English (United Kingdom)  Russian (CIS)

Bylye Gody – Russian Historical Journal

E-ISSN 2310-0028
Publication frequency – issued 4 times a year.

Issued from 2006.

3 September 01, 2019


1. Vasilii V. Tarakanov, Sergey D. Ludwig
Aleksandr Cherkasov: A Scholar, Publisher, and Organizer of Research Collaborations (to the 20th Anniversary of the Scholar’s Research and Pedagogical Activity)

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 53. Is. 3: 914-920.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.3.914CrossRef

This paper addresses the research and pedagogical activity of Aleksandr Arvelodovich Cherkasov, Doctor of Historical Sciences, which spans the period between 1999 and 2019. The author goes over relevant biographical information on the scholar, discusses a set of key research findings by him, and describes his overall publication activity. The author notes that over the 20-year period spanning his research and pedagogical career the scholar has worked real hard to lay the groundwork for his research school. Mr. Cherkasov managed to progressively work his way from a humble position as an instructor’s assistant all the way up the actual administrative ladder, reaching the level of Candidate of Sciences and the rank of Prorector for Research and Innovation. Only after years of experience doing administrative work would the scholar actually go on to undertake the establishment of a research center of his own and engage in the implementation of a number of other projects, including commercial ones.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1567325295.pdf
Number of views: 648      Download in PDF

2. Andrey A. Pushkarev
Nuremberg Jetons of XVI–XIX centuries in Russia

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 53. Is. 3: 921-934.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.3.921CrossRef

The article focuses on the study of Nuremberg jetons as a unique phenomenon of the late XVI to the XIX centuries in the Russian territory. For the first time presented is an overview of all the jetons found in the territory of modern Russia that come from archaeological sites, ethnographic and random collections. For a better presentation of this material, description of the finds is divided according to three geographical areas, namely, the European part of Russia and Povolzhye; Western Siberia; and Eastern Siberia and the Far East. The mapping of the locations where the Nuremberg jetons were found allowed identifying the specific features of their distribution across the territories and constitutes an integral part of the article. More specifically, in the European Russia, the majority of the finds comes from the region of Povolzhye, whereas in Western Siberia, the distribution is more or less equal across the whole area. In Eastern Siberia and the Far East, there is a cluster of the finds in the Priolkhonye region; the rest are spread across the wider area. The article contains a large reference section which is a product of the author’s many-year work on accumulating publications on the Nuremberg jetons found in the Russian territory.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1567088314.pdf
Number of views: 553      Download in PDF

3. Andrey Yu. Dvornichenko, Regina-Elizaveta A. Kudrayvtseva
The Phenomenon of Great Duchy of Lithuania in a Scholar Discourse on the Boundary of Millenniums

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 53. Is. 3: 935-955.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.3.935CrossRef

This article is devoted to the analyses of contemporary studies of Great Duchy of Lithuania. The authors mean the history of GDL before the Union of Lublin (1569) during a period of independently development of this state, because the next period is separate theme. The authors consider GDL as a sort of phenomenon. In the foundation of such phenomenon lay the history of GDL itself and also very complex and multinational historiography. According to author’s opinion a main task which stands in front of an international team of historians is to understand the character and essence of this statehood though there are many other interesting themes: foreign policy, confessions, culture etc. The historiography of such countries as Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, Poland, Russia is studied in this article. All these countries connect with a legacy of GDL. A main task of this article is not to collect and study the whole bibliography devoted to the history of GDL. An aim is to discover and to characterize the main national trends in studying of this statehood. The roots of contemporary crisis one can find in past century. The main reasons of this crisis now are an absence of some coordination between the countries in studying GDL, an intention to connect this history only with one country and also some intention to modernize the history of GDL. The last feature of contemporary historiography directly connects with a refusal to find archaic traditions in the history of this statehood and to use the methods of contemporary political anthropology.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1567088384.pdf
Number of views: 578      Download in PDF

4. Peter P. Chuvatkin, Sviatoslav A. Gorbatov
Institutional Framework of Youth Tourism in Pre-Revolutionary Russia

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 53. Is. 3: 956-963.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.3.956CrossRef

The study of the institutional framework of youth tourism in the pre-revolutionary period makes it possible to identify those laws of the tourism development that escape notice of scientists, who have set a later period as the starting point. The article conducted a retrospective analysis of the development of youth tourism from the ХVII to the early ХХ centuries. As a result of the analysis, it was revealed that the beginning of the development of youth tourism is associated with the formation of the Russian state, with the objective need of the state for educated young people from noble families in order to form competent government bodies. The first trips of young people outside the young Russian state are connected with the need for them to receive new knowledge – both in the exact sciences and general information about the life, languages and traditions of the peoples of Europe. However, such trips met resistance from the church and upperclass society. Everything has changed after the tough Peter’s break of the usual foundations. The first emperor of Russia allocated budgetary funds for educational trips to Europe for children of poor and ruined noblemen, education became the primary task. The article shows that as the Russian state strengthens, the national economy develops, society becomes interested in educational tourism, studying and learning about their country, that is, domestic youth tourism begins to develop and the corresponding institutional framework begins to form. A large role in the development of youth tourism at the end of the nineteenth century was played by public organizations such as the Crimean Mountain Club, the Russian Mining Society, the Society for the Promotion of Technical Knowledge, and many other organizations. The analysis of the development of youth tourism in the pre-revolutionary period carried out in the article made it possible to identify three stages in the development of youth tourism, differing in areas, goals and sources of financing tourist trips and the stage of involvement of various institutions. Thus, the article proves that the sources of tourism in general and youth tourism in particular, on the one hand, are associated with certain economic processes, on the other hand, they are formed by sociocultural human nature.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1567088448.pdf
Number of views: 514      Download in PDF

5. Leonid V. Sidorenko
The Jacobite Movement in the Context of the Counter-Revolution in the British Isles after the Glorious Revolution of 1688–1689

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 53. Is. 3: 964-973.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.3.964CrossRef

Despite the fact that during the Glorious Revolution of 1688–1689 the transition of power from James II to William of Orange was accompanied by a phenomenal unity of almost all forces of the country, a significant minority was formed soon in the British Isles, remaining loyal to the deposed monarch, whose supporters were named Jacobites. Their movement took the form of counter-revolution, representing a direct reaction of dissatisfied social groups to the revolutionary change of power. On the basis of theoretical ideas about the counter-revolution and analytical information about Jacobite movement the author of the article examines Jacobitism in context of development of English counter-revolution as a response to the Glorious Revolution. The article concludes that counter-revolutionary movement was very heterogeneous, and its participants defended different interests. In addition to the external counter-revolution represented by Louis XIV, who used the Jacobite emigrants to influence England, domestic counter-revolutionary sentiments played a huge role, the danger of which was increased because of different interpretations of the Glorious Revolution by the members of the Church of England and the party system. Jacobite movement was more vivid on the periphery of the British Isles, where Irish counter-revolution was defeated during the short civil war, and in Scotland Jacobites for more than half a century maintained its position, relying not so much on loyalty to the Stuarts, but rather on the possibility of using them to solve local political and social problems. As a result, it was the dominance of private interests that caused the Jacobites to be defeated, contributing to the final victory of the revolution settlement.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1567088569.pdf
Number of views: 640      Download in PDF

6. Ludmila V. Mininkova, Tayjana Ju. Ajdunova
From the Antichrist to the Revolutionary: Peter the Great in the National Socio-Historical Discourse of the XVIII – early XX century

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 53. Is. 3: 974-985.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.3.974CrossRef

Peter the Great as one of strongest and most sustainable lieu de mémoire was represented in different forms. They included short one-word characteristics of the czar. They are to be considered as important historical source for the study of public consciousness of Modern Russia. Even short, they meant important information that was connected with attitudes of various social groups towards czar. First of them were formed in public consciousness of Peter’s epoch and one of the most important was image of the czar as czar-Antichrist. The latest image, czar-revolutioner, was introduced by Alexander Gertcen. Among these characteristics were both critical and apologetical. Critical characteristics, for instance, czar-Antichrist, was formed among mass people and developed within society. In post-reform period till the beginning of 20th century, during the crisis of Russian autocracy, these ideas were developed among democratic intelligencia. Apologetic ideas were given by educated people who recognized input of the czar in the development of education in Russia and by people who were closed to the authorities. Among of the most popular characteristics of the czar were hero, navigator, worker and reformer. The desire to generate godly image to Peter the Great was not developed. Also, image of Peter – revolutioner could not be considered as apologetic or critical.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1567088639.pdf
Number of views: 508      Download in PDF

