English (United Kingdom)  Russian (CIS)

Bylye Gody – Russian Historical Journal

E-ISSN 2310-0028
Publication frequency – issued 4 times a year.

Issued from 2006.

1 March 01, 2019


1. Leonid A. Bobrov, Vsevolod N. Obraztsov, Alexey V. Salnikov
Oirat Helmet of the XVII – mid-XVIII centuries from the State Hermitage Museum

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 51. Is. 1: 5-19.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.1.5CrossRef

The article describes a riveted iron helmet (Inv. No. VO-1237) from the collection of the State Hermitage Museum (St. Petersburg), originally attributed as “Mongolian Shishak”. The typological analysis allowed to specify the dating and attribution of the head. According to the material of manufacture, the helmet belongs to the class of iron, according to the design of the crown, to the section riveted, according to the shape of the dome to the type of spherocylindrical. Overall height – 26 cm, diameter: 20.5 – 21.5 cm. Weight – 1.075 kg. The sill of the helmet is riveted of four S-shaped plate-sector sections, the joints of which are covered with narrow plates with a smooth edge and a longitudinal stiffener. The lining not only connects the elements of the crown to each other, but also strengthens the design of the head, protecting the most vulnerable parts of the dome - docking seams. An additional latch plates of the crown are a cap-shaped exposed and a convex rim along the bottom edge of the crown. A box-shaped visor consisting of a narrow horizontal plate – a "shelf" and a vertical "shield" is riveted to the front part of the helmet. Crowned with a helmet faceted tube for plume. Through holes are punched along the bottom edge of the crown, into which copper loops are inserted for fastening the barmitsa. However, as a protection for the ears and neck, at present, a pair of forged headphones and a headplate are used on the helmet. It was established that the helmet of VO-1237 belongs to a special group of Oirat (Dzungar, Kalmyk) helmets originating from the territory of the Volga region, the southern regions of Western Siberia, South-Eastern Kazakhstan, Western Mongolia and Tibet (14 copies). A distinctive feature of the helmets of the series is the riveted crown of the characteristic "pitcher-shaped" shape. It is very likely that in making helmets of such an unusual design, Oirat masters were inspired by the image of a Buddhist stupa (Kalm. "Suburgan"). In addition, a high-crowned helmet was clearly visible on the battlefield. In the course of a dynamic equestrian battle, such a helmet helped the unit's troops quickly determine the location of their commander, which probably facilitated the control of troops during the battle. Design features and design systems suggest that the sample of protective weapons was manufactured by Dzhungar or Kalmyk gunsmiths in the second half of the XVII th – mid-XVIII th centuries. As a combat head, a helmet could be used in a later period.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1551351231.pdf
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2. Sergey V. Bereznitsky, Igor I. Halechko, Petr V. Primak
"... About the Places in which before the Russian People does not Happen …": Fate, Service, Contribution to the Science of the eighteenth century of Vasilii Andreevich Hmetevskii

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 51. Is. 1: 20-28.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.1.20CrossRef

The article is devoted to the main stages of life, services, research activities of a Russian nobleman, naval officer Vasilii Andreevich Hmetevskii (1698-1777). Because of to the fact that he received an excellent education at the School of mathematical and navigational Sciences in Moscow, at the Academy Of the marine guard in St. Petersburg, he was able to honorably perform tasks in the Baltic fleet, while participating in the Second Kamchatka and Nerchinsk expeditions in the North-East of Russia, in various positions, including as commander of Kamchatka. His studies of coast and marine areas of Kamchatka and the Okhotsk coast Hmetevskii made a great contribution to our science of the eighteenth century. His activity was studied on the basis of synthesis of concepts of microhistory, history of everyday life, history of mentalities, historical anthropology. This synthesis allowed us to trace the role of a particular person in a certain historical period, its influence on the historical process, characterized by the peculiarities of the socio-cultural environment in which the person acts at a given time in extreme conditions of life. The materials of the Russian state archive of the Navy and other published documents on the development of the Pacific Ocean by Russia in the XVIIIth century were used as a source base. Their analysis allowed us to clarify some controversial moments of the service Hmetevskii in the North-East of Russia, to refute some of the myths of his biography. The name of the Hmetevskii Peninsula on the Northern coast of the sea of Okhotsk, together with the I.F. Elagin Hmetevskii became a founder future capital of the Kamchatka territory the city of Petropavlovsk - Kamchatskii, an important naval base. Thus, Hmetevskii was engaged not only in scientific research, but also in the implementation of strategic tasks to strengthen Russian power in the North-East of the country in the XVIIIth century, to develop this distant, but important in geopolitical terms of the region.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1551351296.pdf
Number of views: 636      Download in PDF

3. Konstantin S. Zaikov, Natalia S. Avdonina
Ethnic and Cultural Space of the Eastern Sami (Skolts) of the Northern Frontier of Russia and Norway-Denmark in the XVIII century

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 51. Is. 1: 29-40.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.1.29CrossRef

The article focuses on little-known pages of the northern frontier history – the Russian-Norwegian borderlands, specifically the description of the ethnic and cultural space of the Eastern, Orthodox Sami (Skolts) group in the XVIII century. Through the wide range of sources, from the Russian and Norwegian archives, the authors reconstruct the boundaries of the territorial possessions of Sami groups, and the demographics of the Skolts’ pogosts. The authors explain that the status position of the village headman, as the administrative and political leader of the pogost among the skolts from the 18th century was growing. The headman served as the executive and judicial authorities of the pogost, which was encouraged by the Russian county administration. Economic activities of the Skolts could be wider than the administrative borders of the Siyits and vice versa. In this regard, the described boundaries of the pogosts in Norwegian and Russian sources is only a representation of local and regional authorities on the presence of fixed administrative and economic boundaries of collectives. This difference is due to the asymmetry in the perception of space by the semi-nomadic Sami population of the borderland and the Russian administration. The reconstruction of the demographics of the skolts demonstrates that during the XVIIIth century, there was a constant decrease in the population with the reduction of the fishing capacity, the elasticity of the economic borders and the gradual settlement of the skolts’ territories by the Norwegian Sami.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1551351355.pdf
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4. Andrej V. Belyakov, Denis N. Maslyuzhenko, Gayaz H. Samigulov
Siberian Branch of Kasimov Tartar Princes of Tonkachev: to the History of Ichkino’s Tartars

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 51. Is. 1: 41-54.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.1.41CrossRef

The article is devoted to the Siberian branch of Tonkachev’s dynasty of service class tartars, and in broader terms it shows the specific nature of formation of groups of service class Tartars/Meshcheriaks in Zauralie. On Tonkachev’s example one of the sources of formation of those Zauralie’s groups is shown – the groups of service class Tartars of Temnikovskiy, Alatorskiy Saranskiy and other uyezds, emigrating east of the Urals due to the policy of Christianization, going on in 1710. Descendants of Bekmamet Tonkachev, moving into Ichkino’s yurts on the Iset, managed to take quite a high position in the group of Ichkino’s Tartars, in particular, their names are mentioned in the documents in connection with the elections of deputies into Ulozhennaya commission (the name temporary collegiate organ in Russia in the XVIII century. The main personage of the study, Fazil Ibragim-ogly Tonkachev, was an authoritative personality among the inhabitants of Mogilskaya (Ichkinskaya) volost of Chelyabinsk uyezd. But his activity was not limited with the volost borders – together with other Ichkino’s Tartars he served, and as an educated person took part in diplomatic missions to the East, obviously as an interpreter. The conducted study has given the opportunity to prove the information on F.Tonkachev’s gravestone and add to it, the study also shows on the exact examples that the Tonkachevs saved their leadership in a new situation. At the same time empire regime willingly used their authority and education, as well as because of the fact that some members of other branches of this family also served in departments for foreign affairs. The accomplished work arises new problems in a general picture of history of formation and development of service class Tartars in Zauralie in XVIII – the beginning of XIX centuries.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1551351442.pdf
Number of views: 606      Download in PDF

