English (United Kingdom)  Russian (CIS)

Bylye Gody – Russian Historical Journal

E-ISSN 2310-0028
Publication frequency – issued 4 times a year.

Issued from 2006.

2 June 01, 2019


1. Vladimir G. Afanas'ev, Irina V. Voloshinova
Civil Status of Members of Ethnolocal Groups in Western Siberia in the 19th and early 20th centuries

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 52. Is. 2: 460-469.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.2.460CrossRef

Siberia's integration in the late 16th and first half of the 18th century proceeded in parallel with its settlement and economic development. First Poles and Jews took up residence here already in the second half of the 17th century. In the first half of the 18th century, Western Siberia witnessed Germans turning up as mining engineers and military personnel and first Gypsy caravans came. Over the 18th and 19th century, Western Siberia continued to be an environment for dynamic formation of various ethnolocal groups. Jews, Germans, Poles, Gypsies, Finns and others found themselves in the region as part of state migration campaigns or as convicts and political offenders sent here for penal servitude or exile. The diverse population mix required for the government to introduce and enforce legal regulations for rights and obligations. This gradually resulted in the formalized civil status of members of certain ethnolocal groups, which had an ethnic focus and was predominantly restrictive in nature. The outcome of the ongoing class policy was the registration of members representing ethnolocal groups under review mainly in the non-privileged social estates (sosloviye) (state peasants and townspeople (meshchane)). With the acquisition of a clearly defined legal status, Jews, Poles, Gypsies and others were able to engage in various types of economic activities, and this determined their economic “niches”. The scholarly paper is based on the materials of regulatory legal acts and documents collected in central and regional archives (Moscow, St. Petersburg and Tomsk).

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1559215335.pdf
Number of views: 769      Download in PDF

2. Eugeniy V. Barsukov
The First “Fortified Town of Narym”: the Problem of Localization and Search Prospects

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 52. Is. 2: 470-481.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.2.470CrossRef

“Russian archeology” is a trend that is becoming increasingly popular in Siberia. Of particular interest is the period of the initial colonization of Siberia. In the Middle Ob region it is known more than a dozen towns and forts, founded at the end of the XVI and in the XVII century. Three of them – Narym, Ket, Kungop were located on the banks of the Ket river, the vast basin of which connected Western and Eastern Siberia in the XVII-XVIII centuries. The circumstances and even the foundation dates of these fortified points due to the lack of sources are reconstructed with great difficulty. The Narym fortified town, which became the forerunner and the most important strategic point of the Russian development of the Narym Territory, has been "forgotten" by historians in recent decades. This is due to the limited available written sources, the overwhelming majority of which were introduced into scientific circulation by G.F. Mueller and P.N. Butsinsky. Although the potential for expanding the “written” base has not been drained, the most promising is the shift of emphasis towards local-historical and local-geographical research, based on a comprehensive analysis of sources of different types, including usage of the archaeological experience of studying the Russian time objects. The author implements this approach in solving the problem of the location determining of the first Narym fortified town. There is no doubt that this fortified point localization, as well as its archaeological study, will provide specialists with a body of new sources needed to recreate the exploration of the Narym Ob region. The area of probable location of the first Narym fortified town is outlined in the article based on the correlation of written evidence, cartographic materials, features of the natural-geographical situation of the Narym Ob region.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1559215432.pdf
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3. Olga N. Naumenko, Evgeny A. Naumenko, Nadezhda K. Martynenko
Reproductive Calendar of Komi-Perms in the XVII century

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 52. Is. 2: 482-490.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.2.482CrossRef

The article analyzes a previously unknown calendar from the funds of the Perm State Art Gallery: the symbols have not been deciphered to date, scientists have not yet considered them in relation to the chronology. The calendar is depicted on a white scarf, which is on the shoulders and head of the Orthodox sculpture "Paraskeva Friday with the upcoming Barbara and Catherine". The sculpture dates from the XVII century, refers to the period of active Christianization of the Komi-Permian population and reflects religious syncretism. The treatment of the signs of the Glagolitic alphabet and the solar symbolism underlying the analysis. The symbolism is depicted in this version, which has no analogues in the culture of the Finno-Ugric peoples: this copy is the only one so far. The authors compared it with other well-known calendars of the Komi-Permian (for example, the calendar of hunters) and more ancient artifacts, which led to the conclusion: the calendar of the Komi-Permian women is depicted on the white Board of Paraskeva Friday. It regulated the reproduction of children, the favorable periods for conception and birth, including behavior during fasts of the Orthodox cult of the "Twelve Fridays". This conclusion corresponds to the religious meaning of Paraskeva Friday as "female intercessor", "grandmother-mid wife" and "mother and child". Only a part of the calendar is on this sculpture, which indicates that the calendar has an earlier origin, the Komi-Perms knew it and used it in everyday life. The symbolism of the calendar has a unique and complex character, it goes beyond the usual images. This may indicate that in the culture of the Komi-Perms of the XVII centuries its own writing was born.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1559215508.pdf
Number of views: 684      Download in PDF

4. Sergey I. Degtyarev, Lybov G. Polyakova, Leonid L. Balanyuk, Jasmin Gut
Justice System of Northeastern Ukraine and the Influence of Russian Judicial Practice (middle XVII – XVIII centuries)

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 52. Is. 2: 491-501.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.2.491CrossRef

The article is devoted to the Ukrainian legal proceedings at the end of the XVII – in the XVIII centuries and the influence on him of Russian judicial practice. Since the emergence of the Ukrainian Cossack statehood in the middle of the seventeenth century, its own model of legal proceedings appeared on the lands of northeastern Ukraine, which in its activities was based on the regulatory framework of the Lithuanian-Polish period and early European times. But since the beginning of the XVIII century, the Russian government has pursued a policy of incorporation of Ukrainian lands. During the XVIII century, Russian imperial legislation was extended to Ukrainian judicial practice. Judicial or controlling institutions are created on these lands, subordinated to the Russian administration. The very nature of the judicial process changes, even the language of keeping records from the old Ukrainian changes to Russian. All these processes have had a direct impact on the formation and further development of civil society in the Ukrainian lands.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1559215655.pdf
Number of views: 665      Download in PDF

5. Alexandr V. Alepko
On the Issue of Missionary Activity of Priests of the Russian Orthodox Church Among the Native Population of North-Eastern Siberia in the XVIII – XIX centuries

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 52. Is. 2: 502-512.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.2.502CrossRef

The article discusses the activities of the spiritual missions of the Russian Orthodox Church among the aboriginal population of North-Eastern Siberia in the XVIII-XIX centuries. The role of Okhotsk, as the initial point of the Russian Orthodox mission on the shores of the Pacific coast of Russia, is defined. The role of the Orthodox clergy in the education of the Itelmen and the Ainu, as well as in the construction of churches and chapels in the Kamchatka Peninsula, is shown. The names of the outstanding spiritual pastors of the Russian Orthodox Church, who began the first Orthodox sermon among the aborigines of the Far East, were named. The issue of building the first Orthodox churches on the Chukchi Peninsula has been studied. There is revealed the problematic issues in the activities of Orthodox priests among the nomadic tribes of the Chukchi and Koryaks of the Anadyr and Gizhiga territorial districts. The importance of primitive beliefs: animism, totemism and fetishism in the daily life of the indigenous people of Northeast Siberia is shown. The special role of tribal pagan priests – shamans in the spiritual and everyday life of the peoples of the Far North is revealed. The opinions of russian and foreign government officials on the influence of pagan beliefs on the natives who adopted Orthodoxy are given. The role of Orthodoxy in uniting the aboriginal peoples of the North of the Russian Far East and introducing them to the Russian civilization is defined.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1559215696.pdf
Number of views: 689      Download in PDF

6. Gulzhan S. Bedelova, Kalkaman T. Zhumagulov
Russian Pre-Revolutionary Historiography of Religious Policy of the Mongolian Empire

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 52. Is. 2: 513-522.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.2.513CrossRef