7. Konstantin V. Samokhin
War Influence on Spirit Development of Russian Socium during 18th –the first half of the 19th centuries: Modernization or Protomodernization

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 53. Is. 3: 986-997.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.3.986CrossRef

War influence on the mentality of different social groups in the Russian Empire during the 18th – the first half of the 19th centuries are analyzed in the paper. The theory of modernization is the methodological base of the article. It is interpreted classically as the transition from the traditional (agrarian) society to the modern (industrial) one. Modernization for Russia in the imperial period is defined as ‘catching up’. It has the wave base and the mobilization character. The “challenges” of the Western civilization played the great role for Russian modernization. The thesis is proved that the intensity of modernization processes including the spiritual ones depended on military actions scale and their results for the Russian state. Patriarchal relations (or paternalism), religiousness, monarchism, balanced land tenure principles (or social justice), communal collectivism are considered as the main characteristics for the mentality of the traditional Russian socium. They had to receive to the serious changes during the modernization pressure. The thesis is substantiated that spiritual modernization processes of the Russian society did not take shape. It is explained by the local and continental scale and the victorious result for the Russian Empire of the Great Northern war and the Napoleonic wars. The asynchrony of different modernization types played the great role in that aspect. In particular the late beginning of Russian socium’s social transition from traditional society to the industrial one stipulated late taking shape of modernization in the spiritual direction. It insists the author to come to the conclusion that it is necessary to interpret processes of Russian population’s majority mentality till the middle of the 19th century as the protomodernization

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1567088810.pdf
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8. Aleksandra V. Spichak
Female Adultery in the Russian Empire in the middle of the XVIII – XIX centuries (on materials of the Tobolsk Diocese)

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 53. Is. 3: 998-1007.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.3.998CrossRef

The purpose of this article is to consider one of the parties to the marriage in the Russian Empire in the middle of the XVIII–XIX centuries – female adultery. The tasks are to study the attitude to this offense of the Russian Orthodox Church and society, the analysis of the practice of documentation in the spiritual consistories of this vice, as well as punishing women for adultery. The article reveals the historical aspects of the regulation of liability for adultery committed during marriage. The author analyzes the documentation of the Tobolsk Spiritual Consistory, deposited in the State Archive of Tobolsk on female adultery during this period. The basic powers are revealed at consideration of marriage and family affairs by spiritual Consistory. The article identifies the causes of female adultery. The main attention is paid to the content of the affairs of the Tobolsk spiritual consistory of adultery. The hypothesis that in the middle of XVIII–XIX centuries the public attitude to women's infidelity was softened is confirmed, the conclusion about existence of a uniform type of punishment for adultery – penance is drawn. However, it is also established that in addition to this Church punishment could be used whipping, excommunication, exile. The severity of the censure and punishment of treason has declined over the past five centuries. Legislative changes also indicate a change in public opinion regarding adultery.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1567088920.pdf
Number of views: 516      Download in PDF

9. Andrey S. Ryazhev
Old Believers’ Re-Emigration in early 1750-ies: the Southern Program of Russian Authorities

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 53. Is. 3: 1008-1016.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.3.1008CrossRef

The article mainly concentrates on the state religious policy of the middle of the 18th century — the least studied period in the process of formation of Russian religious tolerance in the early Modern Time. The formation of a special direction of the state activity — the organization and support of the re-emigration of Old Believers who fled from Russia since the end of the 17th century, and their descendants, investigated for the first time in historiography. The author characterizes the prerequisites and the most important processes of the formation of the policy of southern re-emigration, conventionally called there the southern program, on the basis of little-known unpublished materials. Most attention is paid to the pragmatic and enlightenment foundations of the southern program of re-emigration, resulting from the priorities of the development of outskirts of the Russian Empire and implying the settlement of the state lands and the strengthening of the presence of the fugitive population on them. The author states in conclusion that the elements of religious tolerance, manifested by the local military-civil administration and supported by the Supreme power, led to a relatively rapid inclusion of fugitives, accumulated near the borders, in the system of the state feudalism, and their fixation in the southern spaces of New Russia.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1567088986.pdf
Number of views: 524      Download in PDF

10. Daglara V. Amaeva, Aleksandr N. Komandzhaev, Natalya P. Matsakova, Ludmila V. Okonova
Water Supply of the Kalmyk Steppe of the Astrakhan Province in the XIX – beginning of the XX century: Problems and Ways of their Solution

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 53. Is. 3: 1017-1024.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.3.1017CrossRef

The Kalmyk Republic is located in the driest part of the South of the Russian Federation. Permanent water supplies are needed to allow livestock to survive on its arid plains. Water supply from «Artesian» bores underpinned the development of cattle breeding in Kalmykia. «Artesian» water is clean, predominantly fresh water flooding up from underground. But nowadays water pressure is starting to decline, and there is recognition that the groundwater resource needs to be better managed. The article investigates and analyses the ways of water supply in the Kalmyk steppe in the XIX – XXth centuries. The authors based their study on archive documents and books written before the Russian revolution in 1917. These works described the importance of water for life in harsh environment where droughts were common, the impact of water supply for moving of the Kalmyks and establishing permanent settlements along water routes. Special attention was given to the quality of water. The authors of the article investigated how the problem of water supply was solved by the Kalmyks and state authorities. The Kalmyks dug deep wells in the steppe called «huduk», and then artesian bores and wells. This work required amount of time and expense to maintain them.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1567089040.pdf
Number of views: 484      Download in PDF

11. Artem Y. Filimonov, Vladimir N. Baryshnikov, Viktor N. Borisenko, Elena G. Shchemeleva
“Trying to Be Sharp, Trying to Make Money”: American Civil War Northern Participants’ Imagination of Their Peacetime Career

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 53. Is. 3: 1025-1035.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.3.1025CrossRef

This article concerns the way the Federal army servicemen viewed their antebellum and postwar career. The research is based on diaries and letters of the Union officers and men coming from diverse social backgrounds and geographical regions of the Nineteenth Century USA. Union Army officers’ and privates’ attitude towards their antebellum economic activity is not formed solely by nostalgia and is in many ways critical. At the same time, their evaluation of the war’s influence on their future postwar career is, with some exceptions, overwhelmingly negative. Nevertheless, Union army service members cannot be esteemed as lost and panicked in the face of their postwar future. For instance, self-sufficient married farmers were expecting to get back to their prewar labor of being farm owners and heads of their families. Many soldiers and officers of young age from both rural and urban areas came to general understanding of what trade or other type of economic activity they want to choose. Moreover, some of them had already found a specific employer or their own enterprise before the conflict ended. It is important to admit that not all of them based their career plans on pure economic rationality – for many of them such factors as proximity to their relatives or fulfillment of their individual promise were more vital than level of income. Another significant part of the source material used in this article presents the situation of choice between several career options.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1567089431.pdf
Number of views: 481      Download in PDF

12. Vladimir A. Tomsinov
The Idea of the Constitution in the Projects of State Reforms of the Russian Emperor Alexander I

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 53. Is. 3: 1036-1048.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.3.1036CrossRef

The article is devoted to the attempts of Emperor Alexander I to introduce the Constitution and representative institutions in Russia. The idea of the Constitution was the core idea of the state reforms of Emperor Alexander I. It followed from the main idea of these reforms and was supposed to be their ultimate goal. During his nearly twenty-five-year reign, Alexander I, at least three times started to develop a draft Constitution for the Russian Empire with the intention to put it into effect, but did not dare to do it. The author shows that these attempts were not a "game of reform", but were seriously prepared activities. And the refusal to implement them had serious grounds. The most significant reason for the preservation of the autocratic system in Russia was the need for fundamental social reforms, among which were especially overdue: the abolition of serfdom, systematization of legislation, the elimination of the traditional mechanism of the court and the creation of a real system of justice, the formation of a new system of local government. The autocratic power of the Emperor, assuming not the connection of his person by representative institutions and laws, the independence of his person from various social groups, etc. allowed him to become a sufficiently effective instrument of fundamental social transformations that meet the interests of the Russian state and relatively easy to overcome the resistance to these transformations on the part of certain segments of society.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1567154492.pdf
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13. Violetta S. Molchanova, Leonid L. Balanyuk, Evgeniya V. Vidishcheva, Irina I. Potapova
The Development of Primary Education on the Cossack Territories in 1803–1917 years (on the Example of the Kuban Region). Part 1