5. Anton K. Salmin
I.G. Gmelin and his Role in the Second Kamchatka Expedition on the Territory of Kazan Province

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 51. Is. 1: 55-63.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.1.55CrossRef

The article is devoted to the Kazan period of research of the member of the Second Kamchatka Expedition, professor of Saint-Petersburg Academy of Sciences J.G. Gmelin. In chronological terms, this refers to the period from October to December 1733. In a short period, he, as well as G.F. Miller recorded a unique material that has not lost its relevance so far. It is population of the territory, family composition, rituals and beliefs, food and clothing of local peoples. Language, beliefs were studied, meteorological observations were held. Reports on the obtained results, boxes with images of flora, fauna, and ethnographic exhibits were sent to Kunstkamera and the Academy of Sciences. There are few studies about J.G. Gmelin in Russian. This is explained by the fact that the main work “Reise durch Sibirien von dem Jahre 1733 bis 1743”, published in Göttingen in 1751-52, has not been translated into Russian so far. There is a reprint edition in German, implemented in 2009. For a short period J.G. Gmelin and his colleague G.F. Miller managed to study the daily life of the ethnic groups living in Kazan government thoroughly - the Cheremis, the Chuvash, the Votyaks, the Mordovians, the Tartars and the Russians. For example, the Chuvash field (all-village) praying was recorded for the first time by J.G. Gmelin. This happened halfway between Cheboksary and Kozmodemyansk in Ilyinskaya Pustynka. Here, travellers saw a horse tied to a tree, which was used to travel to a praying place. The participants of praying slaughtered a sheep and cooked the inners and ventricle, filled with fat, blood and cereals in the boiler. On the east side of the boiler there was a site fenced from all sides with sticks. The skin of the sacrificial animal was previously hung on the poles at the praying place. The traveller called his studies in Kazan government a pleasant duty.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1551351492.pdf
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6. Sergey V. Lyubichankovskiy, Diana M. Mifteeva
The Formation and Development of Human Resources of Health Authorities in the Orenburg Province in the second half of the XVIII – mid XIX centuries

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 51. Is. 1: 64-71.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.1.64CrossRef

The article is based on analysis of federal and regional historical sources and additional literature on this issue. The authors explore problems related to the development of human resources for health authorities in the Orenburg province in the second half of the 18th – mid-19th centuries. The authors analyze the historical conditions which contributed to the emergence of civil medicine in the center of the empire and in the remote regions. It is reported that the provincial reform of Catherine II (1775) served as an impulse to increase the number of civilian medical officials in the Orenburg province. The increase in the number of medical institutions required the expansion of the medical staff for their staffing. The lack of medical staff, including auxiliary of most medical institutions of the province during the entire study period, led to a deterioration in the quality of medical care and reduced a large extent of its availability. The peculiarities of staffing of medical institutions were the formation of their staff at the expense of representatives from the Mohammedan (Muslim) community due to the extremely negative attitude of the non-Jewish population to medicine and doctors in the Orenburg province.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1551357007.pdf
Number of views: 597      Download in PDF

7. Olga I. Golovanova
Business Writing as a Source of Studying of the Events in Tyumen and the County Connected with People's Movement under the General Guide of Yemelyan Pugachev of 1773–1775

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 51. Is. 1: 72-82.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.1.72CrossRef

Through a prism of archival documents events in the Tyumen County in the period of people's movement under the general guide of Yemelyan Pugachev of 1773–1775 are restored. Being the border, the territory was between "world" and "war", and the population has been split into pros and cons. The author considers efficiency of the actions of local government which have found support from the main part, first of all, of urban population. In article the factors and circumstances which have allowed to keep general "silence" and accountability of the central power become clear. The value of the active armed forces which have beaten the main parts of insurgents in adjacent territories and also the local military units which have localized and the giving "Tyumen" rebels is emphasized. In article the attempt to comprehend a complex of actions for stabilization of a situation is given. The reactionary course of the Tyumen administration was shown not only in total repressions, but also in pardon. Archival material has allowed to restore earlier unknown historic figures and also to informatively add already known.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1551351609.pdf
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8. Sergey I. Degtyarev, Lybov G. Polyakova
Orphan Courts in the System of State Institutions of the Russian Empire of the end of the XVIII – 60s of the XIX centuries: Personal Composition, Competence, Rights and Duties of Guardians

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 51. Is. 1: 83-92.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.1.83CrossRef

This article is devoted to the guardianship agencies that are created to protect the interests of representatives of urban estates – orphan courts. The authors analyzed the competence of these institutions in the context of the evolution of Russian imperial legislation, which regulated their activities. Orphan courts in the Russian Empire were created in 1775 and existed until the beginning of the XX century. But this article chronologically covers the period from the administrative reform of Catherine II to the reforms of the management system of the 1860s. Particular attention is paid to the interaction of orphan courts with guardians. Considered the rights and duties of guardians, various aspects of the implementation of the guardianship of minors orphans, the property of the deceased burghers and merchants. The paper discusses the regional features of the functioning of orphan courts. According to the authors, they often depended on the number of people in a particular region or village of the empire, its social and national composition.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1551351685.pdf
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9. Vladimir N. Shaidurov
From the History of the Russian Soda Production in the 18th and 19th centuries (as illustrated by the Example of Siberia)

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 51. Is. 1: 93-101.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.1.93CrossRef

The industrial growth between the late 18th and 19th century was largely facilitated by advancing science, which led to the technical and technological revolution. For example, evolving chemistry crystallized into new industrial sectors, one of which was the soda production. Soda was an essential element for the textile, leather, glass and soap industries in this period. Soda was produced in the potash process in Russia before the 1780s. It was not until the late 18th century that Academician Erich Laxmann was able to achieve a commercial process for soda. However, the first soda plant was opened in the Russian Empire in Altai in 1864 by Prang brothers. Since the second half of the 19th century, Western Siberia was a major center in the soda production in Russia. The new sector formed in the environment of protectionist policies for soda plant owners, carried out by the government. This paper will examine some aspects of the history of the soda production in Russia, using the example of Siberia, i.e. sources and specifications of raw materials, history and business operations of soda plants as well as description of their respective owners. The work made use of documents from a range of Russia's central and regional archives and published results of field studies conducted by mining engineers in the late 19th century.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1551351734.pdf
Number of views: 592      Download in PDF

10. Zarema Ya. Emtyl, Anna S. Bochkareva
Formation and Development of Enlightenment in the North Caucasus in the late of XVIII – early XX centuries

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 51. Is. 1: 102-112.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.1.102CrossRef

In the article, the historical conditions for the emergence of enlightenment in the Northern Caucasus are studied on a broad factual basis; specific features and main directions of public activities of educators. The authors of the article try to move away from the tradition established in the Caucasus, according to which the development of enlightenment is associated with the establishment of political, socioeconomic and cultural influence of Russia in the region and reflect the influence of ethnopolitical and socio-cultural processes taking place in the North Caucasian society, connected with internal impulses of its development, and also the influence of the progressive ideas of the Muslim world. On the basis of the study, a new periodization of the history of North Caucasian enlightenment is proposed in the evolution of which two stages are identified: the formation of enlightenment thought (the end of the eighteenth century – the end of the nineteenth century) and mature enlightenment (late 19th – early 20th centuries). It is noted that the public activities of the North Caucasian enlighteners, along with traditional features for enlightenment, had a pronounced specificity that was determined by the complex socio-political conditions of life of the mountain people. In view of the severe cultural and ideological pressure exerted by the Russian Empire, the lack of a corresponding level of political and social recognition, the creation of conditions in which the self-preservation of the mountain people and the development of their national life was possible was of paramount importance for the educators, while the solution of social problems was postponed to the background. A specific feature of enlightenment in the North Caucasus, according to the authors, was the lack of an anticlerical orientation typical of European enlightenment. Moreover, it is emphasized that the beginning of active scientific and pedagogical activity of the advanced representatives of the confessional line of educational thought preceded the formation of a secular direction.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1551351799.pdf
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11. Dmitry V. Ovsjannikov
To the Issue of the Support by Islamic Divines of Caucasus Movement for the Gazavat Under Leadership of Sheikh Mansur