The article is a historiographical review of pre-revolutionary works on religious policy of the Mongolian empire. The authors note that, despite the scarcity of works and their peculiarity, prerevolutionary historians managed to solve number of complex tasks: more or less objective view on religious policies of Mongol khans has appeared; due to the implementation of sources into scientific circulation the critical view on problems has appeared; an understanding has emerged that the relations between Mongol khans and conquered people were not unequivocal; more sensible view on activities of Mongol rulers has appeared, including in the field of religious politics. But, nevertheless, as the authors show, on some issues there is still no comprehensive answer: origins and causes of the attitude of Mongolian conquerors to denominations of conquered people, reasons for religious tolerance, influence of religion of medieval Mongols on the state policy of the Mongolian empire in relation to different denominations, and so on. Historiography is divided into three groups by the authors: review studies; special works devoted to the study of sources; works of church authors. Based on the analysis, features of the evaluation of Mongolian religious policy were determined by researchers. The approach of pre-revolutionary scientists to this problem has been clarified. Pre-revolutionary conceptual approach has been characterized and comparative analysis of religious policy of Mongols in the modern period has been carried out. It is shown that the conclusions of pre-revolutionary authors became the base for subsequent works in this direction. The authors attempt to show the continuity of scientific views and those aspects of this problem that have yet to be revealed.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1559215753.pdf
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7. Denis N. Gergilev, Nadezhda L. Khait, Evgeny A. Akhtamov
Formation of Educational System in the Yenisei Siberia in XVIII century: from Latin School to Small People’s School

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 52. Is. 2: 523-532.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.2.523CrossRef

The article covers the problems of formation of educational traditions in Yenisei region in Siberia by the example of Krasnoyarsk educational system. The article has been based on the materials of State historical archive, Russian state archive of ancient documents, State archive of Tobolsk and Krasnoyarsk State regional archival agency. The issue of distinctive features of Siberian educational institutions’ development has been emphasized in the article. The wide range of literature and sources has demonstrated the process of transition from home educational system to the system of initial and middle educational institutions. It should be mentioned, the first educational institutions were Latin schools. The major academic subjects were Theology, Latin and the Humanities. The article shows the peculiarities of formation and development of Latin school in Krasnoyarsk. The authors have collected the information concerning the people who had considerable influence on this process. It has been shown the formation of People’s School became the next step in development of educational institutions in Krasnoyarsk. The essential trait of educational program in People’s School was more secular character. On the whole, it should be mentioned that the forming educational system in Siberia was more democratic, than the educational system in European part of Russia. The article concerns the problems of first educational institutions: the lack of teachers, difficulties in material security. The difficulties in material security became the main reasons for closing the first schools in Krasnoyarsk. The authors have noted the role of theological seminaries in pedagogical specialists training. The authors have come to the conclusion that the basis of educational tradition in Krasnoyarsk was established in the period of Latin School.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1559215836.pdf
Number of views: 671      Download in PDF

8. Valery V. Tsys’, Olga P. Tsys’
The Struggle of the Russian Orthodox Church and Secular Authorities against the Pagan "Remnants" of The Peoples of the Tobolsk North in the XVIII – XIX centuries

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 52. Is. 2: 533-541.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.2.533CrossRef

The article reveals the methods of struggle between the secular authorities and the Russian Orthodox Church against the remnants of paganism in the Christianization of the indigenous population of the Tobolsk North, their evolution during the XVIII – XIX centuries. It is indicated that in the 1710s – 1760s hard pressure on the newly baptized is used to completely eradicate all manifestations of idolatry. This was facilitated by current legislation and the practice of its enforcement. The following punishments were used to eradicate the remnants of paganism: whipping or whipping; link to Kondinsky monastery; the imposition of penance (to study the prayers, put a certain number of bows in the church every day, etc.). The period of "enlightened absolutism" and the first quarter of the XIX century (1770s – 1822) are characterized by a gradual softening of the state policy towards new converts. The approach to understanding what pagan "vestiges" are has changed. Now it is not “devil worship”, but a delusion, a consequence of the ignorance of “aliens”. In the future, there is a complete rejection of any form of discrimination and persecution for pagan "superstitions", the desire to influence the "misguided" only by persuasion, and the prevention of violence. By the end of the period under review, only measures of pastoral exhortation remained at the disposal of Orthodox clerks and missionaries. The overall evolution of the policy of the state and the Russian Orthodox Church in the fight against idolatry was to gradually mitigate the practice of law in identifying pagan rituals in the newly baptized. These changes were due to the humanization of Russian society, a more tolerant attitude towards foreign faith.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1559215970.pdf
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9. Leonid A. Bobrov, Sergey Y. Kainov, Victoria V. Veselitskaya, Alexey V. Salnikov
Spearhead of the Crimean Tatar Sultan Tokhtamysh from the Collection of the State Historical Museum

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 52. Is. 2: 542-558.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.2.542CrossRef

The article deals with the spearhead (or 6313) from the collection of the State Historical Museum (Moscow). According to the Russian historian of the early XXth century, V. A. Gorodtsov, it was purchased "...in the Crimea, at the marketplace." The total length of the spearhead is 25.8 cm (including the length of the blade – 14.3 cm). The socket diameter is 3.4 cm. The weight is 226 gr. The socket of the spearhead is decorated with floral ornaments and the inscription: "Tokhtamysh Kerey Sultan the son of Mengli Kerey Khan". On the basis of typological analysis it was found that the sample is part of a small group of spearheads used by warriors in Eastern Europe of the XV–XVIII centuries. The study of the structure and inlay confirmed the hypothesis of I.V. Zaitsev that the spearhead belonged to Sultan Tokhtamysh (?–1742) – the son of Mengli Giray II (1678–1739), who twice occupied the Khan's throne (1724 – October 1730, September 1737–December 1739). The most accurate stylistic analogues of the ornament (made simultaneously with the inscription) are found on the Ottoman bladed weapons of the second half of the XVIIth – the first half of the XVIIIth centuries. For some time Tokhtamysh Kerey held the position of Nureddin, which formally was the third most important in the hierarchy of the Crimean khanate (after the Khan and kalga – heir to the throne). Taking into account that on the spearhead the Sultan is mentioned as the son of Khan Mengli Giray, the time of application of the inscription on the socket can be localized in 1724 – early February 1742 (the year of the accession of Mengli Giray II to the throne and the death of Tokhtamysh, respectively). It is most likely that this happened in 1724–1730, or in 1737–1739, that is, in those periods when the father of Tokhtamysh occupied the Khan's throne. The features of the image suggest that it could be inlaid by masters of the Crimean khanate or adjacent territories on the Ottoman model. In this case, the spearhead itself could be made a few years previously the specified dates. In favor of this it is evidenced by the fact that the inlay was applied to the surface of the sleeve after the latter was covered with oxides. The numerous through holes on the socket may have served not only for fixing it on a wooden shaft, but also for fixing the convex side metal strips ("pozhiliny") and (or) horsetail. Depending on the length of the shaft, the weapon could be used as a long or short peak. The use of it as a dart-Jarid, is possible, but unlikely. The spearhead (or 6313) is the first known example of a long-shaft stabbing weapon, which can be correlated with a complex of weapons of the aristocracy of the Crimean khanate of the mid 20s – early 40s of the XVIIIth century.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1559216032.pdf
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10. Igor V. Suchkov
«Тhе Letters of the Russian Traveler» by N.M. Karamzin about Cultural and Social Development of the Countries of Western Europe and Russia

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 52. Is. 2: 559-567.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.2.559CrossRef

The article considers “The letters of the Russian Traveler” by N.M. Karamzin”, which reflected in them the cultural and social development of the countries of Western Europe and Russia in the late XVIII century. In “The letters” N.M. Karamzin compares the cultural and social development of individual countries of Western Europe, assesses the level of similar development of Russia, characterizes the personality of the Traveler. The author of the article shows the value of “The letters” as a source for determining the level of culture and social relations of the countries of the Western world and Russia. The article shows peculiarities of modern Russia literature dedicated to “The letters” by N.M. Karamzin and the place of this work in the works of noble historian. The author of the article draws attention to the actuality of the topic related, on the one hand, to the preservation and further development of the common traditions of cultural and social development of Western Europe and Russia, and on the other hand, with a clear vision of their distinctive Features. Particular attention in the article is given to the consideration of those letters, which are devoted to the French Revolution, which has had a great impact not only on France, but also on other countries of the West, as well as on Russia. The author of the article evaluates the value of personal qualities of the Russian Traveler in which it possible to see N.M. Karamzin and determines his contribution to the formation of the literary Russian language and in general to the development of culture. He emphasizes that the study of “The letters of the Russian Traveler” allows to better understand the peculiarities of scientific views of N.M. Karamzin and their place in historical science, as well as in general in the culture of Russia.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1559216081.pdf
Number of views: 635      Download in PDF

