Vormsi, an island off the western coast of Estland province populated by Swedish speakers. Its novelty lies in the fact that no scholars have previously attempted to consider the history of the Orthodox parish of Vormsi, a highly unique case due to the conversion of Swedish speakers. The materials on which the article is based are documents (previously unintroduced into academic circulation) from the Russian State Historical Archive and the Estonian State Historical Archive, including the fonds of the imperial Russian Orthodox diocese of Riga, the Vormsi Orthodox parish fond, and the fonds of some of the individual schools concerned. Drawing on the approach of microhistory, the article demonstrates that Orthodox parish schooling on Vorsmi was hampered by several problems, including the language barrier, inadequate funding, and heavily flawed teaching personnel.
Abstract: On the basis of archival and published sources, the article examines the process of formation of female professional personnel on the basis of a concrete example of the society of Eastern Siberia in the last quarter of the XIX – early XX centuries, analyzes the types of their labor activity.
The data of statistical sources in the studied period are systematized and grouped according to the forms of employment of graduates of higher educational institutions.
The authors come to the following conclusions on the example of Eastern Siberia.
In general, the educational and professional mobility of Siberians was low. The opportunity to build an independent career in traditionally male fields of activity, breaking away from the parental family and without the support of her husband, was not possible for many. The majority of educated girls faced misunderstanding and lack of support due to the predominance of traditional patriarchal beliefs in Russian society. All the more admired are those Siberian bestuzhevki who were able not only to realize their knowledge in their professional activities, but also to serve as an example to the next generations of young girls who risked radically changing their fate by going for education from the hinterland to the center of a huge country.
Abstract: The article tells about the special burial sites of the Orthodox population that existed on the territory of Tobolsk and its nearest environs in the late XIX – early XX centuries. It is noted that, despite the closure of cemeteries in the city at the end of the XVIII century, burials were still carried out on the territory of Tobolsk during the studied period.
Attention is paid to the legislative aspect of the commission of such exceptional burials. Specific cases of burials carried out outside the parish cemetery are given. On the basis of these data, it was established that representatives of the highest clergy, merchants and officials, and occasionally burghers could be buried near temples, on the territory of the Tobolsk Znamensky Monastery and the suburban of the Bishop's grove.
The information also shows that there was a cholera cemetery on the left bank of the Irtysh River, which has not been localized yet. In addition, the military could be buried in a military cemetery organized on the territory of the parish cemetery. The article concludes that, there were at least seven necropolises where Orthodox Christians could be buried in the late XIX – early XX centuries in Tobolsk and its environs, in addition to the main parish cemetery.
Abstract: This study reflects the image of the artist and the ways of his formation on the basis of publications in the periodical press of the Russian Empire at the end of the 19th century. An important role in this process was played by the journal “Vestnik izyashchnykh iskusstv”, dedicated to art history problems and descriptions of artists' biographies, works of art of various genres, and aesthetic and philosophical essays. The publication actively published articles by art historians and art critics, which had a significant impact on the formation of the ideological and aesthetic line of the artistic community of the Russian Empire at the end of the 19th century. The purpose of this study was to analyze the publications of the “Vestnik izyashchnykh iskusstv”, dedicated to the work of national and foreign artists of different eras, published between 1883 and 1885 on the pages of the magazine. The subject of the study is the image of the artist, which is created in such publications, as well as the identification of criteria that determine the formation of the artist's creative path and the significance of his contribution to world artistic culture. In this study, with the help of discourse analysis and content analysis, articles by Russian art historians on the life and work of domestic and foreign artists of different eras were considered. Articles devoted to the work of N.S. Mosolov, Michelangelo Buonarroti, Jean-Jacques Charles, V.V. Vereshchagin, V.G. Schwartz and Francisco Goya, as well as a detailed article “Zhenshchiny-khudozhnitsy” (“Women Artists”) – about women in art from antiquity to the 17th century. The study made it possible to establish important criteria that affect the formation of an artist, the formation of his artistic style, and the determination of his contribution to the history of world art. Separately, the aspect of the formation of women artists and the significance of their artistic contribution to the history of world art was considered. And also identified three ways of teaching creativity: academic, natural and innovative.