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 51. Is. 1: 113-120.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.1.113CrossRef

The article attempts to consider the spectrum of views of Muslim scientists (Ulama) of the Caucasus, the differentiation of which occurred against the background of the military-political events associated with the movement of the Sheikh/Imam Mansur. The resistance of the Russian empire by the Chechen societies, as well as the mountaineers of the Central and Western Caucasus, which took place from 1785 to 1791, served as a factor that had a noticeable resonance among the corporation of Islamic theologians. The key issue was the attitude to the struggle against Russia under the banner of Gazavat. The conclusions are based on the consideration of the social nature of the «clergy» in Muslim society. In particular, the regional differences of Dagestan, on the one hand, and Chechen societies, on the other, which are based on various historical forms of the social order, became an important reason why a number of Dagestan divines opposed Mansur’s leadership claims. In this regard, the reasons why Mansur, after military luck turned away from him, are considered, sought support not in neighboring Dagestan, where the positions of Islam were very strong, and Russia's influence is relatively small, but among Ossetian and Adyghe rulers of the Turkish orientation. All this is analyzed on the basis of the developments of domestic and foreign historiography, as well as a wide range of sources, including in Arabic and unpublished archival data.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1551351845.pdf
Number of views: 593      Download in PDF

12. Galina N. Ksenzhik
Russian Cartographic Materials of the ХVIII–ХIХ centuries on the History of Kazakhstan: Classification, Overview

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 51. Is. 1: 121-130.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.1.121CrossRef

The priority task of the Russian Empire, in order to successfully advance into the depths of the Kazakh steppes, was a cartographic study. The greatest contribution to the topographic study of the territory of Kazakhstan was made by officers of the Military Topographic Depot and members of the Russian Geographical Society. In the process of studying the history of Kazakhstan in modern times, the task of identifying, describing and further using cartographic sources inevitably arises. In order to successfully study the spatial aspects of the historical process, orienting in a huge number of maps of all kinds and types, as well as systematization and storage, the article analyzes classification problems and provides a brief overview of Russian cartographic materials on the history of Kazakhstan in the ХVIIIth and ХIХ th centuries, from the collection of documents collected during the study. The classification should satisfy the logical requirement of the study. The basis for the classification of identified old maps was laid down the main features: territorial, chronological, thematic, scale, purpose and content. In this case, first of all, the dominant feature of the map was taken into account and the classification was carried out according to it, additional features were secondary and filled the classification.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1551351895.pdf
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13. Yu.Yu. Grankin, Yu.Yu. Klychnikov, S.S. Lazarian
«For the Fatherland the Death, Healed Wounds and Fetters are Dear»: North Caucasian Trials in the Fate of the Poles in the first half of the XIX century

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 51. Is. 1: 131-137.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.1.131CrossRef

The article reveals the circumstances of the appearance in the Northern Caucasus of Polish prisoners of war and exiles in the first half of the 19th century. The reasons that led to the use of the region for the resocialization of the population disloyal to the Russian Empire are considered. An appraisal of the steps taken by the administration to organize the process of sending Poles to the Caucasus and using their potential for the needs of the region is made. The consequences of such actions in the fate of the exiles are elucidated. The authorities had ponderable reasons not to trust the loyalty of the contingent under their arm, and therefore the Poles were used not so much in the combat units as on the construction of fortifications, the construction of dams, the mining of stone, etc. Some Poles expected to flee to the "non-peaceful" mountaineers and with their help find freedom. But this often led to the new captivity for them, in much worse conditions, and they hoped to return to their homeland only with flight to the protection of the Russian army. Far from all the Poles who found themselves in the North Caucasus regarded the incident as a personal tragedy. For many, it was a chance to improve their financial situation and make a career in the service of the Russian Empire.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1551351979.pdf
Number of views: 603      Download in PDF

14. Yuliya A. Lysenko
The Problem of Security of Trade Caravans in Russian-Kazakh Relations in the first half of the XIX century

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 51. Is. 1: 138-148.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.1.138CrossRef

The mass attack on Russian trade caravans in the Kazakh steppe, which began at the turn of the XVIII–XIX century, followed by transit to the markets of Central Asia, actualized the issue of their security in the Russian-Kazakh relations. The emergence of this problem was due to the departure from the political arena of the authoritative khans of the XVIII century and the growing struggle for power between their numerous descendants. The ability to accompany Russian caravans through the Kazakh steppe, ensuring their safety, was considered by the Kazakh ethno-elite as a strong argument for strengthening political influence. Competition between it for this right led to attacks on trade caravans of those sultans who could not use it. At the beginning of the XIX century the problem of safety of trade caravans was discussed with members of "Deputy missions" of Junior and Middle zhuzes, who came to the court of Russian emperors. At the conversations, the issues of strengthening the protection of caravans, the responsibility of sultans for their support, mechanisms for identifying those responsible for the attacks were discussed. The regional government called the governors of clans to strengthen control over situations in the wilderness, and to prevent new attempts of attacks. However, diplomatic measures did not bring the desired effect. Therefore, since the 20-ies of the previous century Russian authorities began to consider the robbery of Russian trade caravans as a criminal offense and to determine the measure of responsibility of the guilty within the framework of the current legislation. At the regional level, stronger measures have been taken to capture and punish those responsible.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1551352035.pdf
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15. Yuri F. Katorin, Anatoliy P. Nyrkov, Olga V. Natolochnaya
Part of the Fleet in the Capture of Kokand Fortress of Ak-Mechet

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 51. Is. 1: 149-157.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.1.149CrossRef

This article describes some aspects of the history of the conquest of Central Asia by the Russian Empire in the 19-th century, described in detail the training expedition to capture Kokand fortress of Ak-Mechet, examines the forces of the parties, described in detail progress in the siege and storming of the fortress, the loss of detail parts, as well as the importance of capturing the fortress for the further advancement of the Russian Empire in Central Asia. Materials are of particular interest to participate in the expedition military sailors, who were not only the delivery of supplies and amphibious landing, but for the first time fired reconnaissance soundings, determined the speed of flow of the Syr Darya, researched the nature of DNA and made navigation and hydrographic description of river that had great significance for future expeditions.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1551352118.pdf
Number of views: 936      Download in PDF

16. Ivan A. Ermachkov, Evgeniya V. Vidishcheva, Natalia V. Svechnikova, Jasmin Gut
Everyday Life and Traditions of the East Georgian Tribes in the XIX century (Tushins, Pshavy, Khevsurs)

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 51. Is. 1: 158-165.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.1.158CrossRef

The article discusses the everyday life and traditions of the mountain tribes of the eastern part of Georgia, namely, tushins, pshavy, khevsurs. The attention is paid to the anthropological appearance, traditions and religious rules of these peoples. There were involved as materials the reference, local history and memoirs literature, in which issues of traditions and life of the population of eastern Georgia, namely Tushetii, Pshavii and Khevsureti, were considered. The methodological basis of the study was the traditional historiography principles of historicism, scientific objectivity and consistency. In the process, the following general historical methods were used – the problem-chronological method, which allowed studying individual facts of changes in the customary law of the mountain peoples of eastern Georgia in their temporal sequence; as well as historical and comparative, which allowed to compare the peculiarities of life and traditions with other peoples of the Caucasus, to identify the common and the particular. In conclusion, the authors state that the everyday life and traditions of the mountain peoples of eastern Georgia have much in common with the life and traditions of the christian peoples of the Caucasus. Nevertheless, the peoples of eastern Georgia had their own features, namely the implementation of rituals (for example, the rite of reconciliation of krovnik), the worship of their gods (with the mountaineers' hierarchy of gods), etc. It is important to note the inherent belligerence of mountain people with the worship of courage in all its manifestations.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1551358838.pdf
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17. Aleksandr А. Cherkasov, Sergei N. Bratanovskii, Larisa A. Koroleva, Vasiliy V. Tarakanov
Expedition in Khevsureti in 1813. The "Assault" of Shatili