11. Evgeniy V. Kryzhko, Petr I. Pashkovsky, Nickolay N. Chemodurov, Timofey A. Charusov
The British Russophobia in the first half of the XIX century: the Military Aspect

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 52. Is. 2: 568-575.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.2.568CrossRef

The article considers the problem of the military aspect of the British Russophobia in the first half of the XIX century. It is established that in this period the foreign policy strategy of Great Britain was guided by the logic of the need to counter the growing military-political power of the Russian empire, demanding the development of appropriate ideological tools to give legitimacy to such a course and reach a public consensus on its implementation. Therefore, the British elites are beginning to develop and implement a large-scale anti-Russian information campaign, contributing to the emergence of the phenomenon of Russophobia, an important component of which was the military aspect. At the same time, the views of the military, on the one hand, seem to be rather restrained, reflecting the positive image of the Russian soldier, which was probably the result of the memory of the British-Russian allied relations during the Napoleonic wars. On the other hand, the first resident reports are being published on the possible directions of Russian aggression against British India and the need to neutralize this threat by diplomatic and military methods. Based on the analysis of a broad source base and numerous studies, it is revealed that in the period under review, the genesis and spread of Russophobic sentiments among the political elite of Great Britain and their projection regarding the foreign policy aspirations of the Russian empire in the context of their interpretation as a direct or indirect threat to British society, the state and Europe as a whole can be traced. Such imperatives, which emanated from the British officers, were directed to the formation of stable Russophobic attitudes among the population of Great Britain so that the people would support the government’s political line to increase geopolitical pressure towards the Russian Empire.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1559216145.pdf
Number of views: 639      Download in PDF

12. Nadir R. Salikh
References of the Arabographic Manuscripts in Southern Urals in the XIX century

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 52. Is. 2: 576-584.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.2.576CrossRef

The issue of copying and distribution of Arabic manuscripts in the Southern Urals during the XIXth century is considered in the article. At the same time, the role of copyists of these sources in this process is revealed. The research work is based on the materials of two collections of Arabic manuscripts of Ufa: the Department of manuscripts and rare editions of the National library. Ahmet-Zaki Validi and the Department of rare books of scientific library, Ufa, Federal research center Russian Academy of Sciences. As a result of the study, the circle of persons whose names were most often found among the scribes of arabographic sources stored in the funds was determined, as well as the themes and names of the works they copied were established. It is established that the distribution of Arabic manuscripts in the southern Urals is associated with the adoption of the Muslim religion by the Turkic-speaking peoples of the region. The process of creation and dissemination of these sources can be described as spontaneous until the end of the XVIII century, and later there is a tendency to systematize them in connection with the development of the Institute regulating the activities of the Muslim spiritual elite – the Orenburg Mohammedan spiritual Assembly. In this process, an important role was played by the religious policy of tsarist Russia of the XVIII century, which led to the emergence of a number of spiritual ranks of Islam, which were necessary for the improvement of this religious policy. The Muslim spiritual elite functioning in these conditions acted, as well as earlier, as the main customer of manuscripts. Analysis of the sources gives grounds to assert that the executors of orders for copying Arabic manuscripts were, as a rule, mullahs and shakirds of madrassas, as well as professional scribes. This once again confirms the idea that these works were a fundamental basis in the process of education and spiritual enlightenment of the Turkic peoples of the southern Urals.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1559216214.pdf
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13. Aleksandr A. Cherkasov, Larisa A. Koroleva, Sergei Bratanovskii, Nugzar Ter-Oganov
The Russian-Turkish and Russian-Persian Front Line on the Eve of and During the Patriotic War of 1812

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 52. Is. 2: 585-595.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.2.585CrossRef

The research paper examines the attempts by the Ottoman and Persian Empires to destabilize the situation in the North-Western Caucasus and Transcaucasia on the eve and during the Patriotic War of 1812. It focuses on countermeasures against the Turkish plans, taken by peaceful Circassian princes and Russian regional administration. With the use of new archival documents, we were able to reconstruct the picture of Circassian raids on the Russian territory in 1812–1814. The paper also retrace the picture of the Kakheti uprising and its orchestrating process considering Napoleon’s invasion of the Russian Empire. The sources used to prepare the work include archival documents stored at the State Archives of the Krasnodar Krai, Krasnodar, Russia, and the Central State Historical Archives of Georgia, Tbilisi, Georgia. A considerable part of the archival material has never been published before. In conclusion, the authors note that both Persia and Turkey strove to widely leverage the war between Russia and France to their own advantage. The consolidated efforts of the Russian administration thwarted the attempt by Turkish intelligence agents in Circassia to use the anti-Russian Circassian militia in combat operations against Russia. At the same time, Persia achieved impressive progress in destabilizing the situation in Transcaucasia. The uprising was led by Georgian Tsarevich (An heir apparent of a tsar) Alexander, and the region of the uprising comprised Kakheti. In the area, Russian troops had small garrisons that were to protect Kakheti and central Georgia from Lezgin attacks. It was them who fell victim to insurgents. In terms of the number of casualties among the Russian army soldiers, the uprising in Kakheti in 1812 can be described as the deadliest incident in Transcaucasia in the 19th century. At the same time, the Treaty of Bucharest and Treaty of Gulistan, which ended the Russo-Turkish (1806–1812) and Russo-Persian (1804–1813) wars, were the first diplomatic acts that legally formalized a fait accompli – the annexation of a large part of Transcaucasia to Russia

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1559216295.pdf
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14. Anna V. Popova, Svetlana S. Gorokhova, Marianna G. Abramova
Legal Landscape of the Russian Empire: the Experience of Interaction between the Center and the Regions (XVIII — beginning of the ХХ centuries)

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 52. Is. 2: 596-604.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.2.596CrossRef

The authors carried out a comparative legal analysis on the basis of the main Russian legal sources and have come to the following conclusion: the legal policy of the Russian Empire in the late XIX – early XX centuries (until February 1917) was directed to a gradual transition from a Union of territories with equal rights into autonomous entities within a United Russia based on the principles of the legal subordinate of the national territories to the Imperial center in order to create a single legal landscape. The Imperial style structure in Russia in the early twentieth century was characterized, on the one hand, by the preservation of the national features of individual territories within the Russian state, having historical, religious – confessional and other differences, and on the other hand, smoothly coordinated system of governance in the national territories. This system was based on special executive bodies: top-ranking committees, local executive bodies (namestnichestva) and permanent governor-generals, as well as an agency monitoring the population, taking into account the specific characteristics of each territory. Particular attention was given to the creation of a system of interaction between general and local (regional) legislation. This was done in order to provide the state with a unified legal system taking into account the preservation of national traditions and mentality characteristics.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1559216346.pdf
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15. Artyom Y. Peretyatko
Don Cossack at the Turn of Eras: St. Petersburg Diary of I.I. Krasnov (1819)

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 52. Is. 2: 605-614.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.2.605CrossRef

I.I. Krasnov was a famous Don public figure, a hero of the Crimean War, one of the first Cossack poets. Besides this, he was author of a detailed diary for 1817–1821, a unique source about the life and moods of the educated minority of the Don Cossacks in the era of Alexander I. The fact of the essence of this diary is known to historians, but its detailed analysis has not yet been conducted, and this article attempts to fill this historiographical gap. The author shows that I.I. Krasnov was not like the image of the Don Cossack of previous years, characteristic of conservative historiography of the second half of the XIX century. The figure of the emperor had no sacred significance for him; religiosity of I.I. Krasnov was strong and sincere, but fairly free; art worried him no less, and perhaps more military service; finally, his relationship with girls appears far from chastity. The diary predictably contains sympathies for liberal ideas, and it explains why in the following decades the Imperial authorities tried to restore «patriarchalism» on Don, with caution regarding the development of education.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1559216996.pdf
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16. Yuliya A. Lysenko
«If It Is Possible, Build into Khan's Dignity»: the Perception of the 1920s Reforms by the Ethno-Elite of the Middle Zhuz XIX century (according to Materials of Deputy Missions of Kazakh Sultans to Petersburg)