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 53. Is. 3: 1049-1058.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.3.1049CrossRef

The article deals with the development of the primary education system on the territory of the Kuban Cossack army in 1803-1917 years. This part focuses on the period from 1803 to the end of the XIX century. The russian scientific literature on the history of public education in the Caucasus, and in particular in the Kuban region (the modern territory of the Krasnodar Krai, Russian Federation) was used as materials. The methodological basis of the study was the traditional historiography principles of historicism, scientific objectivity and consistency. In the process of work the following methods were used – problem-chronological, which allowed to study some facts of the development of the system of public education in the Kuban region in chronological order, and the problems in the order of their receipt. Thanks to this method some characteristic features of development of school business both on the territory of the Kuban region, and as in the Caucasus a whole were revealed. In conclusion, the authors state that the primary school in the Cossack Kuban villages during the XIX century had its characteristic differences. So, the raised age limit was regulated for pupils, not from the age of 7, but from 9. For a long time the training was intended only for boys in the Kuban villages, however, since 1865, the female learning began to develop slowly. Despite the measures to improve the content of the teaching staff, this work was not enough and up to the beginning of the 20th century, there was a staff turnover in schools, first of all, in primary schools.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1567191362.pdf
Number of views: 489      Download in PDF

14. Sergey S. Belousov
Resettlement of Trade and Craft Population to the Kalmyk Lands of Astrakhan Province in the Context of the State Trade Policy (XIX – early XX centuries)

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 53. Is. 3: 1059-1066.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.3.1059CrossRef

The article analyzes the policy of the russian authorities towards traders and artisans who moved to the kalmyk lands. The reasons and results of migrations of the trade and craft population to Kalmykia are considered, their influence on social, economic and cultural development of kalmyk society is shown. It was found that the settlement of traders in the kalmyk lands was not due to the purposeful policy of the state, and the lack of kalmyks of their professional layer of traders. The state and the kalmyks tolerated the migrations of traders and artisans, because they, firstly, were not of a mass character, secondly, did not lead to a mass seizure of land, and thirdly, the activities of immigrants were in demand by the kalmyk society and did not undermine its vital interests. The strategic line of the Imperial leadership of Russia in trade policy in the kalmyk lands was that the state did not prevent the kalmyks from engaging in trade, but at the same time did not encourage this kind of activity. The top leadership did not connect the future of the kalmyk people with the wide spread of trade relations among them, seeing them as a source of bad influence on the morality of the kalmyk people. By allowing the settlement in the Kalmyk Steppe of a certain number of merchants and artisans of non-kalmyk origin, the state also regulated their stay and activities and supervised them. The main instruments regulating the presence of foreign trade and craft contingent in the kalmyk lands were the lease and issuance of trade certificates for the implementation of trade activities. The trade and craft population, despite its small number, made a significant contribution to the creation of stationary settlements of Kalmykia, the development of trade and crafts, the establishment of international communications.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1567089865.pdf
Number of views: 473      Download in PDF

15. Sergey I. Degtyarev, Lyubov G. Polyakova, Olesia I. Yehorova, Jasmin Gut
Yakov I. Kostenetsky (1811−1885): Life of a Typical Representative of the Noble Intelligentsia of the XIX century

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 53. Is. 3: 1067-1077.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.3.1067CrossRef

The article explores the biography and creative legacy of the writer, lawyer and publicist of the XIX century – Yakov Kostenetsky (1811-1885). The authors of the article consider him a typical representative of the intelligentsia of the middle – second half of the XIX century. He received a good education, many years of his life he gave public service – military and civil. Ya. Kostenetsky took an active part in public life. He maintained acquaintance with many people, among whom were famous poets and writers, government and public figures – M. Lermontov, P. Antonovich, A. Herzen and many others. He took part in an anti-government group led by Sungurov. Ya. Kostenetsky as a researcher was interested in various topics, including beekeeping, some issues of legal science, history. The most valuable works of Kostenetsky, the authors relate his memories about the people with whom he was familiar, and about the events in which he participated or who witnessed.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1567089992.pdf
Number of views: 531      Download in PDF

16. Lydia A. Kryzhko, Petr I. Pashkovsky, Evgenia I. Davydova, Pavel I. Shipilin
The British Russophobia in the first half of the XIX century: the Political Aspect

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 53. Is. 3: 1078-1085.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.3.1078CrossRef

The article considers the problem of the political of the British Russophobia in the first half of the XIX century. It is established that in this period the imperative of the foreign policy strategy of Great Britain, which was the leading world power, was to maintain the balance of power in an effort to preserve and, if possible, increase global domination. Strengthening the military-political power and the international influence of the Russian Empire stimulated the British elites to develop methods to counter the imbalance. The clash of the geopolitical interests of London and Petersburg, in particular with regard to Poland and the Eastern Question, intensified the British anti-Russian information campaign, which was aimed at shaping Russophobic attitudes in British society and in the international arena. Based on the analysis of a broad source base and numerous studies, it is revealed that in the period under review, the genesis and spread of Russophobic sentiments among the political elite of Great Britain and their projection regarding the foreign policy aspirations of the Russian empire. Indicators of the birth of British Russophobia were the publication in 1817 of the mentioned work of R. Wilson, who by that time was already known for his anti-Russian views, and the public’s reaction to it, which was manifested in a number of reviews in the local media. Against the background of the prevailing critical perception of R. Wilson’s Russophobic statements, the reviews of his work contained reflections on the growing «Russian threat» and the possibility of Russia's aggressive actions. This contributed to the spread of anti-Russian views in Britain, a manifestation of which was the publication in 1828 of the book by G. Evans, which initiated the heated debate of a frankly Russophobic orientation.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1567090074.pdf
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17. Dmitrii V. Bodnarchuk
The Image of the "West" on the Pages of Magazines "Notes of the Fatherland" and "Son of the Fatherland" in the 20s, 30s of XIX century

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 53. Is. 3: 1086-1095.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.3.1086CrossRef

The concept of "West" is one of the most important in Russian culture from the XIX century to the present time. It is used as "other" in disputes about the "essence" of Russian society and the state. However, attempts to find out when, how and where this concept has entered the Russian culture has not yet been undertaken. According to the author's assumption, based on the analysis of the journal "notes of the Fatherland" for 1818−1831 and the journal "Son of the Fatherland" for 1818-1836, the concept of "West" was borrowed by Russian intellectuals from Western European culture. Russia became "East" so that Western Europe could feel "West". At the same time, Russian intellectuals ceased to perceive Russia as a "Northern" country. This change occurred around the 30s of the XIX century. The Russian translation of Western European French and German historical and artistic texts into Russian served as a channel for translating these concepts into the semantic field of Russian culture. On the pages of "Domestic notes" and "Son of the Fatherland" "West" is most often found in translated texts. In parallel with the assimilation of the concept of "West" there was the assimilation of Oriental discourse, which was also a product of Western European intellectual thought. The time when the concept of "West" became firmly established and began to manifest itself in Russian culture can be considered conditionally 1836, the publication of the First philosophical letter of P.Ya. Chaadayev and the ensuing discussion. This text was of Russian origin, but the "West" is used there as one of the key semantic concepts.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1567090142.pdf
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18. Gulnar T. Mominova, Gulzada O. Charginova, Mustafa Giritlioglu, Akbota A. Kasymova
From History of Accession of the Senior Zhuz to the Russian Empire: Prerequisites and Reasons

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 53. Is. 3: 1096-1105.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.3.1096CrossRef