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 51. Is. 1: 166-175.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.1.166CrossRef

The article deals with the russian expedition in Khevsureti in 1813 during the final stage of the Kakhetian uprising. The attention is paid to the circumstances of the capture of the village-fortress Shatili. The dates of the expedition from May 23 to June 15, as well as the distribution of losses of russian troops were specified. There were used as materials the results of field research on the territory of the village-fortress Shatili, conducted in September 2018. The documents published in the Acts collected by the Caucasian Archaeographic Commission are an important source. In conclusion, the authors state that the capture of the main refuge of the rebellious georgian prince Alexander – the village-fortress Shatili, occurred without assault. The authors hypothesized that the shatilians practically surrendered the fortress in order to avoid its destruction from the artillery fire of the russian army. The commander of the expedition, general Simonovich, reported to the commander-in-chief of russian troops in Georgia, general Rtischev, who, in turn, the emperor, about the complete destruction of the rebel fortress, misled his superiors. In an effort to preserve the fortress for the further protection of Georgia from the invasion of Lezgin, general Simonovich destroyed only the lower tier of defense, which was responsible for the defense of Georgia. In addition, the overlaps were burned in a small number of other towers, without destroying the towers themselves. Thus, the defense capability of the fortress was reduced only in a secondary area, which practically did not participate in the defense of the fortress against the invasion of Lezgins.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1551861150.pdf
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18. Galya A. Alpyspaeva, Sholpan N. Sayahimova, Lazzat Т. Jumaliyeva
Organization of Medical Service in the External Districts of the Middle Zhuz in the 20-60s of the XIX century

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 51. Is. 1: 176-187.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.1.176CrossRef

The article discusses the first experience of the organization of medical care by the Russian Empire in the Kazakh steppes of the Middle Zhuz in the 20-60s of the XIX century in the implementation of the administrative reforms. The origin base is made up of the documentary sources from the archives of the cities of Kazakhstan and published materials systematized in collections, as well as the work of Russian researchers of the traditional Kazakh society of the nineteenth century. The policy of the Russian empire for the dissemination of medical knowledge in the region is analyzed, the dynamics of the epidemiological situation in the region and measures to combat infectious diseases is characterized, and the reasons for the weak involvement of Kazakhs in the field of medical care are justified. The authors come to the conclusion that the provisions of the “Charter on Siberian Kyrgyz” of 1822 regarding the construction of hospitals and the distribution of medical knowledge among Kazakhs of the Middle Zhuz were not fully realized. However, in the course of the colonization of the region, it became necessary to carry out preventive measures and smallpox in response to outbreaks of infectious diseases caused by resettlement of the European population to the steppe. The infirmaries and hospitals served not only the military, but also the civilian population of the districts, and training of medical workers among the Kazakh people began.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1551352410.pdf
Number of views: 636      Download in PDF

19. Tatyana G. Karchaeva, Denis N. Gergilev, Galina M. Luschaeva
Hereditary Bureaucracy in East Siberian Government from XIX to the early XX century: Statistical Analysis on the Materials of the Yenisei Province

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 51. Is. 1: 188-197.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.1.188CrossRef

The question of the presence of hereditary officials in the personnel structure of the administrative apparatus in remote areas of the Russian Empire is considered on the example of Eastern Siberia in the XIX – early XX centuries. Russian and foreign literature examined related issues about the supreme administration of Siberia. We analyzed new archival data about 1462 different-level civilian officials which served in the Yenisei province from 1822 to the 1917. The authors of this article found that hereditary bureaucracy took leading positions with the staffing of all categories of provincial and district posts, but at the same time there were different dynamics and different factors of their replenishment. The top general posts of the Yenisei province (governors, their deputies and heads of institutions for departments) were formed steadily at the expense of noblemen appointed from Central Russia. Among them, more than 50 % took the form of employment in the field of public administration from their fathers and, when they were appointed to Siberia, increased their official status. Headquarters (advisers to the governor, department heads, special assignment officers, etc.) had a systematic increase in the presence of the hereditary bureaucracy in 4 times, the highest rate of which at the end of the ХIХ century reached more than 70 % and was stipulated, as in senior officials, by the legislation that allowed more quickly move up the career ladder. The chief officers of table-heads, secretaries, clerks, etc., the lowest in the hierarchy, were originally half filled with hereditary civil servants, first visiting, and from the second half of the ХIХ century entirely by siberians of clerical origin who gained access to public service through education.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1551352471.pdf
Number of views: 547      Download in PDF

20. Vitaliy V. Prilutskiy
“Dry Law” on the Russian Soil: the Influence of the American Experience on the Sober Movement and the Struggle for the Prohibition in the Russian Empire at the turn of XIXth and XXth centuries

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 51. Is. 1: 198-208.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.1.198CrossRef

The article studied the influence of american experience on the temperance movement and the struggle for the prohibition of alcohol in the Russian Empire in the late XIXth – early XXth centuries. It is noted that, in the national historiography, due attention was not paid to the problem of the impact of the practice of the United States in the field of the struggle for the “dry law” on Russia. The article considered debate about how to combat alcoholism in the country. It is revealed that russian officials, who expressed the interests of the financial department, defended the wine monopoly, which allegedly contributed to the decrease of drunkenness. Representatives of the intelligentsia and medical workers advocated for a significant restriction of the sale of alcoholic beverages, and only a small group of radical non-drinkers insisted on an “absolute ban” on alcohol. For a long time, advocates of “restrictive measures” and “moderate consumption” prevailed in sobriety societies, but ultimately in wartime conditions advocates of “Prohibition” took the upper hand. It is concluded that public organizations, religious corporations and political parties played a significant role in the fight against drunkenness in America. In the Russian Empire the main function in carrying out anti-alcohol propaganda and establishing popular sobriety was assumed by the state. For radical Russian teetotalers North America (USA and Canada) has become an ideal example of the implementation of state and public anti-alcohol policy based on the prohibition system. The radicals, who sought to transfer the practice defended by prohibitionists to Russia, influenced the adoption by the authorities of the “dry law” in 1914.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1551352526.pdf
Number of views: 600      Download in PDF

21. Goran Rajović, Evgeniy F. Krinko, Alla G. Vazerova, Milica Trailovic
Biographical Research in the Modern Historiography of the Don Cossacks of the second half of the XIX century. Part I

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 51. Is. 1: 209-218.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.1.209CrossRef

In recent years, historians created a number of biographical works about figures of the Don Cossacks of the second half of the XIX century. These studies are an interesting and promising new direction in modern historiography. We have prepared their review so that do not mix with other, extremely numerous scientific articles of Cossack subjects. At the same time, we tried to determine which personalities in the history of the post-reform Don have been relatively studied, and which, on the contrary, leave room for further research. Finally, we paid special attention to the question of which approaches are used by various historians, and why there is an interest in the personality factor in the history of the Don Cossacks of the second half of the XIX century, manifested in recent years. The results of our research are the following conclusions: most of the personalities are chosen by historians to study based not on their real significance, but on the volume of archival materials remaining, and as a result the choice of these personalities is quite random (the only relatively developed category is Don atamans); most of the articles are written by several historians who are trying to get away from impersonality in the perception of the government policy of this period; Despite this, most of the work was written in 2010, which makes it possible to speak about real changes in modern Don historiography.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1551352614.pdf
Number of views: 586      Download in PDF

22. Elena V. Burlutskaya (Bannikova)
Marital Relationships Among Orenburg Aristocracy during the Post-Reform Period (Behavioral and Mental Components)

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 51. Is. 1: 219-230.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.1.219CrossRef