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 52. Is. 2: 615-623.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.2.615CrossRef

The article analyzes the materials of the Sultans deputy missions of the Middle Zhuz, who followed to St. Petersburg after the introduction of the Charter on Siberian Kyrgyz 1822, on the basis of documents identified in the RGIA. Deputy missions have become evidence of Russia's readiness to conduct a dialogue with him and build partnerships. During the missions, it was occurred that the leveling and settlement of the most acute problems which emerged in the process of implementing the Charter of 1822 and also duties, forming in the steppe a network of Russian primary school institutions. The author of the article concludes that in the process of discussing the totality of these problems, Russia demonstrated loyalty and willingness to compromise on issues that did not fundamentally violate the course and logic of the administrative changes that began in the Middle East. Otherwise, it took a principled position and defended its interests. This situation was most clearly manifested in the issue of the Institute of the khan power fate, liquidated in the Middle Zhuza on the eve of the introduction of the 1822 Charter.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1559548126.pdf
Number of views: 691      Download in PDF

17. Rustam M. Begeulov
The Russian Experience Integration of Regions into the Empire: Karachay in 1821–1834

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 52. Is. 2: 624-633.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.2.624CrossRef

The article discusses the vicissitudes of the occurrence of the Karachay Duchy in the Russian Empire. In this process, clearly distinguishes two stages. The first of these covers the period from 1821 to 1828. At this time the Russian fortifications, and the posts were placed at the borders of the Karachay lands, but in the relationship of the two parties dominated the military component. The combination of various circumstances led to the fact that Ermolov period Karachay was the only ethnopolitical entities of the Central Caucasus, were not, de facto, political and legal space of Russia. In addition, the intensity of the Russian-Karachay of the relationship, Turkish propaganda and the search for external allies has led to the formation of Ottoman citizenship of Karachay, where he was nominally in the period 1826-28. The turning point in the history of Russian-Karachay of the interaction can be considered as 1828, when in the course of the outbreak of the Russo-Turkish war, the Russian command had a separate military operation to conquer the Karachay. Result of the defeat of the troops of the Karachay was the signing by the political elite of the Karachay first the oath of allegiance to the Emperor of Russia, not affecting, however, the traditional political system and the court. From this point it is possible to allocate the second stage of the integration process, covering the period 1828–1834. It can be described as a time of mutual accusations of violating the terms of the oath, particularly in paragraphs relating to the pass through the territory of the Karachay units non-peaceful highlanders and prevent Karachay for trade and other purposes for the line of fortifications. The main levers of pressure on the Karachay from the Russian military in 1831–1834, he began the economic blockade and expulsion from the region of the hostages, issued earlier by the representatives of the political elite. However, the growing mutual interest in each other led to the resumption of dialogue and the signing in September 1834 a new agreement on the Russian citizenship of Karachay. One of the main elements of the oath 1834, was the establishment of a Russian Governor and dealing with the economic issues that formed the basis for further development and integration of Karachay in Russia.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1559217235.pdf
Number of views: 735      Download in PDF

18. Sergei T. Gaidin, Galina A. Burmakina
Proposals to Protect the Interests of the Indigenous Peoples of the Turukhansk District Presented in 1822–1917

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 52. Is. 2: 634-644.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.2.634CrossRef

This article describes ideas of government officials, scientists, and public figures of the Yenisei province on how to solve the existing and emerging problems of indigenous small-numbered peoples of the Yenisei North in the pre-Soviet period; demonstrates changes in the lifestyle of these peoples and assesses the activities of the provincial administration. The indigenous small-numbered peoples of the Yenisei North who were obliged to pay yasak (tribute paid off in furs) found themselves under a heavy debt burden due to using state food grain warehouses. Trade relations with Russian merchants encouraged them to use fire weapons for acquisition of animal fur which resulted not only in a progressive change of economic activity and lifestyle of the northerners, but also in reduction of productivity of the fur trade territories and, consequently, in declining living standards. As expected, in the middle of 19th century a so called fur crisis arose in the Turukhansk District. The creation of the fishing industry by the owners of steam vessels in the 60s had resulted in transformation of many hunters and fishermen into hired workers who had to catch and initially process fish. The forced refusal of part of the indigenous peoples of the Yenisei North of their traditional lifestyle and economic activity was followed by an increasing dependence on merchants and owners of fishing businesses, fur buyers, newly-arrived Russian fishermen who used to take away their hunting and fishing territories. The provincial administration had tried to protect the indigenous peoples of the North but it was interested in obtaining taxes from business activities, so it facilitated their involvement in the progressive (in terms of modernization) economic activity which was unnatural for indigenous peoples. As a result, the families most involved in trade and economic relations with the Russians would lose their ethnic identity and the ability to survive on their own. The critical analysis made by the national intellectuals and proposed ways of solving the problems can help to understand specific aspects of soviet policy and directions of optimization of post-soviet policy towards the indigenous peoples.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1559217315.pdf
Number of views: 660      Download in PDF

19. David I. Raskin
Nikolai I and State Council: First Steps

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 52. Is. 2: 645-654.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.2.645CrossRef

The article is devoted to the relationship of Nicholas I and the State Council in the first year of the emperor's reign. The memorandums of the General Assembly of the State Council were the main source of this research. Namely these documents were submitted to the emperor. His resolutions on memorandums served as the basis for the approval (or revision) of the decisions of the State Council. The resolutions of Nicholas I are an important source for studying of his position on the important issues of legislation and management. They reflected the aspiration of the young emperor to delve into all the questions that were proposed for his consideration. These resolutions indicate that Nicholas I learned rather quickly the technique of government and the basics of the legislation of the empire, which he began to rule. They also testify to the confidence with which the emperor, who had no experience in government, began his activity. The role of the State Council in the period under review was very large, not only in the field of legislation, but also in the field of law enforcement, in the adoption of specific administrative and judicial decisions by the authorities. The article discusses the composition of the State Council at the time (for the period from the end of 1825–1826), the educational level, professional experience and age characteristics of the council members. During the period under review, members of the State Council were indeed the bureaucratic elite of the Russian Empire. The first steps of the joint activity of Nicholas I and the State Council largely determined the further interaction of the emperor and the supreme legislative institution of the empire. These steps became an important experience for Nicholas I.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1559217387.pdf
Number of views: 626      Download in PDF

20. Galya A. Alpyspaeva, Zhuman Gulmira, Saule A. Bagdatova, Sholpan N. Sayahimova
Discussions on the Christianization of the Kazakhs of Turkestan Region (the second half of the XIXth – early XXth сenturies)

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 52. Is. 2: 655-667.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.2.655CrossRef

The article presents a source study analysis of discussions about the Christianization of Kazakhs in Turkestan region in the media and scientific publications in the second half of XIX – early XX centuries. The purpose of the article is to study the content and nature of discussions about the ways and methods of Christianization of the foreign population of the region, the rationale for the reasons for the transformation of the authors' views on the autocratic religious policy. Based on the analysis of archival sources in conjunction with the materials of researchers, whose works covered the problems of spiritual assimilation of Kazakhs, the authors identified common views and different approaches to the Christianization of foreigners of Orientalist scholars, missionaries and officials of the Turkestan Territory, which included the Syr-Darya and Semirechensk regions. The discussions reflected the differentiated views and opinions on the methods and techniques of converting foreigners to Orthodoxy; from cautious and tolerant, to radical and even reactionary. The views of the scientists – Orientalists on Christianization were formed in the process of scientific study of the history, ethnography, and culture of the Kazakhs and were systematized within the framework of scientific and educational concepts and theories. The views of the officials responsible for the success of the autocracy policy in the region were influenced by the practical tasks of implementing the state’s religious policy and were of an applied nature. The differences of opinion were due to these factors. The transformation of officials' views on the methods of conducting the Christianization of the Kazakhs in the Turkestan Territory is due to the peculiarity of the socio-political and ethno cultural situation in the region.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1559217461.pdf
Number of views: 724      Download in PDF

21. Inna V. Anisimova
Turkestan and the Steppe Krai Customs System’s Formation and Development in the second half of the XIX – early XX centuries: General Imperial Processes and Regional Features