Abstract: In this article on the basis of archival sources the socio-cultural aspect of the existence of the Znamensky monastic hermitage in the XIX – early XX centuries is considered. The article is based on the materials of the State Archive of Krasnoyarsk region, namely on the fundamental fund on the history of the monastic monastery – Krasnoyarsk Znamensky monastic skete. It contains a variety of documents from the hermitage construction records to the service lists of the brethren. Also of interest are the Yenisei Diocesan Bulletins, a periodical where one can trace aspects of the existence of the monastic monastery.
The Krasnoyarsk Znamensky dormitory skete was unique not only for its location, which required it to be polyfunctional, but also for the composition of its inhabitants, including the founder of the monastery, Philaret. The brethren of the skete provided not only its economic life, showing the nearest settlements an example of everyday life, but also improved and increased the range of their duties and socio-cultural interactions.
The considerable attention in the article is paid to the environment of the hermitage, its interrelationship with it, namely with the city of Krasnoyarsk and the surrounding settlements. The role of the monastery for the surrounding area is considered. Being at the crossroads of both water and land routes to the main provincial center, the monastery became the main link in the unique historical space of Yenisei province. It is worth noting that the skete established both collective socio-cultural ties with the local population and individual ties with patrons of the arts.
Moreover, the authors have considered the main functions of the skete, the expansion of which over time was demanded by the local population. Among the main functions the authors considered: educational, missionary, moral-orienting, socio-cultural animation.
The Znamensky skete influenced the social environment, the local population and the provincial center, playing an important role in its representation; in turn, the historical landscape determined the main functions of the monastery, thus marking the needs for it.
Abstract: This article is devoted to the consideration of the periodical “Zhivaya Starina”, published by the Imperial Russian Geographical Society, as a historical source on the methodology and practice of ethnographic research in the Russian Empire at the end of the 19th century. This journal was published for more than 15 years – from 1890 to 1916. The material for this study was the issues of the journal for the last decade of the 19th century. And the key areas of publications analyzed in the article were the specifics of the methodology of ethnographic research developed by scientists of the late 19th century, and the image of the ethnic groups of Siberia presented in the published results of ethnographic research of the late 19th century. Essential for articles that have program materials addressed to researchers and aimed at defining the tasks of the science of ethnic groups and its methodology (including those published in the first issue of the “Program for collecting information on ethnography”). As a practical result of ethnographic research, the results of which were published in “Zhivaya Starina” journal, the article analyzes materials on Siberian ethnic groups (Kachins and Ostyaks).
Abstract: The article is devoted to the analysis of the “Report about the official trip of the Minister of War to the Don Host Oblast in 1900” of A.N. Kuropatkin. This historical source is interesting because it is a personal narrative of the Minister of War of the Russian Empire, describing a trip to the Don Host Oblast in order to “understand the essence of the life of a Cossack”. Thus, it potentially makes it possible to understand the specifics of the views of the imperial government on the Don Cossacks at the turn of the 19th-20th centuries. However, until now, this text has been relatively little used by historians of the Cossacks (the studies of the Don Cossacks, carried out around the same time by A.N. Kuropatkin’s subordinates, generals P.O. Shcherbov-Nefedovich and N.A. Maslakovets, enjoy great authority). The article shows that this is not accidental. Research optics A.N. Kuropatkin was extremely specific: it is characterized by lack of system, inattention to some important aspects of the problem under study, unpreparedness for in-depth analysis and peremptory judgments. As a result, the minister's report demonstrates his detachment from reality and inability to understand the real problems of the Cossacks (for example, when inspecting the Don schools, he paid great attention to choral singing, but was not at all interested in more important things, such as the curriculum and the competence of teachers). Ultimately, the report of A.N. Kuropatkin clearly demonstrates why the imperial authorities failed to solve the problems of the Cossacks of the late imperial period: in their reform activities, imperial officials sometimes proceeded not from reality, but from a priori ideas about what the Cossacks should be like.
Abstract: The work is devoted to the analysis of the system of public education in the Tambov province during the early XX century.
There were used as sources the documents of the Russian State Historical Archive (St. Petersburg, Russian Federation), as well as published sources: commemorative books and address calendars of the Tambov province and annual reports of the Chief Prosecutor of the Holy Synod.