The article provides an analysis of relationships between spouses in the families of noblewomen living in the towns of the Orenburg region during the post-reform era within the framework of history of everyday life. The objects of this study are behavioral and mental components of women's daily family life, i.e., the actions and consciousness of noblewomen related to the sphere of marital relations. Sources used in this study allow us to argue that by the second half of the 19th – early 20th century intrafamily relations had significantly transformed as a result of the overall modernization of Russian society. Women began to proclaim their personal interests more often, both openly and in indirect manner, showing more and more freedom of behavior within the family. The number of unmarried women increased. In the towns of the Orenburg province these processes had some distinct traits due to the non-standard composition of the urban nobility. Those nobles usually came from another province or even another country; they moved to this region only for the period of their service and did not plan to use the Orenburg province as a place of their permanent residence. This significantly reduced the level of social control and led to greater freedom of morals, especially in the upper strata of the nobility. Noblewomen of the middle strata were more inclined to preserve the traditional family, and were not against unequal marriages. However, a significant difference in the number of noblemen and noblewomen in the Orenburg province, as well as a high level of education of local noblewomen significantly reduced the total number of marriages.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1551352669.pdf
Number of views: 612      Download in PDF

23. Artyom Y. Peretyatko
"Equality of Cossacks under the Law and the Wrong Distribution of Allowances and Duties in Fact": the Land-Use System of the Don and Kuban Cossack Villages in 1860–1890

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 51. Is. 1: 252-261.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.1.252CrossRef

The article is devoted to the evolution of the land-use system in the villages of the Don and Kuban Cossack Hosts in 1860–1890. Based on the materials of the State Archives of the Rostov Region, the State Archives of the Krasnodar Region and the Manuscripts Department of the Russian National Library, the author concludes that at this time there was a transition from the “free” land-use system to a share land-use system. The first of these systems, traditional for Cossack Hosts, assumed that each Cossack smells as much land as he wants. Since most of the Cossacks before 1860 engaged in cattle breeding, this system worked quite successfully, but its consequence was the strengthening of social inequality in the villages: the Cossacks, plowing large areas of land, quickly enriched themselves. Under these conditions, the government tried to protect the poor Cossacks by allowing them to lease their share according to the law to non-residents. This measure and the increase in land shortage in the villages led to a gradual transition of the Cossacks to a share land use system. However, as a result of mass delivery of shares to nonresident, the landlessness of not separate Cossack households, but Cossack villages as a whole began: by 1899 about 20% of the village lands of Don Cossacks were transferred to nonresident leases.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1551353062.pdf
Number of views: 564      Download in PDF

24. Albina S. Zhanbosinova, Arman A. Kulshanova, Mendyganym J. Shaimerdenova
Handicraft of the Kazakh People in the middle of XIXth – early XXth centuries

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 51. Is. 1: 241-251.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.1.241CrossRef

The article is devoted to the history of the development of handicraft of the Kazakh people in the focus of evaluation by the scientists of the XIX century, who left the richest historical heritage. The content of the article is based on a wide range of sources stored in the Central State Archives of the Republic of Kazakhstan, a rare fund in Abay National Library in Almaty. The general scientific methods of analysis, synthesis, and generalization subordinated to the main goal of the scientific subject, as well as theoretical studies on the problems of socio-economic development, economic and cultural activities of the population of Kazakhstan and the border regions were used. The economy of Kazakhstan in the second half of the XIX century underwent significant changes caused by the development of capitalism in Russia, the spread of commodity-money relations and the disintegration of natural forms of management. The authors believe that the degree of involvement of the population of Kazakhstan in handicraft and, accordingly, the level of their development was different, which depended on many circumstances and factors. The nature of the development of the craft was determined by the natural-consumer activities of the nomadic area and the marginal zone.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1551353019.pdf
Number of views: 651      Download in PDF

25. Petr K. Dashkovskiy, Elena A. Shershneva
Administrative and Economic Structure of Muslims of Western Siberia in the Context of Agrarian Modernization in the Russian Empire in the second half of XIX – early XX century

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 51. Is. 1: 231-240.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.1.231CrossRef

The article is devoted to the problem of organization of life of Muslim communities in Western Siberia in the context of modernization of the agricultural sector of the country in the second half of XIX – early XX century. The Special interest of the state was caused by the involvement of foreign population of the Russian suburbs in the state system through the use of new political, administrative and economic methods. Agrarian reforms initiated in the second half of the XIX century, set one of the objectives of the creation of resettlement land fund for the purpose of further integration of the alien population in a foreign environment and the creation of a unified system of government. Since the second half of the XIX century tougher policy towards Muslim Nations that are part of the reforms, was to obey the laws, spread to all the peasant population. Discontent on the part of the foreign population of Siberia was caused by the process of their unification with Russian settlements, as well as the creation of volost offices on the principle of Russian volosts. The government sought to restrict the rights of the foreign population, prohibiting the acquisition of land in the property of persons not of the Orthodox religion. These measures were extended to the territory of the steppe region, which caused discontent among the traditional population of the region. The increase in the number of immigrants in Siberia forced the government to adopt a number of legislative acts regulating the allocation of land to both alien and alien population. At the same time, all measures to reform and organize the life of rural communities led only to the institutionalization of ethnic diasporas on religious grounds. In the end, the foreign population aspired to even greater unity and organization of spiritual life in the settlements where immigrants from the European part of the Russian Empire appeared.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1551352864.pdf
Number of views: 556      Download in PDF

26. Maxim N. Krot, Anatoly I. Narezhny
P.A. Valuev and the Formation of Government Policy in Relation to the Western Territory (1861–1865)

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 51. Is. 1: 262-271.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.1.262CrossRef

The article is devoted to the development of the concept of government policy towards the Western Territory in the first half of the 60s of the XIX century, when the country entered a period of broad modernization transformations. The contradictory and indecisive policies of the imperial authorities regarding one of the most “problematic” suburbs in the first years of the reign of Alexander II contributed greatly to the exacerbation of the situation in the region, which led to the beginning of an open uprising in Poland in early 1863. As a result, a controversy is underway in the reconstituted Western Committee on the development of a new management model for the Western Territory, one of the most active of which was Minister of the Interior P.A. Valuev. They were offered a compromise program focused on integrating the region into a single imperial space, establishing contacts with the loyal part of the Polish elite, supporting the Orthodox peasant population and comprehensively strengthening the Russian principle in the province. Another approach to this problem was defended by the Governor-General of the Western Territory M.N. Muravyev, who was a supporter of the dominant power methods and the suppression of the Polish beginning in the province. The article presents a comparative analysis of the main provisions of these concepts, set out in notes reviewed at meetings of the Western Committee, which made it possible to establish the existence of an internal ideological unity of these approaches with a different understanding of the methodology for their implementation. The authors conclude that Valuev built his policy concept on the Western Territory in a single context with the general process of modernization of Russia, since its success was largely due to the need to reorganize the government apparatus of the Russian Empire and the success of the planned and ongoing reforms in Russia.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1551353122.pdf
Number of views: 561      Download in PDF

27. Vasiliy P. Zinovyev, Valentina I. Zinovyeva, Sergey S. Sulyak
Leisure Societies of the Tomsk Province in 1865–1919

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 51. Is. 1: 272-283.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.1.272CrossRef