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 52. Is. 2: 668-676.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.2.668CrossRef

The article analyzes the formation of the customs system in the Central Asian imperial margins in the second half of the XIX – early XX centuries. In the 60s of the XIX century the customs service modernization of Turkestan and the Steppe Krai began, this modernization was carried out in five stages. The reforms envisaged the extension of the general imperial customs institutes, mechanisms and principles of the implementation of customs policy to the Central Asian outskirts. However, the customs system in the region already at the first stage of reforms (60–70s of the XIX century) acquired special features. The customs authorities were placed under the direct control of the Turkestan Governor-General, and the customs functions were carried out by military border detachments. This went against general imperial tendencies and led to a broad discussion of the problem at all levels of government. In the 80s of XIX century the existing system was transformed, customs institutions were removed from the competence of regional authorities, but the latter remained supervisory functions. At the end of the XIX century the customs system of the region, having passed the way from the allocation of three customs districts in the frontier zone, to their merger and the formation of the Turkestan customs district with subordination to the Department of Customs Duties of the Ministry of Finance, acquired stable contours. At the same time, the customs system of Turkestan and the Steppe Territory formed by the end of the XIX century had a number of significant drawbacks. The problems were associated with a lack of funding, a weak material base of customs authorities, and a low professional level of regional customs administration officials, which, in general, reduced the effectiveness of customs supervision in the Central Asian outskirts.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1561981193.pdf
Number of views: 692      Download in PDF

22. Irina B. Bochkareva, Elena V. Tarasova
Bukhara Jews and Distillation in Turkestan in the late 1860s – 1890s

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 52. Is. 2: 677-685.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.2.677CrossRef

In the 1860s the Russian Empire continued its expansion into Central Asia. New territories in 1867 were integrated into the Turkestan Governor-Generalship, and its governor received large powers. The liberal policy of General K.P. von Kaufman contributed to the beginning of the modernization of the social, political and economic life of the region. Thanks to his civic stance, the emancipation of the Bukhara Jews began, which for centuries were disqualified from civil and economic rights by the Muslim majority. In the 1870s – 1880s the protective policy of the Russian authorities also distinguished them among the other Jewish population of the Russian Empire, allowing them to engage exclusively in distillation and wine trade in Turkestan. Trade in Russian manufactory goods and wine allowed the Bukhara Jews to go through a stage of original accumulation of capital in a short time. The liquidation of the wine monopoly at the turn of the 1880s – 1890s forced them to reorient themselves and direct the accumulated capital to new areas, contributing to the modernization of the region. This article deals with the problem of the interdependence of the civil status of Bukhara Jews and the spheres of economic activity available to them. The article is written on the basis of archive and published documents of the second half of the XIX century and beginning of the XX century.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1561981219.pdf
Number of views: 710      Download in PDF

23. Natalia A. Dushkova, Alexander V. Perepelitsyn, Victoria A. Grigorova
The Role of Outgoing Handicrafts in Capitalizing the Economy of the Central Chernozem Region in the second half of the XIX century

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 52. Is. 2: 686-694.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.2.686CrossRef

The article analyzes the history of the development of outgrowing handicrafts in the territory of the Central Chernozem Region in the second half of the XIX century. On the basis of the unpublished material, the authors revealed unstable rates and scales of development of outgoing fishing activities, the dynamics of the ratio of agricultural and industrial waste, as well as the peculiarity of the remote work of the Central Chernozem region, due to regional characteristics of the region. The authors proved the significant role of the waste industries in the capitalization of the regional economy, which had a complex impact on the development of industry, agriculture, construction, the production of consumer goods, the development of peasant farms, the level of material well-being of migrant workers. The impact of the withdrawal on the peasant economy was of a contradictory nature. Positive manifestation was the possibility of obtaining additional income away from home. Profit was small, but it was an auxiliary means of maintaining the agricultural or commercial economy at an average level. The positive impact was also in raising the level of general and vocational education of small commodity producers, migrants, in expanding their outlook and general cultural literacy. The negative – was in the consequences of the absence of the home of the head of the family for a long period of time. Firstly, family relations deteriorated, its authority declined. Sometimes frustration between spouses led to parting, which indirectly, but also affected the demographic indicators in general. The long absence was not conducive to the proper maintenance of the peasant economy, since the wife and children could not always cope with heavy physical labor.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1559217622.pdf
Number of views: 598      Download in PDF

24. Aleksandr E. Kotov
The Problem of Nihilism in the Conservative-Democratic Discourse of the 1860s – 1890s

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 52. Is. 2: 695-701.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.2.695CrossRef

The Slavophiles and the Pochvenniki сonsidered the society to be the main agent of nation-building – the reason why we refer to them as Conservative Democrats. Their ideologies were based on anti-aristocratic stance, a strive towards forming the national identity on the foundation of a peculiarly understood Orthodox spirituality. The main targets of criticism by Slavophile advocates were ‘aristocratic opposition’ and ‘revolutionary conservatism’: the forms of conservative politics and ideology that provoked revolutionary upheavals and were thus their root cause. Left radicalism was considered by the Slavophiles as a variety of ‘tyranny of theory over life’. Not recognizing in it any positive content, the Slavophiles considered it a symptom of a disease afflicting the national organism. The unfinished cycle by K.K. Tolstoy printed in Aksakov's Rus’ ushered in a number of publications on the issues of Nihilism by N.N. Gilyarov-Platonov and N.Ya. Danilevsky. Gilyarov-Platonov’s considerations were further developed by his nephew, F.A. Gilyarov. However, his book "The Fifteen Years of Sedition" contained harsh attacks on the authorities and "Katkov’s school". The numerous works of N.N. Strakhov were the most serious philosophical study of Nihilism. In the course of time, the revolutionary ideology changed. ‘Pure’ Nihilism was receding into the past in the 1870s; the Narodniki and the Marxists considered themselves to be the promoters of a positive agenda. But Conservatives did not recognize this positive element – and, arguing with the Marxists, continued to use the polemic repertoire of the old anti-nihilist discourse. At the same time, there was no single approach to Marxism in Conservative circles. Thus, for Ilovaisky it was a phenomenon alien to Russia. For Sharapov, on the contrary, it was a product of Russian life.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1559217672.pdf
Number of views: 642      Download in PDF

25. Goran Rajović, Evgeniy F. Krinko, Alla G. Vazerova, Milica Trailovic
Biographical Research in the Modern Historiography of the Don Cossacks of the second half of the XIX century. Part II

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 52. Is. 2: 701-713.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.2.701CrossRef

In recent years, historians created a number of biographical works about figures of the Don Cossacks of the second half of the XIX century. These studies are an interesting and promising new direction in modern historiography. We have prepared their review so that do not mix with other, extremely numerous scientific articles of Cossack subjects. At the same time, we tried to determine which personalities in the history of the post-reform Don have been relatively studied, and which, on the contrary, leave room for further research. Finally, we paid special attention to the question of which approaches are used by various historians, and why there is an interest in the personality factor in the history of the Don Cossacks of the second half of the XIX century, manifested in recent years. The results of our research are the following conclusions: most of the personalities are chosen by historians to study based not on their real significance, but on the volume of archival materials remaining, and as a result the choice of these personalities is quite random (the only relatively developed category is Don atamans); most of the articles are written by several historians who are trying to get away from impersonality in the perception of the government policy of this period; Despite this, most of the work was written in 2010, which makes it possible to speak about real changes in modern Don historiography.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1560509615.pdf
Number of views: 673      Download in PDF

26. Asem K. Sadykova, Sabira S. Saifulmalikova
Preparation of Pedagogical Staff for Steppe and Turkestan Area in Educational Region of Russian Empire

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 52. Is. 2: 714-725.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.2.714CrossRef

The article considers history of Turkestan, The Steppe’s Governorate General Teacher’s seminary and school in the second half of XIX and in the beginning of XX century, provides inside into the significance of these educational institutions for the professional-pedagogical staff preparation for the primary school. The authors outline questions, which are related to the national teachers’ training forms, teacher seminaries’ professional-institutional staff, public officials, differentiated payment approach, national, religion and social structure of students, types of the scholarship and organization of the educational and nurturing process. Learning of the archive sources let to analyze material-technical level of the seminary, classroom equipping, regional features of the subject teaching systems, application of the student behavior assessment systems. The idea is substantiated that experience of the teacher’s seminary and school existence in Kazakh steppe formed the basis of the professional-pedagogical staff preparation for the primary school with secondary-level pedagogical education, including national teacher’s staff training formation.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1559217824.pdf
Number of views: 738      Download in PDF