The article on the basis of archival materials covers the reasons and prerequisites of history of accession of the Senior Zhuz to the Russian Empire. In the early 20-ies of the XIX century on the territory of the Senior Zhuz there was no unified power. Under these conditions, the rulers of the Kazakhs of Semirechye and southern Kazakhstan for many reasons began to accept Russian citizenship. The process of joining the territory of the Senior Zhuz to the Russian Empire lasted for more than a century. The first documentary sources, evidence of the facts of the address Khan Julbaris and influential persons of the Senior Zhuz to the Imperial government with the request to take them under Russian protection, recorded at the end of the first third of the XVIII century However, once the invasion of Dzungarian troops in the southern Kazakh steppe and the murder of Khan Julbaris have slowed the process for many decades. In the second half of the XVIII century Kazakh Khan Abylay managed to unite under his command numerous tribal groups of Middle and Senior zhuzes. After his death, the tribal associations of the Senior Zhuz, who roamed in the territory of Semirechye, pass under the control of his sons, the sultans Adil and Suyuk. Soon, subject to Sultan Adil kind of tribe Dulat, proclaim his Khan. In 1814, Khan Adil was forced to recognize the protectorate of the more powerful Kokand ruler Omar Khan. The next stage in the history of the acceptance by Kazakhs of the great juz the protection of Russia was an appeal to the Imperial authorities of the Sultan Sujuka Ablaihanova. January 18, 1819 the Russian government officially recognized the subservient Sultan Suyuk genera zhalayyr, uysun and part of the tribal group’s shapyrashty Russian subjects. In 1824, 14 sultans, descendants of Abylay Khan, joined the Russian citizenship. At the same time, the process of registration of the Zhetysu region within the Russian Empire took place in the conditions of military and political confrontation of the tsarist authorities with the Kokand khanate and the Qing Empire.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1568204092.pdf
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19. Elena K. Sklyarova, Madina A. Gutieva, Olga N. Kamalova, Liliya T. Zaseeva
The Rise of the Public Health System in Russian Empire and Great Britain in XIX – the beginning of the XX century

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 53. Is. 3: 1106-1114.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.3.1106CrossRef

– beginning of the XX century. On the historical-anthropological, comparative and historical-genetic methods of research, the authors analyze the features of the evolution of the terms «public health» and «Ministry of health» in Great Britain and Russia, and the creation of relevant system of public administration. Medical Board, and the Central Administration of State Health, established in Russian Empire on the eve of Russian revolution of 1917, according the decree of the Emperor Nicolay II was not the first Ministry of health in the world. The terms «public health», «Ministry of health» appeared for the first time in legislative documents of United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland during the epoch of industrial revolution and urbanization. However, in XIX century the proposals of reformers about social state, where water supply, gas, burial must belong to the state, being the object of social policy, but not only the object of commerce, initially caused discontent of parliament. Later medico-social ideas of British public figures J. Bentham and E. Chadwick formed the basis for the first «Act for promoting the Public Health, 1848» and the establishment of Ministry of health of Great Britain. The founders of the public health system of Russian Empire developed these ideas on the eve of Russian revolution 1917. Until the ХХ century, different state medical offices of health care management in Russian Empire and Great Britain were the part of the Ministry of Internal Affairs.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1567090350.pdf
Number of views: 581      Download in PDF

20. Tatiana S. Minaeva, Daniil S. Zaozerskiy, Maksim Yu. Zadorin
Mammal Hunting in the Russian North in the second half of the XIX – early XX centuries in the context of the All-Russian Modernization

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 53. Is. 3: 1115-1124.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.3.1115CrossRef

The article examines the process of improving the technical aspect of the mammal hunting in the Russian North in the second half of the XIX – early XX centuries based on the concept of catch-up modernization. The sources for the publication are the documents of the State Archive of the Arkhangelsk Region, the publications of the Arkhangelsk Provincial Statistical Committee and the regional periodical press of the XIXth – early XXth centuries, as well as scientific publications on relevant topics. The authors consider the qualitative change in mammal hunting and determine the reasons for these changes. The paper substantiates the provision on the continuous process of modernization of the mammal hunting as a result of growing competition in the development of natural resources. The pace of modernization in the study period did not remain the same and depended on external and internal factors. The theoretical and practical significance of this work is in the possibility of using its results in preparing a prospective study that would systematize the Russian experience in Russian Arctic exploration in the XIX – early XX centuries, as well as in the development of the theoretical courses on the history of the exploration of the North-West sector of the Russian Arctic.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1567090562.pdf
Number of views: 562      Download in PDF

21. Marianna M. Shakhnovich, Andrei Y. Tyzhov, Danil S. Popov
The Discussion on Stoicism in Russian Thought of the second half of the 19th – early 20th century and the History of the Study of Christianity

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 53. Is. 3: 1125-1133.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.3.1125CrossRef

The aim of the article is to identify and analyze the polemical discourse in Russian thought in the second half of the 19th – early 20th century about the relationship of Stoic philosophy and Christianity in the period of the emergence of the early Christian church, as well as the formation of Christian doctrine and its moral component. In preparing the article, methodological principles of intellectual history were used, with attention being paid to the existence in that period in Russia of two trends in the history of religion in general and in the history of Christianity in particular: confessional and academic, regulated by strict censorship frameworks. The article is based on the methods characteristic to the intellectual history and disciplinary history of science. The use of these methodological foundations made it possible to identify and analyze an interesting discussion in the Russian social thought, which has not lost its relevance in our days. In the framework of this discussion three points of view were formed. According to the first two opinions, which relied on church tradition, Christian moralizing did not experience any influence from the side of Greco- Roman philosophy in general, and Stoicism in particular. The similarity of many ideas of Stoicism and Christianity revealed in antiquity was explained by supporters of the first point of view by the presence of a common source or a reflection of common opinions. Proponents of the second point of view explained this similarity by the influence of Christianity on Stoic philosophy. The adherents of the third point of view, supporting the opinion of the contemporary European scientific critics, believed that Stoicism, along with neo-Platonism and Jewish messianism, had a significant impact on the Christian doctrine.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1567154618.pdf
Number of views: 510      Download in PDF

22. Lyudmila V. Shkvarya
Some Aspects of Russian-Chinese Relations in the second half of the XIX сentury. Part 1

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 53. Is. 3: 1134-1143.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.3.1134CrossRef

The article is devoted to the relationship between the two empires at the turn of the centuries: Russian and Chinese, as well as the history of the construction of the Chinese-Eastern railway as a kind of culmination of these relations. The work gives a general description of Russian-Chinese diplomatic relations since the beginning of diplomatic interaction between the two states, describes in detail the mutual relations of the parties in the second half of the XIX century, their goals when concluding the secret Moscow Treaty of 1896 (generally accepted historical name of the Russian-Chinese Treaty of Alliance of Russia and China against Japan), as well as the possibility of realization of their objectives. The problems of the Russian-Chinese Convention of 1898, the lease of the Liaodong Peninsula, and the construction of a naval base in Port Arthur are also directly discussed.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1567090926.pdf
Number of views: 480      Download in PDF

23. Larisa J. Anisimova, Boris E. Andusev, Evgeny A. Akhtamov, Iliya S. Sheviakov
The Polish Political Exile in the Yenisei Government in the second part of XIX century

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 53. Is. 3: 1144-1152.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.3.1144CrossRef

The article covers the problems of political exile by the example of Yenisei government in the second part of XIX century. The article has been based on the materials of Krasnoyarsk regional archival agency, State archive of Russian Federation, State archive of Irkutsk region, publicist essays, scientific and popular articles. These sources allow the authors to understand the local peculiarities of life of political convicts. The process of formation of Polish political exile has been emphasized in the article. The several aspects have been considered: the peculiarities of Polish national-liberation movement which became the main reason of political exile, the number of political convicts in the Yenisei government according to the places of their living, the principles of central and local authorities in their policy in convicts’ settlement (there/not there spare lands, the possibility to make contacts between convicts less frequent). The article shows the life courses of some Polish convicts, the distinctive features of relations among political convicts, occupations they were allowed to be involved in. There were many of political convicts who devoted themselves to various crafts and farming. The Polish convicts became professional teachers and medics, even though they were not allowed to do so. The local authorities gave them informal approval and support since there were very few native specialists. The archival documents contain evidences of exemplary conduct of political convicts in spite of difficult life circumstances. More over the locals and the convicts had good relations. The authors have come to the conclusion that Polish political exile was significant phenomenon of cultural life in Yenisei province, elevated the standards of culture among the Siberians. The posterity of political convicts made considerable contribution to the Yenisei province development. With the completion of the exile, some of the Polish convicts returned to their home land, the others remained throwing their lots in with Siberia.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1567091107.pdf
Number of views: 490      Download in PDF

24. Elena V. Burlutskaya (Bannikova), Yuliya O. Kurenkova
Casual Clandestine. Female Sex Workers in Towns of Orenburg Governorate in the Second half of the XIX century

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 53. Is. 3: 1153-1166.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.3.1153CrossRef