The authors turned to the history of leisure coteries and societies of the Tomsk province in the second half of the 19th – early 20th centuries, the largest province of Russia in population. Public organizations, specially formed by their members to spend their free time with a specific purpose, were considered as leisure ones. Such organizations were state-registered music-literary-drama (societies, coteries), horseracing, hunting, sporting, photo amateur, artistic, for organizing folk entertainment, gardening, Esperantists, aviation enthusiasts, public urban, commercial, railway meetings and clubs. The main source of information for analyzing the activities of leisure organizations was the chronicle of public life in Tomsk province in 1880 – February 1917, which in turn includes information from the archives, periodicals, and historical researches. The chronicle is supplemented with information from local statistical reference and local history publications. The authors set the goal of identifying the role of leisure organizations in the public life of the population of the Tomsk province in the second half of the 19th – early 20th century. The classification of organizations by subject led to the following results: literary-musical-dramatic societies – 21, public meetings – 18, horseracing – 7, sports – 7, lovers of sports hunting and photography – 3, folk entertainment – 2, art societies, Esperanto lovers, aviation circles, gardening lovers – 1 each, 65 in total. It is two times more than it was thought in historical literature. The authors believe that in the Siberian province there were gradually going processes of constructing an urban society with a new forms of spending free time, different from the medieval cities and the peasant world. They included primarily prosperous citizens who were the initiators, organizers and sponsors of new forms of leisure. These are officials, persons of intelligent professions, entrepreneurs. The center of innovation was the provincial city of Tomsk, from which the innovations spread to district towns and commercial and industrial settlements. Firstly, the leisure was an entertainment, and then a creativity and intellectual way of development. Organized leisure covered a small proportion of the population of the province, but there was an obvious trend towards the formation of the traditions of the emerging industrial urban society. Soviet and modern leisure culture had its origins in pre-revolutionary urban culture.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1551353232.pdf
Number of views: 594      Download in PDF

28. Elena G. Lapshina
Vladimir Nikolaevich Voyeykov is a Statesman, First «Minister of Sport», the Entrepreneur

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 51. Is. 1: 284-295.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.1.284CrossRef

The Russian nobleman V.N. Voyeykov (1868–1947) entered a narrow circle of confidants to the tsar Nicholas II. In 1913 V.N. Voyeykov was appointed the palace commandant and was on this post up to renunciation of the tsar. Since 1913 headed Glavnonablyudayushchego's Office behind physical development of the population of the Russian Empire, actual a prototype of the Ministry of Sport. Being an adherent of a healthy lifestyle, supported development of physical culture and sport in the Russian society, especially in army. From its giving and with active participation measures for improvement of physical training of soldiers and recruits were taken – necessary documentation («Manual for training of troops in gymnastics») was developed, sports institutions (Gymnastic and fencing school) were created, competitions of various level, etc. were held V.N. Voyeykov promoted strengthening of positions of Russia at the international sports level and to folding of the Olympic Movement in the country for what the domestic Olympic Games were held (Kiev – 1913, Riga – 1914). «Mobilization of sport», for which Glavnonablyudayushchy was responsible, provided a complex of actions for preparation of reserves for army during World War I through creation of special military and sports committees from among the military authorities and the sport organizations. V.N. Voyeykov built the estate, interesting in terms of architecture, in the entail property in Kamenka of the Penza province, counting on visit of Crown Prince Alexey; created production on pouring of the Kuvaka mineral water and actively advanced it as in Russia, and abroad, using proximity to the emperor, the official position and own abilities.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1551353293.pdf
Number of views: 621      Download in PDF

29. Ekaterina S. Norkina
The Jewish Community Beyond the Pale of Settlement in late XIXth – the beginning of the XXth centuries: the Case of Ekaterinodar

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 51. Is. 1: 296-305.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.1.296CrossRef

The Jewish community beyond the Pale of Settlement as a phenomenon have not received sufficient comprehensive scholarly attention. Typically, our knowledge of it is limited to the studies of history of some Jewish communities in different internal regions of the Russian Empire. In the presented article the Jewish community is a group of persons who considers everyday life staying in relations with coreligionists and Jewish tradition. This paper will fill this gap through a contextualized examination of how members of Jewish community stayed “Jewish” despite on high level of their success in the local Russian society. I show that the process of modernization of Jewish life touches even small Jewish community beyond the Pale by the example of small city in Russian province – Ekaterinodar. The study is based on the wide range of historical sources: official documental materials of the Russian imperial bureaucracy, private letters, Russian and Russian Jewish periodicals, Jewish metrical books, ethnographical notes printed in Hebrew. The author came to the conclusion that it is more correctly to use word “society”, but not “community” regarding Jewish society of Ekaterinodar or any similar society in internal Russian city. The Jewish community in its classical definition have not existed there by the beginning of the XXth century.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1551353352.pdf
Number of views: 659      Download in PDF

30. German E. Bokov, Mikhail S. Stetckevich, Elena S. Stetckevich
Professor-Archpriest Paul Svetlov on the Problems of Development of Higher Theological Education in the Russian Empire in the late 19-th – early 20-th century

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 51. Is. 1: 306-313.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.1.306CrossRef

The article was prepared on the basis of a study of the theological and polemical works of Professor of theology at the Imperial University of St. Vladimir in Kiev archpriest Paul Svetlov written by him in the late 19-th – early 20-th century. His works have not yet become the subject of special research in modern historiography. This article focuses on his publications on the reforms of higher theological education in the Russian Empire. He himself proposed this formulation of the problem, since in church circles at that time only the next reform of religious education was discussed. However, as archpriest Paul Svetlov stated, theology is a science that can develop only “in the family” of University sciences. In his opinion, the introduction of theological faculties will be useful both for the University itself, and for the russian Church, and for the russian state. In his publications, Svetlov pointed out the great shortcomings of the religious education, which became especially noticeable at the beginning of the 20-th century. He was one of the active participants of the sessions the 1906 Office, Preceding the All-Russia Church Local Council, where discussed the whole complex of Church problems, including of the questions of religious education. Svetlov proved himself to be a bright polemicist, who defended his “special opinion” about the immediate replacement of theological academies by the theological faculties, which, however, was not supported as excessively radical. In the proposed publication the discussions on the higher theological education in Russian society of the early 20-th century are considered on the basis of the classical principles of strict historicism and scientific objectivity.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1551353489.pdf
Number of views: 546      Download in PDF

31. Mikhail V. Gribovskiy, Alexander N. Sorokin
Standards of Corporate Ethics in the Russian University Environment in the late XIX – early XX century

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 51. Is. 1: 314-324.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.1.314CrossRef

The article is devoted to the norms of corporate ethics that have developed in the Russian university environment of the late XIX – early XX century. The study, carried out by the method of situational analysis (case method), is based on materials extracted by the authors from the russian (State Archives of the Russian Federation, the National Archives of the Republic of Tatarstan, the Central State Archives of Moscow) and foreign (State Archives in Warsaw, State Archives of the Odessa Region) archives. It is emphasized that the university lecturers of pre-revolutionary Russia were a rather cohesive professional community, and the forms of manifestation of professional identity consisted in their active participation in the discussion of the "university issue", attempts at self-organization, and the existence of similar ethical principles on which the value system of the university person was based. Development by an University of corporate ethics rules, following them were an integral part of this system of values. The following norms of behavior developed in the Russian university lecturer environment of the turn of the XIX–XX centuries are distinguished: manifestation of nobility towards colleagues, observance of subordination, demonstration of mutual respect, scientific objectivity, striving for scientific truth, prevalence of university interests over personal ones. It is concluded that the presence of similar ideas about corporate and scientific ethics, written and unwritten norms of service at the university, facilitated the infusion of the professor into the new lecturer collegium when moving to a new university, and the observance of ethical standards helped to correctly resolve the sensitive issues that arose at work.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1551353542.pdf
Number of views: 613      Download in PDF

32. Ekaterina A. Nazirova, Nadezhda I. Shelkoplyasova
Aspects of Functioning of the Regional Level of the State Credit Organizations in the second half of the XIXth – beginning of the XXth centuries (on the Example of the Tula Province)

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 51. Is. 1: 325-336.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.1.325CrossRef