27. Vladimir N. Baryshnikov, Anatolii V. Smolin, Nikita O. Kozlov
The Russian Newspapers and the Struggle for Independence of the German Population of Schleswig-Holstein 1863–1864

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 52. Is. 2: 726-735.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.2.726CrossRef

The article is devoted to the analysis of the public opinion of the Russia during the Schleswig-Holstein crisis of 1863-1864. The Schleswig-Holstein question is considered one of the most difficult international relations in history, not only because it was part of the unification of Germany, but also because it was a part of the struggle of the European powers for economic and strategic leadership in the Baltic region. How and why were these events perceived by Russian society? The traditional source of public opinion research was the press. The greatest contribution to informing and discussing events in Denmark was made by such newspapers as Vest’, Den’, Golos, Moskovskie Vedomosti and other leading russian newspapers. The first part of article is devoted to the internal state of Russia by 1863-1864, including the conditions for existing of public opinion. Russian periodicals not only provided operational information, but also formed a definite view of events in Denmark. The second chapter is devoted to reflection of periodicals on the main events of the Schleswig-Holstein crisis of 1863–1864: the escalation of the Schleswig-Holstein issue in 1863, the beginning of the Austro-Prussian-Danish war in February 1864, the diplomatic efforts of neutral powers to stop the war, the policy of European states.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1559217872.pdf
Number of views: 727      Download in PDF

28. Alexey V. Blinov, Yury M. Goncharov
Activities of the Ministry of the National Education in the Cities of Western Siberia at the end of the 19th – the beginning of the 20th centuries: Strengthening of Educational Potential during the Modernization

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 52. Is. 2: 736-747.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.2.736CrossRef

The article discusses the trend of development of municipal educational institutions of the Ministry of education in conditions of modernization of the late XIX – early XX century On the basis of historiographical and historical sources shows the major manifestation of modernization, caused by the construction of the Trans-Siberian railway. Demographic growth, activation of economic development, change of mentality, contributed to the need for the development of educational base in the region. This process coincided with the formation of a sustainable educational space, becoming a consequence of the formation of the West Siberian district, within which there was a connection of administrative and departmental boundaries. In its efforts to establish a monopoly in educational policy and to respond to the demands of regional development, the Ministry has pursued an active policy to increase the number of educational institutions of existing types, as well as to create new ones. By the end of the Imperial period on the territory of Western Siberia was formed three types of schools, represented by a wide range of species.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1559217933.pdf
Number of views: 654      Download in PDF

29. Vladislav I. Goldin, Flera Kh. Sokolova, Vladimir M. Kapitsyn, Alexandr E. Shaparov
The Russian North in Search of Change in the end of 19th – beginning of 20th century

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 52. Is. 2: 748-756.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.2.748CrossRef

The paper is devoted to the analysis of the contradictory processes of the Russian North development in the end of 19th – beginning of 20th century. The authors analyze the economic, social and cultural aspects of the regional life, existing problems and search of their solving, relations between the North and the Centre. The article discovers entwinement of archaic and modernization tendencies in the life of the region. The paper characterizes the changes in the North and in particular in Murman in the years of World War I when the region obtained an important strategic significance for the interrelations and transportation of cargoes between Entente countries and Russia. The authors examine the most important projects which were realized in the North during the WWI. It is pointed out the growing influence of the Entente countries and Great Britain first of all in the Russian North and in particular in the naval area. The paper analyzes the factors which heightened tensions in the region during the WWI and gives the explanation why different strata of the northerners welcomed the downfall of autocracy in February 1917 and believed for the revolutionary renewal.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1559217999.pdf
Number of views: 676      Download in PDF

30. Gulnar K. Mukanova
The Eurasian Mission of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society, the middle of the XIXth and early XXth centuries

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 52. Is. 2: 757-765.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.2.757CrossRef

In this paper, the author, based on written sources and analysis of foreign publications, attempts to reconstruct the process of expanding the mission of the unique scientific structure of pre-revolutionary Russia, the Geographical Society, which has been working under the patronage of the royal family since the middle of the XIX century. The author studied the pages of the history of the IRGS, which are poorly represented in historiography, characterizing the scale and depth of international projects at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. The fullest disclosure of the scientific potential of the Society took place when serious steps were taken in imperial Russia to involve the interested European countries in geographical research. Employees of the IRGS collected and summarized valuable information sources on the resources of the empire in the accessible part of the continent, which became the basis for the development of remote regions of Central Asia, Steppes and Siberia and attracting foreign investors. The systematic work of the IRGO, essentially the only effective scientific structure on the continent, represented by Russian intellectuals, was the basis of the process of the convergence of cultures within Eurasia, which was interrupted with the start of World War I.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1559218055.pdf
Number of views: 688      Download in PDF

31. Marina L. Galas, Pavel S. Seleznev
Public Organizations of Russian Solving Socio-Economic Problems of the early of XX century

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 52. Is. 2: 766-778.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.2.766CrossRef

The article discusses the essence and the form of participation of the specialized public organizations and associations established in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, leaders of the provincial traffic, agricultural economists in the socio-political and economic life Russia to modernize agricultural complex and its foundation-farm, in solving social problems in rural areas. Presents statistics on the activities of the societies of agriculture, whose flagship scientific and applied development, formation of productive and social infrastructure, the socio-political activity was Moscow society of agriculture (MSA). The study questioned the relationship society’s credit structures. The growth of commodity-money relations, the need for cheap low interest credit to dealers, lawlessness, the need for combining funds for bulk purchases and sales have increased credit cooperation development. The analysis of legal support, institutionalization of the system of public finance in Russia during the period of historical development has been carried out. A special role in crediting innovations in the field of agricultural production and modernization of peasant farms was played by the Moscow People's Bank, which is also reflected in the article. The attention of the authors is drawn to the development of scientific thought of agrarians, leaders of the Moscow Union of Artists, Zemstvo-cooperative elite. The articles about zemstvo and agricultural societies/associations of the Moscow province, which were not only innovators in the modernization of agricultural production, but also interacted with the relevant organizations of European Russia, Siberia, abroad, with the central authorities and local government, are indicative for the disclosure of the topic. A significant contribution to the modernization of the peasant economy was made by the institutions of government and public agronomists-instructors. Agricultural school of MOSH carried out training of specialists of secondary special agronomic education. The authors of the article drew attention to the role of MOSH in the formation of the system of Zemstvo public agronomy, which included a wide range of agricultural activities, social and educational programs, provincial and all-Russian institutions. The experience of zemstvo provincial socio-economic, agro-technological, educational programs in the territory of European Russia and Siberia is generalized.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1559218113.pdf
Number of views: 668      Download in PDF

32. Fyalka N. Miymanbaeva, Ardak S. Abdiraiymova, Nurzipa K. Alpysbayeva, Perizat N. Nuskabay
Russian Resettlement Villages of the Semirechye in late 19th century – early 20th century

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 52. Is. 2: 779-791.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.2.779CrossRef

Peasant colonization of the Semirechye region took place in several stages, connected with the attitude of the government towards the resettlement movement, and also with the level and nature of Russia's economic and political development. The emergence of the Resettlement Department and the activities of the Semirechensk resettlement organization for the preparation of land plots for immigrants are being considered. Expanding the process of immigrant movement, the authors consider the structure of old-timer households, the formation of self-contained farms in the Semirechye. The dynamics of the resettlement movement, the transformation of the plans of the Semirechye regional leadership for providing peasants with land, division of the peasant population into old-timers, towns and villages, having different habitation traditions in the region and, accordingly, a different legal status; the number of Russian villages, the main occupations of peasants, the privileges granted to peasant resettlers, and the social differentiation of the peasantry are indicated. It is pointed out that in the process of adaptation to local geographical and natural conditions, the migrants had their own peculiar features of economic and material life: the basis of the economy was now not only agriculture but also cattle breeding.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1559820016.pdf
Number of views: 900      Download in PDF