The purpose of the study in this article is to analyze the data related to prostitution in the cities of the Orenburg Governorate in the post-reform period. As a result of the reforms in the 1860s and 1870s, modernization and urbanization accelerated, setting a huge mass of the population in motion, tearing them away from their familiar social environment, their families and relatives. In these circumstances, cities became centers of attraction not only for men looking for a better life, but also for women providing sexual services. In the second half of the 19th century, prostitution gradually evolved from a crime against public morals into a state-regulated trade with its own working conditions, labor relations, working hours, professional rules and competencies. This article, based on the data of official statistics and various narrative sources, provide a study of townswomen of Orenburg Governorate working in the field of sexual services, analyze their quantity, age, national and class composition, marital status, their age when they became involved in prostitution and for how long they were sex workers, as well as distinguishing features of this field of informal employment of women in the remote southeastern province of the Russian Empire. Data on prostitution within the studied region, the neighboring Samara and remote Smolensk Governorates shows that there are certain differences that are connected with the transformation of the Orenburg province into a region of mass migration.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1567091258.pdf
Number of views: 482      Download in PDF

25. Kristina A. Kuzoro
Scientific School as a Form of Organization of Research Activities of Church Historians at the Moscow Theological Academy (second half of XIX – first quarter of XX century)

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 53. Is. 3: 1167-1177.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.3.1167CrossRef

Studying the research activities of church historians of the second half of XIX – the first quarter of XX centuries on the example of the Moscow Theological Academy, it can be noted that it possesses the characteristics inherent in the scientific school in the modern sense. One of such signs is formed directions of scientific research, the results of which are presented in the form of dissertations for academic degrees. In the Academy there were defended master’s and doctoral dissertations on the history of the ancient church, church history of Egypt and Ethiopia, Western and Southern Slavs; Byzantinistics; the history of the Russian Orthodox Church; the history of Old Believers, common faith and sectarianism; liturgics and church archeology. Signs of the scientific school, manifested in the activities of the Academy, are: the presence of the founder, scientific leader, as well as followers connected with him by student relations (such leaders were A.V. Gorskiy, A.P. Lebedev, E.E. Golubinskiy, etc.); the presence of the research program proposed by the school’s creator, which becomes the basis of the activities of the research team; unity and continuity of scientific interests and methodology; the relationship of teaching and research functions in the work of the research team; the scientific importance of the problems studied, the recognition of the results by the scientific community beyond the circle of direct colleagues. The scientific school performed research, pedagogical, communication, educational, moral and ethical functions. Among church historians, research has not been separated from regular work with students; there was interaction with the Academy of Sciences, scientific societies, secular scientists – historians, philologists, archeologists, ethnographers. The presence in the Moscow Theological Academy of its own scientific school is an important sign of the maturity and independence of ecclesiastical historical science.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1567091371.pdf
Number of views: 510      Download in PDF

26. Irina N. Litvinova, Oksana A. Karagodina
Business National Circles of the Russian City in the late XIX – early XX century (on the Example of Tsaritsyn)

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 53. Is. 3: 1178-1186.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.3.1178CrossRef

The spheres of activity of business national circles – Russians and Germans, Jews, Armenians, Tatars, representing the trade and industrial potential of Tsaritsyn/on the Volga are considered. The national composition of the local merchant Corporation is analyzed as well as problems of obtaining permission to reside in the city by the Jewish merchants from the township of settling. The ethnic composition of Tsaritsyn inhabitants is determined, in addition to the directions and preferences of commercial activity of representatives of entrepreneurial groups of national communities. On the basis of documentary sources the brightest and most influential entrepreneurs are identified, who contributed both to the development of their communities and economy and socio-cultural life of the city. The factor of creative potential in a certain sense contributed to the successful integration of "non-Russian" merchants into the business and socio-cultural environment of Russian city, that made them a part of its historical heritage.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1567091430.pdf
Number of views: 545      Download in PDF

27. Valentina A. Veremenko
Urban Kitchen as a Social Space in the Noble-Intellectual Environment of Russia in the second part of the XIX – early XX centuries

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 53. Is. 3: 1187-1200.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.3.1187CrossRef

The article explores the noble-intellectual urban kitchen of post-reform Russia as a socio-cultural space. Furnishings of the kitchen and basic elements of household items are characterized. Requirements for this room, raised by the tenants, are determined. Special attention is paid to the characteristics of the cook’s social status. The factors that gave this servant an opportunity to set their own rules in the master’s kitchen and contributed to the emergence in the nobility of a stable idea of the "arrogant and drunken cooky" are found out. At the end of the XIX century under the influence of economic and socio-cultural reasons in the noble-intellectual environment of Russia a request for a partial or even complete rejection of servants is formed. In both cases this meant significant participation of the educated housewives in household chores and, above all, in cooking. Certain changes in the nature of education of noblewomen, appearance of numerous culinary courses and publication of specialized literature created conditions for the realization of this request. The emergence of new gas and kerosene stoves, greatly facilitating the process of cooking, also contributed to attracting housewives to the kitchen. These technical innovations made it possible for the noble-intellectual families to refuse completely from home kitchen, replacing it with a portable roaster used to heat dishes ordered in catering establishments.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1567195634.pdf
Number of views: 483      Download in PDF

28. Assel S. Kereibayeva, Arafat M. Mamyrbekov, Тatyana P. Levchenko, Meirambek Ziyadin
Fair Trade of the Merchantry of the Steppe Region of the second half of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 53. Is. 3: 1201-1210.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.3.1201CrossRef

The merchantry of the Steppe region of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century, which began to extend actively after the completion of the accession of the Kazakh khanate to the Russian Empire. The accession of the steppe regions and the development of capitalist relations led to the penetration of West Siberian trade and industrial flow in the Steppe region. Fair trade established intermediary functions between settled agricultural and pastoral areas, satisfying the growing needs for food and industrial goods of the population of Akmola and Semipalatinsk regions. The state developed a whole system of measures to support trade relations between entrepreneurs and the formation of a single Siberian-Asian trade network. On the territory of the Steppe region, favorable conditions for the expansion of fair trade of the merchantry were created after carrying out administrative and territorial reforms of 1867–1868 by the Tsar’s administration. Special attention has been paid to large merchants who made a significant contribution to the opening of large fairs, the establishment and development of trade and economic relations with neighboring regions and states. The role of merchants in the management of large and small fairs in the territory of the region and the role of a new class of rich people (bai) have been shown, which were directly related to the market. So, in conclusion, it should be noted that the existence of fairs and appearance in the region of fair management shows the professionalism and maturity of the fair merchants who made a significant contribution to the establishment of interregional economic relations and the spread of market relations in the region. Fairs became the prevailing trade form in the Steppe region, further development of which made huge changes in the organization of the trading network of the Steppe regions.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1567091646.pdf
Number of views: 508      Download in PDF

29. Mikhail G. Tarasov
The Number of the Semirechensky Cossacks and Factors of its Dynamics in XIX – the beginning of XX centuries

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 53. Is. 3: 1211-1220.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.3.1211CrossRef

The article considers the process of formation of the Cossack population of the South-Eastern Kazakhstan (Semirechye) in the XIX – early XX centuries. It focuses on the changes in the number of Cossacks in the region and the factors influencing this dynamic. The history of Cossack settlements on the territory of Semirechye and their localization is considered in detail. The beginning of the formation of the Cossack population of Semirechye refers to 1830. From the middle of XIX to the early XX centuries, its number is continuously growing. This growth was initially provided mainly by the resettlement of Cossacks from other regions and the enrollment of soldiers and peasants in the Cossacks. Since the 1870s, the growth of the number of seven-river Cossacks was almost only due to the natural increase. Some slowdown in the growth rate of the Cossack population of Semirechye was due to underestimation of the importance of Cossack colonization by the leadership of the country and the region in the 1870s-1880s, the First world war and the Turkestan uprising of 1916. At the beginning of the XX century, as a result of the Civil war and the policy of telling the bulk of the Cossacks Semirechye was destroyed physically, a significant part fled to neighboring States, and the remaining merged with other social groups. The result of the work is a statement of the continuous growth of the number of the Semirechensk Cossacks throughout the existence of this social group, up to the termination of its existence in the early 1920s.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1567091781.pdf
Number of views: 504      Download in PDF

30. Igor V. Kryuchkov
Economic Relations of Russia with the Anatolian Vilayets of the Ottoman Empire at the turn of XIX–XX centuries: Competition and Learning from States of Europe and the USA

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 53. Is. 3: 1221-1231.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.3.1221CrossRef