In conclusion, the authors state that:
1. The secondary education in the Tambov province in 1900–1916 developed dynamically. During this time, the secondary education became available for both boys and girls, both in the provincial center and in almost all counties;
2. The lower vocational education in the province did not become widespread, although there were lower craft schools, a women's vocational school and other institutions in the region;
3. In the field of primary education, there has been a twofold increase in ministerial schools and the number of students in them has also doubled. In the schools of the ecclesiastical department, there was a constant process of reorganizing literacy schools into parochial schools with the simultaneous enlargement of these schools by students. As a result, the average number of students in the parochial school of the Tambov province rose from 34 students in 1900 to 73 students in 1914;
4. By 1915, there were 316,109 school-age children in the Tambov Province, of which 203324 were covered by schools. Thus, in order to implement the project of universal primary education in 1915, it was required to put about 30 % more children at their desks, most of whom were girls.
Abstract: The Omsk-Karkaraly period is meaningful in creative biography of A. Baitursynov, the great educator, politician and poet. It is the start of his enlightening and political activity. During this time, a former unknown state servant became a famous poet and politician, widely recognized among Kazakhs. Performing duties of the state servant, he got a lot of valuable information from A. Alektorov, the well-known Turkologist, and scientist-educator. A. Baitursynov gathered invaluable experience in the system of administrative management and educational and methodological arrangement of enlightenment. In the process of translating practice of I. Krylov 40 fables, he was recognized as a talented poet and translator. Published as a special edition of verses, this translation came into use in educational process of rural schools. The famous Kazakh intelligentsia worked in the city of Omsk. His co-thinkers, A. Bukeikhanov and Zh. Akpaev, shared his political views, and also interested in development of Kazakh society. In the revolutionary 1905 year, he actively participated in social and political life of Akmola and Semey oblasts. A. Baitursynov was among ideological arrangers of “Karkaraly Petition”, and proclaimed social, economic and political demands. Due to repressive policy of authorities Baitursynov imprisoned. It caused a public outcry. Under public pressure the authorities released him from confinement. Emerged from jail, he exiled from Steppe and rested under police supervision till 1917.
Abstract: The article is devoted to the appearance of political organizations of the Russian population of Kyiv in the conditions of the revolution of 1905–1907. The focus is on the history of the Legal Order Party, which was the first political party of the modern type, uniting representatives of the right-wing Russian public in Kyiv. The source base for this study was documents stored in the funds of the State Archives of the Russian Federation (SARF, Moscow) and the Russian State Historical Archives (RGIA, St. Petersburg). In addition, the materials of the regional periodical press were used – the newspapers “Pravo i poryadok” and “Kievlyanin” published in Kyiv. The methodological basis of the study is the theoretical developments of specialists in the field of studying the phenomenon of political parties. Using these conceptual constructions, the author comes to the conclusion that the formation of party structures in the Western Territory took place in a complex multinational composition of the population, consisting of adherents of various religious systems. As historical sources testify, the period of the First Russian Revolution was marked in the southwestern provinces of the Russian Empire by a sharp aggravation of socio-political tension. Under these conditions, there was a consolidation of representatives of the right-wing Russian public – landowners, officials, entrepreneurs. It is proved that Russian nationalism, understood primarily as measures aimed at strengthening the unity and territorial integrity of the Russian state, became the ideological basis of the emerging political groupings that united these population groups. The key ideological and organizational center of Russian nationalism gradually became Kyiv – a university city where a fairly large intelligentsia lived. However, the author comes to the conclusion that the Party of Legal Order gradually turned into a marginal structure. In fact, it was replaced by a new political project – the All-Russian National Union, which was the most solid support for the government of P.A. Stolypin.
Abstract: This article is a source analysis of the articles of the monthly journal “Priroda” published in the Russian Empire in the period from 1912 to 1916. This is the first stage in the history of radio communications in our country. In 1912–1916 the process of radio development is mainly aimed not at improving the technology, but at spreading it, which turned out to be very important for the development of the Russian Arctic zone and other vast and difficult territories. The main purpose of the study is to study the concept of "radio" and its derivatives in the periodical scientific publication – the journal “Priroda (Natyre)” – using the qualitative-quantitative method of content analysis, as well as to reconstruct the history of radio as an element of the history of science and technology of the Russian Empire at the beginning of the 20th century. The particular attention is paid to the use of radiotelegraphy in scientific expeditions, in particular, in the northern and arctic regions, the importance of radio technologies as a means of wireless communication and transmission of textual information is emphasized. The potential of radio for the rapid development of science and technology in the Russian Empire, including during the war years of the First World War, is analyzed.