33. Alexander V. Ryazanov, Andrey A. Solovyev, Alexander V. Zakharov, Lyubov S. Solovyeva
Specifics of Popular Education in Russian Province at the turn of the 20th century (based on the Materials of Volgograd State Archive)

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 52. Is. 2: 792-799.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.2.792CrossRef

The paper examines curricula and upbringing methods of Russian public education at the turn of the 20th century in the Province of the Don Cossack Host and The Kamyshinsky region of The Saratov Governorate. We have analysed various archives of male and female educational institutions such as gymnasiums, four grades, secondary, and church-based schools. The authors focused on specifics of popular educational as well as gender structure of school staff. According to archival documents, male education differed by greater number of subjects. We have also found that equal number of men and women worked as teachers in female instructions in the period mentioned above. On the contrary, male teachers almost absolutely prevailed at male secondary schools. We argue that the difference can be explained not only by economic and religious reasons, but values, methods, and goals of education must be taken into account. The analysis of several students’ records allows to state that popular education in the Russian Empire of the time was governed by the principles of rationality and statism, both of which associated with manhood. This is the rationale of male domination at secondary schools. On the other hand, the main purpose of female education was transference of socio-psychological and household skills. This educational goal can only be reached if female teachers comprise considerable part of school staff. It must be also mentioned that popular education in Russian province was not restricted to officially approved programs, but had its own features especially in the field of educational work.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1559218243.pdf
Number of views: 621      Download in PDF

34. Dmirty E. Martynov, Yulia A. Martynova, Elmira K. Khabibullina
Unpublished Diaries of Scientific Travels by N.F. Katanov to Xinjiang (1891–1892)

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 52. Is. 2: 800-807.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.2.800CrossRef

The article is devoted to ethnographic, geographical and folklore studies by N.F. Katanov in Xinjiang at the final stage of his scientific travel in 1891–1892. The article introduces for the first time the scientific information about Katanov’s unpublished diaries. The text of the manuscripts is currently being prepared by the co-authors for publication. The researcher managed to reach the oases of Hami and Turfan, completely unknown to the European Turkology and gather the richest material on the culture and oral literature of the Uighur population. These materials have never been published and preserved in hand-written form in the State Archives of the Republic of Tatarstan. The manuscript of folklore studies of spring and summer, fully compiled for printing in 1891, and contains a real encyclopedia of oral literature of Kazakhs and Uighurs. This information was obtained from informants in the border town of Chuguchak (Tacheng). Field records of the remainder of the trip were partially lost, the diaries for March-October 1892 were preserved. Comparison of the white manuscript with rough materials makes it possible to reconstruct the N.F. Katanov method, who “stringed” folklore materials on direct travel experiences. The information received from the informants was recorded in a separate journal in academic Latin transcription, and when the diary was rewritten, they were included in the Russian translation under the day when they were recorded. Information about the terrain, weather, and customs of local peoples was transferred from field diaries without changes. To illustrate the creative method by N.F. Katanov excerpts from his original diaries. Firstly, this is a description of the Western Mongols customs based on the stories by the Kazakh informant, and secondly, a description of the Uighur customs and the city of Turfan, based on the direct impressions by N.F. Katanov.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1559218305.pdf
Number of views: 602      Download in PDF

35. Nicholas W. Mitiukov, Svetlana L. Bautina, Anatoly N. Loshkarev, Mayya A. Seliverstova
The Navigation’s Beginning on Izhevsk Pond on the Meeting’s Journals of the Economic Committee of Izhevsk Plants in 1892–1900

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 52. Is. 2: 808-820.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.2.808CrossRef

Izhevsk pond in the XIX – first half of the twentieth centuries was an important transport artery for the operation of Izhevsk plants, primarily for the connection of the plant with Volozhka and Koltoma. To reduce the cost and speed up the traffic at the end of the XIX century the first steamboats appeared on Izhevsk pond. On the basis of the meeting’s journals of the Economic Committee of Izhevsk Plants (the supreme center of economic management of plants) in 1892–1900, the reconstruction of the navigation history of Izhevsk pond in the last decade of the 19th century is carried out It’s shown that initially having no experience in river traffic management, the administration of Izhevsk plants gradually find the most optimal ways of managing. The coastal infrastructure is expanding, a network of marinas is being created at key points of the pond (Volozhka, Koltoma, plant’s dam, etc.). By the end of the 1890-s the Economic Committee received enough experience to recognize the preliminary conspiracy of firewood contractors for the plant at inflated prices. It finds the courage to abandon traditional contractors (Porsev and Bodalev) in favor of the new (Andreev). Appears and experience in the operation of the plant’s steamer "Izh". So, if initially the Economic Committee delves into all the details of hiring a crew, then in 1897 it transfers the functions of selecting half of the crew to the contractor, and after successfully navigating, and completely trusts the selection of the crew. In this case, the plants compensate for the costs of maintaining the crew. There are reserves to reduce the repair and construction of new factory barges. The key dates in the history of the plant’s steamer “Izh”, which, judging by the documentation of Izhevsk plants, were built according to the project of the plant’s steamer of the Votkinsk plant “Sharkan”, are defined. An analysis of the work done during traditional repairs of the plant’s steamer shows that, along with operational damages, there are signs of poor quality construction and even obvious factory defects (through fistulas in the body of the steam engine, patches in the boiler, etc.).

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1559218888.pdf
Number of views: 641      Download in PDF

36. Tatyana G. Karchaeva, Anna S. Zhulaeva, Mikhail D. Severyanov
Notarial Institution and Notaries of the Yenisei Province from 1897 to 1917

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 52. Is. 2: 821-829.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.2.821CrossRef

The article explores the historical information about the Notarial institutions and notaries in the Yenisei province of Eastern Siberian from January 1897 to February 1917. It is argued that Siberian Notarial part of the Ministry of Justice began to operate in the provinces of Eastern Siberia with a 30-year delay. The fundamental law was the “Highest approved temporary rules for the application of judicial acts in the provinces and regions of Siberia” of 1896. This law realized the “Regulation on the Notarial part” of 1866. This was a main regulatory act about the Russian Notary management. The Notary offices were established in five cities of the Yenisei province – the Krasnoyarsk, Minusinsk, Achinsk, Kansk, Yeniseisk. The Senior Notaries of the Krasnoyarsk District Court were 4 people – Nikolai E. Gudima, Alexander I. Kokoshkin, Alexey M. Vetrov; Leo P. Terek. The City Notaries were 11 people – Mikhail K. Kotenev, Nikolay A. Stavrovsky, Joseph A. Itsin, Alexander A. Romanovsky; Victor-Stefan D. Petrozhitsky, Alexey M. Treskov, Ivan O. Romanovsky, Yakov P. Polyashov, Alexey A. Yakovlev, Dmitry S. Dobrovolsky, Mikhail A. Stavrovsky. This article explored data about their biographies, which firstly presented in History. Siberian Notaries were former local judicial officials. They had many years of experience in a Siberian Court or Russian Notarial part in the provinces of Central Russia. Access to notarial activities was provided by professional education, noble origin and the chairman’s protection of the Krasnoyarsk Regional Court or Senior Notary. Prestige of work in Notarial part was determined profitability professional activities. However, Senior Notaries and City Notaries of the Yenisei province was characterized by impeccability and the absence of significant official misconduct over the entire 20-year period their work. The customer’s cases complaints explanted the socio-economic conditions in the Yenisei province. There were a rapid population growth and a number of civil legal acts increased in the Eastern Siberia at the beginning XX century.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1559218962.pdf
Number of views: 614      Download in PDF

37. Vladimir B. Karataev, Semen I. Adinyaev, Svetlana F. Artemova, Aleksandr N. Volkov
From the History of the Dawn of Aviation: Monoplanes of the early XX century

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 52. Is. 2: 830-837.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.2.830CrossRef