The article shows that the changes in the economic domain of the Russian Empire, which occurred in the 50s of the XIX century, led to the reform of the banking sector. As a result, a three-level model was formed by the end of the XIX century, which included state, cross functional commercial credit organizations and microfinance institutions of credit cooperation. The first (state) level was represented by the State, Noble Land, Peasant Land banks, St. Petersburg and Moscow loan coffers and saving banks. The article analyzes the implementation of credit policy at the state level in the post-reform epoch in the province of the Russian Empire on the example of the Tula province. The legal framework of the organization and functioning of credit institutions on the first level is considered. The specificity of activity of local branches of state banks is revealed. The mechanism of functioning of Tula branches of State, Noble Land, Peasant Land banks and savings banks is shown. The features of credit policy in the Tula province are confirmed by specific statistics on the basis of archival documents, first introduced into scientific discourse. In the Tula province, the first Saving Bank was established in 1849 under the Tula Order of public charity. Since 1863, the system of savings banks has been experiencing a protracted crisis, which was caused by intense competition in the lending market. In 1860 the State Commercial Bank was transformed into the State Bank. Tula branch was established on May, 01 in 1882. Mortgage banks functioned successfully in the region. The branch of the Peasant Land Bank was established in 1887, and on February, 15 in 1897 the Tula branch of the state Noble Land Bank was opened.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1551353592.pdf
Number of views: 600      Download in PDF

33. Nursan Alimbay, Gulmira U. Orynbayeva
Kazakh Traditional Village in the Works of Russian Scientists (late XIX – early XX century)

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 51. Is. 1: 337-347.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.1.337CrossRef

The traditional Kazakh village of the nomadic mode of life functioned as a structure-forming “block” of the community – the main form of self-organization of the ethnic group, the process of reproduction of conditions and means to a normal existence in pre-industrial society. Unsurpassed sources for the study of the traditional Kazakh village, its economic, social and cultural life are the studies of pre-revolutionary Russian authors – scientists, government officials, etc. These works, written by highly skilled specialists of their time, provide diverse and extremely important information that helps modern historians restore the picture of the life of nomadic and semisettled Kazakhs in that post-reform period (late XIX – early XX century). At the same time, the most representative sources giving a complete picture of the life of the nomadic village among the Kazakhs are, undoubtedly, the published results of the statistical commissions researching the territory of Kazakhstan (“Materials on Kyrgyz Land Use...” and others). Therefore, more attention was paid to this particular group of sources. Published materials of expeditions organized by the royal administration in the second half of the XIX century – the first decade of the XX century, contain well-organized statistical information and very serious analytical materials on such key indicators of Kazakh society as “social structure”, “property relations” about land use in nomadic environment, mediated by ownership of livestock, “subsistence system", "traditions (methods and strategy) of environmental management", "relationships with alien population", "dynamics of the political structure of nomadic society in the historical context ", etc.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1551353671.pdf
Number of views: 626      Download in PDF

34. Svetlana Yu. Tsohla, Nataliia A. Simchenko, Irina G. Pavlenko
Retrospectives of the Formation of the Social-Economic Infrastructure of the Chinese Eastern Railway

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 51. Is. 1: 348-356.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.1.348CrossRef

The article analyses the process of creating of the socio-economic infrastructure of the Chinese Eastern Railway (CER) by the Russian Empire. The analysis of the transfer of advanced Russian scientific and technical experience into the construction of the Great Siberian Route is made. The authors have analyzed the implementation of the CER project as the megaproject at the beginning of the 20th century on the territory of another country. Moreover, the role of the labor exploits of Russians is highlighted in the work. It is underlined that the Russian engineering decisions were successful despite on the lack of accurate geographical and topographical data, difficult natural and domestic factors and low level of culture and technical illiteracy of the Chinese. The phenomenon of the labor exploits is analyzed in the framework of implementation of CER project in Russian Empire. The formation of the socio-economic infrastructure of the CER played a huge role in the development of the Russian Empire and China. Due to the construction of the CER, the Chinese Manchuria began to develop as an industrialized and cultural center of China. Furthermore, the creation of the socio-economic infrastructure of the CER allowed the strategy developing of Russian Empire in the Asian region in the conditions of growing challenges and threats.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1551353748.pdf
Number of views: 662      Download in PDF

35. Yulia A. Zherdeva, Elena I. Sumburova, Margarita V. Cherkasova
Archive and Memory: The Reconstruction of the Family Memory of the Late Russian Empire

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 51. Is. 1: 357-365.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.1.357CrossRef

The article is devoted to the problems of reconstruction of the social memory based on the key events of the Russian history of the beginning of the XX century. The authors propose a method of reconstructing “family memory”, considering the autodocumentary texts of one family as a single “family archive” - a virtual repository of family memory modeled by the modern digital environment. Combining the memorial texts of the Russian noblemen Butorovs and Tatishchevs into one “family archive”, the authors restore the key components of their common memory. The study made it possible to see how the central component of the noble family values – the family estate – in wartime becomes the personification of a peaceful personal refuge, and during the period of emigration is perceived as a “lost paradise”. Concepts of education turned out to be closely interwoven into the system of gender identifications: in male texts, they set the movement of the future professional life, and in female texts, they give cause for regrets. Analyzing the attitude to power, the authors note the disappointment in the sacredness of imperial power among the younger generation of the family, and the nostalgic idealization of the royal power of the older generation.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1551353811.pdf
Number of views: 567      Download in PDF

36. Oksana V. Ishchenko, Timur A. Magsumov
Siberian Students’ Material Situation in the early 20th century (based on Student Questionnaires)

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 51. Is. 1: 366-379.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.1.366CrossRef

The article is devoted to the study of student questionnaires conducted in the universities of Tomsk in 1901-1913. The authors analyze the changes of material and social status of Siberian students in the early 20th century. The study revealed that the students’ living standard was largely determined by their parents’ welfare status. At the same time, the fact of belonging to a certain social class did not play the main role as it failed to determine the family’s social status or well-being. Therefore, the offsprings of burghers at the Tomsk Technological Institute were often better off than the children of nobles and clergy at the Tomsk University. The authors studied the materials of student questionnaires and identified the main sources of the student’s budget, which included money received from the family, financial assistance from the state and/or philanthropists as well as personal earnings. Tuition fees are believed to have been the biggest item of the student’s expenses along with rent and money spent on food. To have a relatively decent way of living, an average student was supposed to spend at least 300-350 rubles, but many students were below that income level. Therefore, all the students can be divided into low-income, middle-class and upper-class groups, the first and second group being much larger in number. Analysis of student profiles showed a slight increase in students’ material security and improving their living conditions. This was especially true for students of technical universities, because their knowledge and skills were in demand for the industrial development of the Siberian region. However, a relatively slow increase in living standards and short duration of the stabilization period prevented a significant share of poor students from improving their material situation.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1551353878.pdf
Number of views: 545      Download in PDF

37. Anvar M. Mamadaliev, Andrey V. Venkov, Natal'ya V. Miku, Aude Médico
Tactical and Technical Characteristics of Armored Cruisers of Russian and Japanese Fleets during the War of 1904–1905

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 51. Is. 1: 380-394.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.1.380CrossRef

The series of articles is devoted to the analysis of the ratio of opposing linear (armored) forces of the russian 1st Pacific and japanese squadrons during the russian-japanese war of 1904-1905 before the start of hostilities, coverage of the tactical and technical characteristics of armored ships and the strategy of their use by the naval leadership. Also, the article attempts to assess the chances of winning the 1st Pacific squadron, taking into account its combat capabilities on the eve of the war in terms of the general battle. The materials for the preparation of the article were the pre-revolutionary, soviet and modern historiography. Traditional for the russian historiography the principles of historicism, scientific objectivity and consistency formed the methodological basis of the study. In the process of work the historical-comparative method was used, which allowed the authors to consider the military fleets of the warring parties through the prism of comparison of tactical and technical characteristics. This article analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of the linear forces of the russian and japanese fleets based on their conceptual tactical and technical characteristics.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1551359053.pdf
Number of views: 620      Download in PDF

38. Olesya M. Dolidovich, Vera I. Fedorova, Anna S. Zhulaeva
Conflict of Imperial and Regional Interests on the Introduction of Duty-free Trade Regime in the Mouths of Siberian Rivers during the First World War

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 51. Is. 1: 395-405.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.1.395CrossRef