The article deals with main directions of the development of economic relations of Russia with the Anatolian Vilayets of the Ottoman Empire at the turn of XIX–XX centuries. Anatolia was a perspective market for Russia. The factors slowing down the development of Russian export to Anatolia and the influence of competition with other European states on this process are considered in the article. A broad range of sources including diplomatic documents, materials of the daily press, statistical materials and memoirs was used in the process of working. The author comes to the conclusion that it was difficult for Russia to compete with Great Britain, France and Austria-Hungary despite strengthening of trade relations of Russia with Anatolia. Russian entrepreneurs knew badly the specificity of local market, they didn't have their offices in Anatolian cities and they didn't get sufficient assistance from the state in comparison with competitors. At the same time at the beginning of XX century Russia achieved significant results in export of sugar, kerosene and a range of other commodities to Anatolia. At the beginning of XX century Russia needed to make serious efforts for the development of trade with the Ottoman Empire in order to strengthen its political position there. In this regard Russian diplomats and experts called for learning from European countries.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1567091864.pdf
Number of views: 482      Download in PDF

31. Petr K. Dashkovskiy, Vsevolod N. Iljin
The Legal Position of Old Believers in the Context of Legislative Initiatives of the Russian Empire in the last third of XIX – early XX century

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 53. Is. 3: 1232-1242.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.3.1232CrossRef

The article analyzes in detail the legal framework, as well as some archival documents reflecting the activities of the old believers in the system of state-confessional relations of the Russian empire in the second half of the nineteenth century. It focuses on the analysis of changes in the position of believers in connection with the adoption of laws of 19 April 1874 and 3 may 1883. Despite the apparent liberality of these laws in general, they were partial and limited character, and in fact did not give the old believers a broad civil and religious liberties for which they had hoped. During the reporting period, the state remained the only acceptable way of solving "the old believer question," only the integration of the old believers with the state of the Russian Orthodox Church, which effectively meant the subordination of the latter and erasing the confessional specifics of the old believers. At the same time, new legal regulations have had some positive moments, since it doesn't included the forbidden or the more punishing nature. Legislative resolution of 1874 and 1883 actually demonstrated that the state patronizes and equally protects the personal civil rights of believers, as his other subjects, however, it was stressed that the government does not recognize "separatist" wing special legal class.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1567601674.pdf
Number of views: 582      Download in PDF

32. Sergei F. Fominykh, Aleksei O. Stepnov, Olga V. Natolochnaya
The Idea of the Siberian University and Regionalism in the Letters of N.M. Yadrintsev to V.M. Florinsky (1876−1882)

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 53. Is. 3: 1243-1255.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.3.1243CrossRef

The article deals with the letters of one of the Siberian regionalism founders N.M. Yadrintsev to V.M. Florinsky (known as the organizer of the Tomsk University), written during the period from 1876 to 1882. At this time the question of choosing a city for the first Siberian University was solving. The Omsk city Duma has proposed their city as a University in 1876. N.M. Yadrintsev, who was serving as an official in Omsk during this period, in several letters presented a bleak panorama of the climatic, architectural, infrastructural, criminogenic condition of this city. N.M. Jadrintsev and V.M. Florinsky acted as associates in the question of the choosing of Tomsk as a city for the first University in the macro-region, as well as in total devotion to the idea of the Siberian University. At the same time we meet not the most flattering opinions in memoirs of Florinsky about his correspondent. The authors find the implications of this "unity of contradictions" in the features political, national-identical word usage of this period. This is done on the materials of office documentation, sources of personal origin, periodical press. Both heroes of the study, inspired by the idea of the Siberian University, appealed to such concepts as "patriotism", "homeland", "country" and a number of other categories of national self-determination. At the same time the analysis of the semantic contents, that Florinsky and Yadrintsev put into these words, in the context of the evolution of their national-political opinions leads us to the conclusion about the conceptual transgression, heterogeneity of their political vocabulary and, as a consequence, about the deep contradiction in the views of the two heroes, and more widely – two currents of social and political thought of Russia in the second half of the XIX – early XX centuries. The combination of these contradictions has led to the impossibility of coexistence in the first Siberian University "mental" space of Florinsky as a conservative statesman and Yadrintsev as a regionalist. Hence there was the alienation of the representatives of the Siberian regionalism, in particular N.M. Yadrintsev, from the Imperial Tomsk University.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1568289469.pdf
Number of views: 494      Download in PDF

33. Timur A. Magsumov, Marina S. Nizamova, Svetlana F. Artemova, Ruslan M. Allalyev
The Akhal-Teke Expeditions of 1879−1881 years: Historical and Statistical Study. Part 1

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 53. Is. 3: 1256-1262.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.3.1256CrossRef

The article deals with the Akhal-Teke operations of the russian army in the period of 1879–1881 years. The attention is paid to the military-strategic situation on the eve of the conflict in the Trans-Caspian region, as well as to regional specifics of warfare. The first part of the article discusses the first Akhal-Teke operation of 1879. There were involved such materials as the “Collection of information about the losses of the Caucasian troops”, as well as sources of personal origin, among which there were the memories of V.A. Tugan-Mirza-Baranovsky and A.V. Scherbak. The methodological basis of the study was the principles of historicism, scientific objectivity and systematicity, traditional for russian historiography. In the process of work the following general historical methods were used: problem-chronological, which made it possible to study individual facts from the history of the colonization of Asia in their historical sequence; historical and comparative, with the help of which it was possible to trace the relationship of russian military operations in Asia and the Caucasus in the second half of the XIX century. The first Akhal-Teke operation in 1879 lasted only 16 days. It relied on the technical superiority of the russian army and the psychological impact of artillery fire and the use of missiles. That's why the number of russian troops was several times smaller than the troops of the enemy. However, even a spontaneous, practically unprepared assault on the Dengil-Tepe fortress caused such losses to the tekins that by the evening of August 29 they decided to surrender to the russian army. Having sent the parliamentarians, the tekinians no longer found the russian camp, thus, the first Akhal-Teke operation became an “unrecognized victory” of russian weapons.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1567092314.pdf
Number of views: 546      Download in PDF

34. Mikhail V. Gribovskiy
“Burden of Professorship”: Features of the Pedagogical Activity of an University Lecturer in Pre-Revolutionary Russia

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 53. Is. 3: 1263-1271.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.3.1263CrossRef

The article is devoted to determining the content and specifics of the professional activity of a university lecturer at the turn of the XIX – XX centuries. The objectives of the study are to determine the actual academic load of lecturers, the ratio of the number of lecturers and students, and identify the features of the educational process that are characteristic of a pre-revolutionary University. To carry out the study normative acts, records documentation, sources of personal origin were involved. Most of the sources were extracted by the author from Russian (Russian State Historical Archive, National Archive of the Republic of Tatarstan, Central State Archive of Moscow) and foreign (State Archive in Warsaw, State Archive of Odessa Region) archives. It is emphasized that in the XIX – early XX in the educational process as the basis of professional activity of university lecturers was not very thoroughly controlled in quantitative terms, but it was decorated with various administrative regulations. It is indicated that, in comparison with the beginning of the XXI century, the volume of the academic load of the pre-revolutionary professorship was somewhat smaller. The special features of the time include the low prevalence of the combination job phenomenon, the practice of conducting classes and taking exams not only in the university buildings, but also in the homes of professors.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1567587741.pdf
Number of views: 486      Download in PDF

35. Alexander S. Kovalev, Nikolai R. Novosel'tsev, Oleg I. Savin, Ella V. Savina
Public Charity of the Elderly People in Poorhouses in the late XIX – early XX centuries (on the Example of Tomsk)

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 53. Is. 3: 1272-1280.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.3.1272CrossRef

The article is devoted to the fact that the development of the charity to the elderly in charitable institutions occurs at the local level. The subject of the study is the activities of poorhouses in the city of Tomsk. On the basis of previously unpublished archival data, the specific features of charitable organizations in Tomsk are analyzed, as well as the terms of services for army integration and the procedure of entering into a charitable society, the most typical "diagnoses", appealed decisions. Also addresses the issues of maintenance of the elderly, the specifics of care for the elderly who had relatives, the daily life of the elderly in Tomsk hospice, peculiarities of relations with them. Based on the results of the analysis, it was concluded that at the turn of the XIX–XX centuries assistance to the elderly in the poorhouse conditions was one of the key directions of social charity. The most effective means of solving the problems of elderly people was the involvement of Tomsk merchants in this process. It means that in this process there was a fairly high level of social solidarity of the pre-revolutionary society. At the same time, the main disadvantage of the charity practice to the elderly was the stratification and its inaccessibility for the majority of people, and the charity organization itself was based on passive accepting of outside help by the residents of poorhouses.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1567092594.pdf
Number of views: 534      Download in PDF