The history of the development of radio, reflected in such specific historical sources as scientific and popular science articles of the journal “Nature”, shows that scientists and engineers of the Russian Empire in a short time turned scientific discoveries into technologies that contributed to the development of territories, territorial ties, intercontinental communications, international exchange of scientifically significant information. The increase in the number of references to radiotelephony in 1915 was due to the scientific analysis of the importance of radio for military purposes.
Abstract: In the Russian Empire, the course of modernization processes was closely connected with the penetration of new technologies. In particular, this concerned the timber industry, which has been actively developing since the second half of the XIX century. On the example of the joint-stock company of the Nicolae-Pavdinsky Mountain District (Northern Urals) – one of the largest timber companies of the Russian Empire at the beginning of the XX century – it is shown how technology was borrowed.
Materials from regional and central archives have been put into circulation: contracts, correspondence with machine-building firms, trading houses; letters and reports from engineers, management of the administration of the Nicolae-Pavdinsky Mountain District.
It was revealed that the management board of the joint-stock company was interested in the implementation of integrated forest management, the development of deep processing of wood. A large project was a paper mill at the Lyalya station. The involvement of reputable experts in the field of pulp and paper production, production of charcoal contributed to the development of domestic innovations, the dissemination of knowledge about certain aspects of forestry activities. The stimulating role was played by the First World War, the loss by the Russian Empire of part of the western territories where pulp and paper enterprises were located. Extensive correspondence with machine-building plants, trading houses testifies to the desire of the board of the joint-stock company, engineers to establish long-term cooperation with enterprises to obtain the necessary equipment. This was especially evident when ordering paper machines and additional equipment for them. An important role was played by foreign business trips of specialists. It was not possible to implement all the projects due to the revolutionary events and the sharp deterioration of the economic and political situation in the country at the end of 1917.
Abstract: The article considers the charitable activities of the monasteries of the Russian Orthodox Church in the initial period of the First World War, that is, in 1914. There were as sources the published documents and materials of the pre-revolutionary periodical press. Among the published documents, the most important is the “Most Comprehensive report of the Chief Prosecutor of the Holy Synod”, which was published in 1916. The materials of the journal “Tserkovnye vedomosti” are also of great importance in the work.
In conclusion, the authors state that the outbreak of the First World War, due to its scale, required the consolidation of the efforts of all Russian Orthodox monasteries in organizing charitable assistance for those affected by the war. In 1914, this assistance was provided in the following areas: the participation of monks in combat operations as regimental priests; the organization of their own hospital network; the transfer of vacant areas of monasteries to hospitals of other departments; food and other support for both family members called up for war and refugees; organization of sewing workshops for sewing the necessary clothing supplies for the front; provision of medical and moral and spiritual assistance within their competence (sisters of mercy, monks); voluntary monthly deductions from personal income for military needs, as well as the organization of shelters for war orphans. Such a broad charitable activity required the monasteries to spend a lot of money and strain the spiritual and physical strength of its employees. It is obvious that the Great Victory required great sacrifices, and the Russian monastic clergy clearly demonstrated with all their appearance that they were ready for these sacrifices.
Abstract: In the conditions of the First World War, reliable relations between the Allies, based on mutual support, were an important prerequisite for the strength of the front. However, achieving such a level of relations, based on a stable trust in each other, depended not only on the diplomatic efforts of both sides. Of equal importance was the possibility of broadcasting positive information about oneself as an associate in solving military and political tasks. Much also depended on the quality of purposeful influence on the mass consciousness of the population of partner countries and neutral states. The article considers some aspects of such interaction and shows the mechanisms of transmission of substantive and emotional information through public diplomacy. The authors use specific examples to demonstrate the participation of the periodical press in interpreting the events that took place. The press played a significant role in justifying the foreign policy preferences of the Russian Empire during the First World War. The episodes presented in the article, reflected in the periodicals of the war, are convincing evidence that in a complex and volatile environment the methods of public diplomacy were actively used to attract allies and neutral countries to their side. The main part of the article is based on the materials of Russian archives and periodicals of the Great War period.