The article deals with the dawn of aviation in the early XX century before the First world war. The attention is paid to the airplanes of the monoplane type, analyzed varieties of airplanes, especially their designs. There were involved as materials the specialized literature on the history of the development of airplanes, as well as reference and scientific literature. The study used a set of scientific methods: multi-factoriality and integration, chronology, typology, comparison, etc., which together provide the reliable results on the studied problem. For example, studying the experience of the development of world and national aeronautics, we paid attention to the features of their designs, which subsequently allowed the use of prototypes, both for civil and military purposes. In conclusion, the authors state that the development of monoplanes in the ХХ century, for the most part, took place in european countries. The first experiments of 1906 led after 2–3 years to a series of successes, among which there was the first flight over the English Channel and reaching a speed of 100 km/h. At the same time, there was an increased public interest to the aeronautics, all this in general created the necessary conditions for further improvements of monoplanes. Already by the beginning of the First world war, the accumulated experience was sufficient to apply airplanes effectively on the battlefield.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1559219057.pdf
Number of views: 672      Download in PDF

38. Natalia V. Medvedeva, Elena V. Frolova, Olga V. Rogach, Tatyana M. Ryabova
Public Participation in Shaping the Tourist Attractiveness of Russian Territories at the turn of the XIX–XX centuries

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 52. Is. 2: 838-847.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.2.838CrossRef

The article is devoted to the study of the role of the public in shaping the tourist attractiveness of Russian territories in the era of the entrepreneurial stage of tourism development (late XIX – early XXcenturies). It is during this period that the tourist and excursion movement in Russia is activated. With the development of capitalism, the tourist market begins to take shape: the transport network is actively developing, hotels are being built, restaurants are opening, various tourist companies, clubs and societies are emerging that provide assistance in organizing tourist and excursion services. The main category of tourist tourists were schoolchildren and representatives of public institutions. It is concluded that the main directions of development of tourism in this period become mainly cognitive in nature, contribute to the formation of national identity. The authors summarize the territorial experience of tourist and excursion activities of Zemstvo institutions in pre-revolutionary Russia in the provinces of Central Russia. A retrospective analysis of the activities of zemstvos and tourist-oriented societies allowed them to reveal their active role in education, preservation of cultural heritage and the organization of museum business. Successful practices of integrating excursion into the school system are given. The development of publishing activity stands out as one of the most important conditions for the formation of the tourist attractiveness of Russian territories.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1559219138.pdf
Number of views: 643      Download in PDF

39. Anvar M. Mamadaliev, Andrey V. Venkov, Natal'ya V. Miku, Aude Médico
On the Ratio of Linear Forces of the Russian 1st Pacific and Japanese Squadrons during the Russian-Japanese War of 1904–1905. Russian Battleships

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 52. Is. 2: 848-872.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.2.848CrossRef

A series of articles is devoted to the analysis of the ratio of opposing linear (armoured) forces of the russian 1st Pacific and Japanese squadrons during the Russian-Japanese war of 1904–1905 before the start of hostilities, coverage of tactical and technical characteristics of armoured ships and the strategy of their use by the naval leadership. In work an attempt is also made to assess the chances of a victory for the 1st Pacific Squadron, taking into account its combat capabilities on the eve of a war in terms of a general battle. This article analyzes the tactical and technical elements of the main force of the fleet – battleships of the russian fleet: the squadron battleships "Tsarevich", "Retvizan", type"Poltava". It also gives a brief analysis of the Borodino-type battleships, which, although were not in the 1st Pacific Squadron, were created specifically for the Far East and confrontation with the japanese fleet. A few words are devoted to the squadron battleship "Knyaz' Potemkin-Tavricheskii" – a ship that did not participate and was not planned to participate in the Russian-Japanese war, but served as a prototype of the battleship "Retvizan".

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1559219283.pdf
Number of views: 1107      Download in PDF

40. Konstantin V. Taran, Pavel A. Byshkov
The Activities of the Novorossiysk Committee of the Union of Railwaymen during the First Russian Revolution

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 52. Is. 2: 873-879.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.2.873CrossRef

The article discusses the activities of the Novorossiysk Committee of the Union of railwaymen in the period of the First russian revolution. There were used as materials the archival documents of central and regional archives: the state archive of the Russian Federation, the Russian state archive of socio-political history, the State archive of the Krasnodar Krai, the Documentation center for modern history of the Krasnodar Krai, the Archive department of the Sochi city administration and the museum of the history of the resort city of Sochi. In conclusion, the authors state that the committee (bureau) of the Union Railway, created in Novorossiysk in October 1905, was aimed at improving the socio-economic condition of railway workers. The social democrats and the socialist revolutionaries of Novorossiysk systematically tried to draw the railroad staff into the revolutionary process, because of this, the resolutions of the railway union committee took a political character, condemned the actions of the autocracy.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1559219828.pdf
Number of views: 577      Download in PDF

41. Stanislav N. Sinegubov, Sergei P. Shilov
About Features of the Swedish Military Potential in Reports of the Russian Naval Agent A.K. Petrov in 1908−1911

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 52. Is. 2: 880-891.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.2.880CrossRef

The article analyzes the reports of the russian naval agent A.K. Petrov from the governments of the Scandinavian countries to the General Marine Headquarters in 1908-1911 to assess Swedish military potential. The period was uneasy both in Europe and its Northern part. After the rupture of the Swedish-Norwegian union in 1905 and Petersburg's support for Oslo's striving for independence, the russian leadership was not well-informed the foreign military policy of Sweden. This was crucial for Russıan military-political strategy in the Baltic Region. The substantial part of A.K. Petrov' reports was not only about the fleet, but ınterestıng details about the land army's training in winter, physical training for commanders and men, cultivating sports in the army, organizing the lives of officers and non-commissioned officers, state support for the militia etc. The article indicates that the messages of 1909 were full of information about the army of the Scandinavian state. In the reports of 1910 and early 1911 they were adjusted and supplemented. On the whole, the following picture was formed on their basis: the Swedish armed forces, to a greater degree, especially the fleet, were focused on defence, and land forces were given priority in their development.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1559219947.pdf
Number of views: 577      Download in PDF

42. Gulzhaukhar K. Kokebayeva, Ryskeldy S. Myrzabekova, Aigul M. Smanova, Tolkyn N. Mukhazhanova
The Problem of Organizing Care for the Wounded and Sick Soldiers During World War I

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 52. Is. 2: 892-900.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.2.892CrossRef

World War I was a global armed conflict of the industrial age. The armies of the warring parties used all achievements of science and technology: toxic gases, air raids, tanks. The use of powerful weapons, equipment and new methods of warfare led to destruction or injury of a huge number of people. The norms of international humanitarian law that provide for the treatment of the sick and wounded in armed conflicts reflect elementary considerations of humanity. According to the Geneva Conventions of 1864 and 1906, sanitary facilities should get the patronage and protection of belligerents. After each battle, the belligerent, which occupies the battlefield, must organize operations to find the wounded and provide them medical assistance. In all belligerent countries, all doctors, both conscripts and volunteers, began their military service, making them one of the largest groups of academically trained specialists engaged in hostilities. Doctors and nurses selflessly served humanistic ideals, they did not differentiate the wounded and sick soldiers based on their belonging to any nation or state.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1559220070.pdf
Number of views: 642      Download in PDF

43. Roza S. Zharkynbaeva, Ardak Abdiraiymova, Akzhamal M. Urazbaeva, Ainura T. Suinova
Influence of the First World War on the Status of Women in the Russian Empire (on the Example of Governor-Generalship of the Steppe and Turkestan Territory)

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 52. Is. 2: 901-909.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.2.901CrossRef

At present, the history of women during the First World War is of great interest, when they became an independent and strong part of society under the influence of the impending threat, able to bear all the hardships of wartime on their shoulders. The article discusses the political and social consequences of the First World War, the impact on the status of women in the outskirts of the Russian Empire, in particular, in Governor-generalship of the Steppe and Turkestan territory. The main group of sources includes archival documents of the Central State Archive of the Republic of Kazakhstan (TsGA RK). The object of the study is the features of the socio-economic status of women during the First World War. The subject of research is the socio-political activity and mass protests of women, motives, the results of the speeches, the harsh measures of the authorities against women. Using the materials of the Central State Archive of the Republic of Kazakhstan as an example, the role of such factors as women's performances as economic need, high cost, shortage of essential goods, the important role of rumors, men's participation are shown. The causes, course, specificity, consequences of women's performances, growth of women's consciousness are analyzed.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1559220141.pdf
Number of views: 651      Download in PDF

full number
URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1561981279.pdf
Number of views: 2035      Download in PDF

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1559220545.pdf
Number of views: 563      Download in PDF

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