36. Elena V. Vititneva, Aleksandra S. Kuzmenko, Natalya V. Pahomova
Features of the Material and Everyday Status of Students of Higher Educational Institutions of the City of Tomsk in the late XIX – early XX centuries in the Context of the Everyday Life History

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 53. Is. 3: 1281-1291.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.3.1281CrossRef

The article discusses the features of the material and everyday status of Tomsk students in the pre-revolutionary period. On the basis of a detailed analysis of archival documents, the regulatory framework, sources of personal origin and periodicals, it was found that in the pre-revolutionary period, the everyday life of students was rather difficult. This was especially manifested in the lives of students who had to pay rent for living in the flats on their own. Due to unfavorable living conditions and inconsistencies of sanitary and hygienic standards in the flats, students were often sick. On the other hand, the students' dormitory at the Imperial Tomsk University had quite comfortable living conditions. As for the question of material support for students, only students of the Imperial Tomsk University and the Tomsk Institute of Technology could receive state scholarships. The Institute of private scholarships assisted the poorest students and female students. The rest students had to look for options for additional income. It was revealed that students and female students had to work hard because it helped them to support themselves and continue their studies in higher education.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1567092742.pdf
Number of views: 457      Download in PDF

37. Alexander B. Khramtsov
Features of Formation and Activity of City Self-Government in Novonikolayevsk (1895–1917)

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 53. Is. 3: 1292-1300.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.3.1292CrossRef

Issues of formation and activity of bodies of city self-government in Novonikolayevsk are investigated (1895-1917). In this process 3 main stages are allocated: settlement (1895-1903); the municipal government of the simplified look (1904-1908); the municipal government in a full look (1909-1917). The main problem of the first stage was investment of the settlement with the earth as it was owned by the state. Construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway and active resettlement of peasants from the neighboring settlements led to sharp increase in number of residents of the settlement and growth of its economy. The second stage is connected with construction of Novonikolayevsk in degree of the bezuyezdny city with formation in it local government of the simplified look. The newly elected power faced problems of improvement, delivery of health care to the population, the organization of educational institutions in what noticeable success was achieved. The third stage of development of the municipal government put forward the solution of such tasks as: construction of power plant, water supply system, installation of telephones to the city and some other. It is noted that problems of rise in crime, providing law and order and safety what the city authorities could not cope with became the back of rough economic recovery of the "American" city and activization of public life of the population. It is concluded that active development of the city was "slowed down" by World War I and the followed revolution. Nevertheless, all for 22 years the settlement became the large commerce and industry city of Siberia.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1567092958.pdf
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38. Nicholas W. Mitiukov, Svetlana L. Bautina, Alexander F. Mitrofanov, Yurii N. Makarov
Merchant Shipping Company I.I. Bodalev on the Meeting’s Journals of the Economic Committee of Izhevsk Plants 1895–1900

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 53. Is. 3: 1301-1309.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.3.1301CrossRef

Izhevsk pond in the XIX – first half of the XX centuries was an important transport artery for the operation of Izhevsk plants, primarily for the connection of the plant with Volozhka and Koltoma. To reduce the cost and speed up the traffic in the mid-1890-s on Izhevsk pond, the first state-owned steamer "Izh" appeared on the Izhevsk pond. Earlier, based on the analysis of river registers, we discovered the fact of construction of steamboats at the turn of the century in Izhevsk, and there was hypothesized that it had a merchant I.I. Bodalev. The information of the meeting’s journals of the Economic Committee of Izhevsk Plants (the highest center of economic management of Izhevsk Plants) in 1892–1900, there was analyzed concerning the ships of merchant I.I. Bodalev on Izhevsk pond. It was established that in the period under review, Bodalev had at least two steamboats on the pond (“Pchelka” and “Izhevsk”). In addition, Izhevsk plants, apparently, pursued a deliberate policy of "squeezing" competitors from the pond. So the Economic Committee in 1895 refused the request of V.F. Telnov and Yu.G. Semenov deliver his ship to Izhevsk. But at the same time, there was on the pound the first steamboat of I.I. Bodalev. Its appearance occurred with the tacit consent of Izhevsk plants, since Bodalev was one of the main delivery contractors for firewood plants. Therefore, on the one hand, the plants established extremely favorable terms for the lease of the state-owned steamer “Izh”, and on the other hand, for example, refused to offer to provide the state-owned steamer when the Bodalev’s ship broke down in fulfilling the government contract. As a result, two steamships Bodalev took to Kama (“Izhevsk” and “Maria”), and another one in 1915 sold them to Izhevsk plants (“Pchelka”), after which they became monopolists in transportation along Izhevsk pond. The fact of the construction of a steamboat steam engine at the order of Bodalev at the Izhevsk plants was discovered.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1567093244.pdf
Number of views: 478      Download in PDF

39. Evgeniy V. Dvoretskiy, Denis O. Timiryaev
Publicistic Disputes B.N. Chicherin and N.K. Rennenkampf in 1898−1899 on the Polish Question in Politics of Russia, Germany and Austrian-Hungary

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 53. Is. 3: 1310-1317.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.3.1310CrossRef

A characteristic phenomenon for russian public opinion of the XIX century was the appeal to the experience of European countries in the form of discussion of management models and public institutions. This is also characteristic for the discussion of interethnic relations in a polyethnic country, and for discussing the model of managing national suburbs. For the governments of Austria and Germany, Russia, who at the end of the eighteenth century divided Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Polish issue was extremely acute. The Russian authorities studied the policies of these two countries on the Polish lands and its consequences. In turn, these problems were reflected in domestic journalism. References to the policy of Austria-Hungary and Germany in the parts of Poland that were withdrawing to them were an integral part of those recommendations that the publicists, as spokesmen of public sentiments, addressed the government. As an example of public discussion, the article compares the views of B.N. Chicherin and N.K. Rennenkampf on the situation in the Polish lands of Austria-Hungary, Germany and Russia. It is analyzed their arguments in favor of this or that model of management of the Polish territories. It is described the correspondence of the views of the publicists with the real state of affairs in Galicia, Poznan and the Kingdom of Poland. A working hypothesis has been proved about Chicherin's use as a means of propagating his liberal views of the experience of the parliamentary activity of the Poles in the Austro-Hungarian and German empires.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1567093417.pdf
Number of views: 526      Download in PDF

40. Artyom Y. Peretyatko
Economic Views of A.N. Kuropatkin and the Policy of the Ministry of War in the Cossack Hosts in 1898−1900

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 53. Is. 3: 1318-1332.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.3.1318CrossRef

The figure of the Minister of War of the Russian Empire A.N. Kuropatkin is still causing controversy among scientists. Some consider him incompetent military, not consistent with his position, and others consider him victim of circumstances and propaganda of political opponents. On the other hand, the relationship between Russian Ministers of War and Cossack Hosts is still poorly understood, and the number of works on this topic in contemporary historiography is extremely small. Therefore, this article attempts to analyze the figure of A.N. Kuropatkin from an unexpected point of view, having considered his activity as the actual leader of the Cossack Hosts of the Russian Empire. The author shows that A.N. Kuropatkin was primarily interested in the economic problems of the Cossack Hosts. Shortly after taking office as Minister of War, in 1898, he recognized the development of the economic crisis in the Don Host and its approach in other Cossack Hosts. However, the extremely peculiar and intricate economic views of the Minister of War did not allow him to develop feasible program for solving the economic problems of the Cossack Hosts. The program developed by the commission of General N.A. Maslakovets, also did not satisfy A.N. Kuropatkin. Having failed to provide adequate financial support for the proposed reforms, the Minister of War actually abandoned most of the originally planned measures, limiting himself to introducing a subsidy to serving Cossacks. The article concluded that this development of events was largely due to the peculiarities of the personality of A.N. Kuropatkin. Having correctly set the initial goals, the Minister of War did not have the determination or the abilities necessary to achieve them. However, even a partial realization of the ideas of A.N. Kuropatkin markedly improved the economic situation of the Cossacks.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1567093481.pdf
Number of views: 441      Download in PDF

41. Anna P. Dvoretskaya, Olga V. Konovalova, Aida А. Terskova
The Evolution of the Socio-Political Views of the Clergy of the Yenisei Province in the period of Revolutionary Upheavals of the beginning of the XX century