Abstract: The article deals with the problem of technological solutions during the First World War related to the production of aviation equipment. It is proved that there is in certain technological segments of the aviation industry Russia kept pace with the West. The nature of the war on the Eastern Front and the mistakes of the High Command largely determined the vector of technological development of the Armed Forces of the Russian Empire in the First World War and their air force formations in particular. The authors believe that the tasks of modernizing the Russian Air Force were solved by the spring-summer of 1917, but the policy made its own adjustments, the aviation industry and other segments of the industry fell into decline quite quickly, soon the industrialization of the period of the First World War was completely forgotten. Nevertheless, the experience in the technological sphere remained, which contributed to the continuation of the technological modernization of the aviation industry in Russia after March 1917. The First World War set Russia tasks that its society could not imagine until August 1914. However, Russia managed to create 21 enterprises of the aviation industry by the autumn of 1917, and valuable experience was also gained in the economic and technological development of this industry. The authors aim to show in the article the significant success of the Russian aviation industry during the First World War, as well as achievements in the development of the potential of Russian military aviation as a whole during this period. But the authors also reflect in their work the main shortcomings of the aviation industry of the Russian Empire, which occurred in general from the nature of government and its armed forces.
Abstract: Theater art, one of the brightest manifestations of Russian culture, was changing and transforming at the turn of the 19th – 20th centuries. Among the persons whose work became determinant in these processes were K.S. Stanislavsky, V.I. Nemirovich-Danchenko and V.E. Meyerhold. This article presents an analysis of publications of the Russian periodical press, which reflect the ideas and activities of V. Meyerhold and his associates, aimed at the formation of a new – director's theater, as well as the reaction of the theatrical environment, critics to these experiments. For the study we chose the magazine “Lyubov' k trem apel'sinam”, the publication of which was initiated by V.E. Meyerhold, which published discourses on the art of theater, its essence, the purpose of the actor and understanding of his work, as well as printed detailed answers to questions and claims to Meyerhold's productions, put forward by critics, amateurs and connoisseurs of theater. The magazines “Rampa i zhizn'”, “Teatr i iskusstvo”, “Artist i stsena” were also studied, in which detailed analyses, critical dissections of Meyerhold's theater productions were presented. As a result, conclusions were drawn about the peculiarities of the theatrical art created by Vsevolod Emilievich and about his influence on the Russian theater as a whole.
Abstract: The paper attempts to consider the evolution of the image “Children at War” on the pages of the army newspaper “Soldatskii Vestnik” of the period 1914–1915. As materials, the authors used the files of the newspaper “Soldatskii Vestnik” for 1914–1916.
In conclusion, the authors note that the image “Children at War” on the pages of the army newspaper “Soldatskii Vestnik” in 1914–1915 underwent a significant evolution: August 1914 – demonstration of isolated cases of children's participation in the war; October 1914 – the participation of children in the war is massive, children participate in guerrilla and sabotage operations, are used in reconnaissance and ammunition tray; November 1914 – a minor unarmed scout in a clash with an armed enemy comes out victorious; December 1914 – with the help of a patriotic letter from a minor girl for the “first soldier” and the publication of feedback from the front (a soldier's letter), an attempt is made to strengthen the connection of children of the rear with the soldier masses; January 1915 – publication of generalizing materials about the reasons for children's participation in the war, their motivation and the difficulties of field life; February 1915 – heroism in the war can show not only boys, but also girls.
That is, in the period from August 1914 to February 1915, the theme of children at war evolved from a child as an isolated case to a mass phenomenon and the use of children in a wide variety of operations (up to bayonet attacks and sabotage work). Despite all of the above, after February 1915, the topic "children at war" ceased to be considered on the pages of the newspaper “Soldatskii Vestnik”. The reasons for this was an attempt by the military department to stop glorifying the image of "children at war" in order to reduce the number of cases of minors escaping from home to the theater of military operations.