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 53. Is. 3: 1333-1341.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.3.1333CrossRef

The article analyzes the changes in the socio-political views of the clergy of the Yenisei province in the period of the development of the revolutionary process in the early twentieth century. During the first Russian revolution, most of the diocesan clergy adhered to conservative views, actively supported monarchical institutions. Parish clergy, as a rule, preferred social work to politics. However, individual clergymen of the region took part in political life, participated in the work of the Imperial Duma, sympathized with the socialists. In 1917, the tendency towards politicization of the clergy intensified. The clergy of the region opposed the monarchy, supported the Provisional Government. By the summer – autumn of 1917, contradictions within the diocesan clergy, between him and the parish clergy, became more and more apparent. Vertical and horizontal splits weakened the church. During the period of escalation of sociopolitical conflicts, the intensification of atheistic sentiments among the masses, the church was unable to come out with a united front and oppose Christian ideas and values to the ideology of violence. The process of radicalization of social relations became irreversible and destroyed church institutions.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1567093572.pdf
Number of views: 430      Download in PDF

42. Anvar M. Mamadaliev, Andrey V. Venkov, Natal'ya V. Miku, Aude Médico
On the Ratio of Linear Forces of the Russian 1st Pacific and Japanese Squadrons during the Russian-Japanese War of 1904–1905. Japanese Squadron Battleships

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 53. Is. 3: 1342-1364.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.3.1342CrossRef

A series of articles is devoted to the analysis of the ratio of opposing linear (armoured) forces of the russian 1st Pacific and Japanese squadrons during the Russian-Japanese war of 1904–1905 before the start of hostilities, coverage of tactical and technical characteristics of armoured ships and the strategy of their use by the naval leadership. In work an attempt is also made to assess the chances of a victory for the 1st Pacific Squadron, taking into account its combat capabilities on the eve of a war in terms of a general battle. This article analyzes the tactical and technical elements of the main force of the fleet – battleships of the japanese fleet: the squadron battleships "Mikasa", "Asahi", "type Shikishima/Hatsuse", type "Fuji/Ashima" and their ability to confront the russian ships of the same class.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1567154337.pdf
Number of views: 445      Download in PDF

43. Tianming Gao, Aleksandr А. Cherkasov, Sergei N. Bratanovskii, Nugzar Ter-Oganov
“Our Shah is the Russian Emperor”: the Little-Known Pages of the Persian Revolution of 1905–1911

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 53. Is. 3: 1365-1372.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.3.1365CrossRef

The article deals with the little-known pages of the Persian revolution of 1905–1911. The authors pay attention to the process of escalation of violence in 1909, the driving forces of the revolutionary movement, as well as the activities of Russian diplomatic missions. There were used as materials the unpublished documents from the Central State Historical Archive of Georgia (Tbilisi, Georgia). The documents from the central state institutions of the Russian Empire were used as sources, namely, the documents of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, General Consulate in Tabriz, consulates in Ardabil and Urmia, the departmental correspondence of the Russian border units with the office of the governor-general of the Tsar in the Caucasus and etc. The sources of personal origin were also applied as materials. In conclusion, the authors state that during the most difficult period of the Persian revolution in 1909, the role of protection of Russian citizens was assigned to the Russian diplomatic missions in this part of the country, adjacent to the Russian border in Transcaucasia. Initially, the course was put on non-interference in the Persian affairs, but the sharp deterioration of the criminal situation forced the Russian administration to send the expeditionary force to protect the diplomatic missions. Almost immediately, the zones in which the Russian garrisons were located became islands of security for the Persian rural population, and this situation did not suit the revolutionaries.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1567094056.pdf
Number of views: 414      Download in PDF

44. Yuliya A. Lysenko
The Activities of Turkish Agents in the Central Asian Borderlands of the Russian Empire in the early XX century according to the Materials of the Reports of the Officer on Special Assignments of the Ministry of Interior L. Naumov

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 53. Is. 3: 1373-1382.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.3.1373CrossRef

The article analyzes the reports of the special instructions officer of the Ministry of Internal Affairs L. Naumov, prepared by him on the basis of a trip to the Central Asian outskirts of the Russian Empire in 1910. During the trip L. Naumov had to find out the scale of propaganda work of Turkish emissaries in the region, the degree of penetration of the ideas of pan-Turkism and pan-Islamism in the minds of the indigenous Muslim population. From the information presented in the reports it follows that after the young Turk revolution of 1908, in the Turkestan Governor-General, Bukhara Emirate and Khiva khanate, the work of Turkish residents, aimed at promoting Russophobia, pan-Turkism and pan-Islamism, was significantly intensified. Turkey also actively involved Afghans in the work in the region, using traditional contacts with the Afghan Emirate and considering it the sphere of its geopolitical interests. In his reports L. Naumov cites facts indicating the formation among the Muslim population of the Russian Turkestan adherents propagandized by Turkey ideas, which was expressed in the birth of the Islamic reform movement and the newfangled Muslim education, the refusal to follow all the instructions of the Koran. However, according to the information collected by the official, the traditional Muslim clergy continued to occupy a leading position in the spiritual and religious life of the indigenous population. The negative attitude of the Muslim leaders of Bukhara, Kokand and a number of other cities of Turkestan to the ideas of pan-Islamism, suggesting a spiritual Union of Sunnis and Shiites, allowed L. Naumov to draw conclusions about the futility of the work of Turkish residents in the region and the absence of threats to the territorial integrity of the Russian Empire in the Central Asian suburbs.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1567094215.pdf
Number of views: 417      Download in PDF

45. Sorin Arhire
From Hostility to Friendship: the Russian-Romanian Relations in the Years Prior to the Outbreak of the First World War

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 53. Is. 3: 1383-1393.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.3.1383CrossRef

Due to its diplomatic isolation in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Romania’s foreign policy turned towards Germany and Austro-Hungary, although the Romanian politicians, as well as the broader public, wanted to obtain Transylvania, a province belonging to Budapest. Romania started getting closer to Russia during the Balkan Wars of 1912–1913, understanding the need to get Russian support for their Great Romania project. In turn, the government in Saint-Petersburg realized that the kingdom on the Danube could be important to the European balance in the Balkans, as a bridge between the Russian Empire and the Slavic states of the Balkans. In March 1914 the heir to the Romanian throne Prince Ferdinand and Princess Marie visited Russia, and this was followed three months later by the reciprocal visit of Tsar Nicholas II and the imperial family. Due to these visits, which were widely covered by newspapers in Russia and Romania but also in other European countries, Russian-Romanian relations became much tighter. The visits were not without consequences. Although Romania was still formally an ally of the Central Powers when the First World War started, it preferred to remain neutral and two years later it entered the war siding with Russia, France and Great Britain.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1567094358.pdf
Number of views: 467      Download in PDF

46. Tatiana A. Kattsina, Natalya V. Pashina, Ludmila E. Mezit, Ekaterina V. Potapova
The Historical Experience of Educational Practices for Children of Refugees of the First World War (on the Example of the Yenisei Province of the Russian Empire)

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 53. Is. 3: 1394-1402.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.3.1394CrossRef

The experience of the implementation of the organizational and pedagogical conditions of the sociocultural adaptation of the children of the First World War refugees in one of the migrant regions of the Russian Empire, the Yenisei province (now the Krasnoyarsk Territory), is summarized. The analysis is limited to the imperial period of the First World War, July 1914 – February 1917, within the framework of which the main directions in the organization of training and education of refugees aged 7–14 years were determined. Based on the achievements of modern historiography, a complex of historical sources (regulations, office materials, periodicals), methods of general scientific and historical research revealed regional specifics of real educational and adaptation practices in relation to juvenile refugees during the First World War. The conclusion is made about the contribution of regional public organizations to the provision of opportunities to receive and continue education, to overcome the psychological and behavioral problems of minor refugees. Along with this, it was noted that unfavorable trends were manifested with the staffing of educational institutions. Economic difficulties of wartime and disagreements with the provincial and city administrations on organizational and financial issues had a negative impact on the sustainability of the work of public organizations that were forced to reduce or completely cease their activities. The insignificant scale of improvements in the situation of refugee children does not make it possible to assess these trends as sustainable, but at the same time represents the first experience in addressing the urgent material and spiritual needs of refugees.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1567094586.pdf
Number of views: 436      Download in PDF

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URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1568289583.pdf
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URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1590695562.pdf
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