Abstract: The specificity of the marker identification of the image of post-imperial Russia in the conditions of the formation after 1917 of new political realities and the birth of the country of Soviets is considered. It is shown that the Russian cuisine of the post-revolutionary turn of 1917, acting as a social sign, a symbol of the formation of a new “Soviet” statehood, has a unique semiotic meaning in its space of everyday life. Based on the analysis of personal sources of memory, the authors identify accent markers of food practices and taste preferences of the era under study. The novelty of the study lies in the structural and content analysis of the political transformation and identification of the “new” (Soviet) Russia presented for the first time in the conditions of the collapse of the “old” (imperial) Russia as a result of revolutionary changes in the early twentieth century through the space of cuisine and gastronomy. Parallels are presented in the associative environment “political – taste”, based on the analysis of a wide range of archival and ego documents, the phenomenon of “political gastronomy” is singled out as an object of analysis from the point of view of interdisciplinary historical, political and cultural studies of the space of everyday life of the vector spectrum of the historical path of Russia's development. Conclusions are drawn that the traditions of gastika in Russia of the post-revolutionary turning point of the early twentieth century have become a moving scale for the development of a new society – the “Soviet” society.
Abstract: The article analyzes the history of studying the problem of Kazakh women's equality in the framework of changes in society during the formation of Soviet Kazakhstan. The relevance of the topic lies in the fact that the study of the transformation of the status of women in the Soviet period allows us to assess the situation in modern Kazakhstan, determine strategies and tactics aimed at implementing the gender policy determined by the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The policy of the Soviet Union led to a change in the position and status of women in Kazakhstan, as well as the institution of marriage and family, which subsequently affected the emergence of the problem of the loss of traditional family values. In the course of the analysis of the studies, it was found that when studying the living conditions of the Kazakh people, as a result of Soviet policy, scientists left out sighting the problem of the work of Kazakh women. As a result of the conclusions obtained, the history of the study of the acute women's issue, which began to rise in society after the October Revolution, was divided into several stages and a comparative analysis was carried out.
Abstract: The article examines the history of the activity of the Academic Center under the Kyrgyz (Kazakh) People's Commissariat of Education (1921–1926).
In studying this topic, one should take into account the works in which the activities of public organizations, their members, and the contribution of the intelligentsia to the study of the region are studied. For example, there are not a few scientific papers devoted to the activities of the Society for the Study of Kazakhstan, but in this case the specific object of research is an Academic Center. And the work of this public organization was considered one of the many activities of the Academic Center. Therefore, this study is supposed to reveal in more detail the diverse aspects of the activities of the Academic Center.
Historical sources were obtained from the funds of the Central State Archive of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the United State Orenburg Regional Archive of the Russian Federation. These materials reveal the diverse activities of the Academic Center.
The Academic Center stood at the origins of the formation and development of archives, museums, publishing, secular education, scientific and educational activities at the state level. It contributed to the eradication of illiteracy. The Academic Center was one of the main institutions where the Kazakh intelligentsia was most united.
The Academic Center in its research activities relied on a number of scientific organizations, such as the Society for the Study of Kazakhstan, the Scientific and Pedagogical Society and the Physical and Mathematical Society, Science and Labor, the Orenburg branch of the Russian Geographical Society.
Abstract: The attention to the experience of predecessors in science is dictated by the need to assess the level of development of today's knowledge. This experience is often undeservedly forgotten. That leads to mistakes and misunderstandings. Archaeology is no exception. It is closely connected with modernity, as it allows us to trace the origins of many current ideas, ideas, traits of the national mentality. The policy of the Russian state in the field of archeology development can be enriched by the experience of the state policy of the Russian Empire, an experience that turns out to be instructive and in many ways applicable now. This is due to the relevance of this work. The study of historiography is constructed in accordance with the division into three conditional blocks. The first historiographical block includes works devoted to the development of archeology in Russia as a science and state policy in this direction. To the second – works on the historiography of archeology of individual periods and regions, to the third – the personalities of the pioneers of the national archaeological science. Since the historiographical part accompanies any archaeological work, the article draws attention to the works of recent years, the distinctive feature of which is the appeal to archival materials, the introduction of new sources into circulation. It is such works that the main attention is paid in this article. The use of archaeologists' archives allows modern researchers to reveal new facets of scientific and pedagogical creativity of the pioneers of Russian archaeology and dispel the established scientific myths associated with their activities. As a result of the research, new directions in historiography are highlighted and a conclusion is made about the need to form a new type of scientist – archaeologist-historiographer who has information on various aspects of the humanities, which corresponds to the interdisciplinary nature of modern knowledge.