The article deals with the conflict of imperial and regional interests on the issue of the introduction of a duty-free trade regime in the mouths of Siberian rivers. The study is based on archival and published documents, materials of the Siberian pre-revolutionary periodicals. The authors claim that imperial power was based on the tasks of integrating the Siberian region into the all-Russian economic space. The proof of which is the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway, projects for the development of the transport network, which united Siberian rivers. However, the implementation of such projects often did not take into account the interests of the local bourgeoisie, which sought to act as an independent player on the Siberian market. The establishment of a duty-free trade regime in the mouths of Siberian rivers promoted the growth of its competitiveness and would allow it to enter world markets, bypassing its intermediaries from central Russia. But the government for a long time in this matter took the side of large financial and industrial circles in the central part of the country. And only under the influence of the events of the First World War, part of the royal bureaucracy came to understand the development of navigation along the Northern Sea Route as one of the necessary conditions for national security. However, the initiative in this matter has already been seized by foreigners in the person of J. Lida, behind whom stood Norwegian, English and American capital, who viewed Siberia as a platform for strengthening in Central and East Asia.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1551354034.pdf
Number of views: 530      Download in PDF

39. Vladimir B. Karataev, Semen I. Adinyaev, Svetlana F. Artemova, Aleksandr N. Volkov
From the History of the Dawn of Aviation: Biplanes of the early XX century

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 51. Is. 1: 406-412.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.1.406CrossRef

The article deals with the dawn of aviation in the early XX century before the First world war. The attention is paid to airplanes – type biplane, analyzed varieties of airplanes, especially their designs. There were involved as materials the specialized literature on the history of the development of airplanes, as well as reference and scientific literature. The study used a set of scientific methods: multi-factoriality and integration, chronology, typology, comparison, etc., which together provide the reliable results on the studied problem. For example, studying the experience of the development of world and national aeronautics, we paid attention to the features of their designs, which subsequently allowed the use of prototypes, both for civil and military purposes. In conclusion, the authors state that the development of biplanes in the early XX century was transient. The developments were carried out simultaneously in Europe and in America. At the same time, there was an increased public interest to aeronautics, all this in general formed the necessary conditions for the creation and further development of modifications of airplanes. Already by the beginning of the First world war, the considerable potential was accumulated, which allowed in wartime to equip airplanes with weapons and effectively use a new type of troops on the battlefields.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1551354111.pdf
Number of views: 556      Download in PDF

40. Viktor S. Brachev, Matvey F. Polynov, Valeriy A. Ratchkovskiy, Mikhail V. Fedorov
The Last Rector of the Imperial St. Petersburg University: Erwin Davidovich Grimm

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 51. Is. 1: 413-422.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.1.413CrossRef

The article is devoted to the study of administrative activity in 1911-1918 of the last rector of the Imperial St. Petersburg University Erwin Davidovich Grimm (1870–1940) – a prominent specialist in the history of Ancient Rome and the revolutions of 1779–1793 and 1848 in France. The authors focus on the development of difficult relations between the Council of professors and the administration of the "Autonomous" St. Petersburg University, headed by E.D. Grimm, and The Minister of public education, in the light of the efforts of the authorities, the failure of the student strike of 1911 to ensure proper order in higher education institutions of the Empire. Particular urgency of the situation given that reflect the onslaught of the power of E.D. Grimm had in terms of the destructive activities of the social democrats and the socialist-revolutionaries at the University who used every opportunity to organize anti-government gatherings, demonstrations and filibuster the "reactionary" professors. Unlike L.A. Kasso, the new Minister of P.I. Ignatiev was known as (and partly, probably, was) a liberal. He was impressed by the compromise approach to the Affairs of the rector of the University. As a result, he attracted E. D. Grimm and the moderately liberal part of the faculty behind him to cooperate in the development of a new University Charter. Former liberal opposition of the Board of professors of the University with the Ministry of education is gone. Against this background, the success of E. D. Grimm in pacifying the revolutionary part of the students looks more modest. But here, I must give him credit, he had them. With all possible nuances, the merits of E. D. Grimm, as the rector of St. Petersburg University, confidently conducted his Alma Mater through the storms and thunderstorms of the pre-revolutionary years, it is difficult to overestimate.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1551354200.pdf
Number of views: 530      Download in PDF

41. Irina V. Pashchenko, Elena Y. Chuklina
Hurricane of 1914 and its Social Consequences in the South-East Azov Sea Region: Based on Periodicals and Archival Documents

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 51. Is. 1: 423-436.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.1.423CrossRef

The article discusses the consequences of a hurricane in the Eastern Azov region on February 28, 1914. It became one of the most widespread and tragic natural disasters in the southern regions of the Russian Empire in the early twentieth century. The storm in the Azov Sea began on February 28 and caused severe flooding. Hydrometeorological services recorded information about the approaching disaster. But it was not used to take the necessary measures. Coastal populations were not promptly notified of flooding. As a result of the hurricane, almost the entire eastern coast of the Azov Sea was flooded with water. There were about 500 people killed in the Kuban Region and in the Province of the Don Cossack Host, and more than 1,000 people were injured. Losses amounted to more than 1 million rubles. To overcome the negative effects of flooding, Victims Assistance Committees were established. They were created at the local level from among the most respected public figures. First of all, the committees, as public agencies, collected funds, handed out money, clothes, products to the victims. Representatives of the authorities and members of the imperial family also provided funds for assistance. It was necessary to restore the dwellings and property of thousands of people, to resume the work of fishing factories, to re-sow crops. The work of the committees was widely reported in the periodical press of that time. At the same time, the local administration has often been criticized for inaction. Materials for the article were documents from the funds of the State Archive of the Krasnodar Territory, as well as publications in the press of that time. The authors identify collisions in the assessment of events in official documents and the media.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1551354260.pdf
Number of views: 524      Download in PDF

42. Tatiana V. Gryaznukhina, Alexander G. Gryaznukhin, Denis N. Gergilev, Larisa F. Malyutina
The First World War as a Factor of the Political Infantilism of the Russian Intelligentsia

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 51. Is. 1: 437-446.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.1.437CrossRef

The First World War, its influence on the creative intellectual society and the attitude of this society to military events are the main issues raised in this article during the research. The article contains the facts from the biographies of the most prominent representatives of the creative intellectual society who are directly related to military events. Used sources such as archival documents, diaries, and memories show that the initial enthusiastic perception of war, as the current events unfold, changes to moods of skepticism and frustration. In the course of the analysis of the actual material, a picture of an ambiguous attitude to the war was revealed, and even among its supporters. In general, the attitude to the war among the intellectual society ranged from its full acceptance to its complete denial. The intellectual society of Siberia, in this respect, did not show originality repeating the trends characteristic of the Russian region. Few representatives of the intellectual society took a real part in the military activity. Basically, their activities were limited to articles in periodicals, reading poems at various meetings, raising funds for the benefit of the wounded, and opening lazarets and hospitals. Due to their disunity and isolation from the realities of life, the creative intellectual society could not significantly influence the socio-political situation in the country and accordingly fulfill the voluntarily assigned function to determine the future path of development for Russia.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1551358938.pdf
Number of views: 498      Download in PDF

43. Pavel V. Ulyanov
The Image of the "German Conqueror" in the British and Russian Propaganda of the First World War Period: A Comparative Analysis

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 51. Is. 1: 447-455.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.1.447CrossRef

The First World War (1914-1918) is an illustrative historical example of the conduct of centralized and large-scale propaganda of the “image of the enemy” in many participating countries. In modern science, when studying propaganda during the First World War, researchers believe that in each participating country agitation was of the same type and had more similarities than differences. In Great Britain, Russia, Germany and even in France, central bodies were created, responsible for mass agitation, leaflets were distributed, rallies, demonstrations and military parades were held. However, the researchers do not take into account the fact that each country is distinguished by its specificity, which greatly influences the formation of the “image of the enemy”, considered as the content of propaganda information. At the same time, the “image of the enemy”, disseminated by means of campaign materials, was distinguished by certain features and was formed under the influence of various kinds of factors. In this regard, I would like to consider the issue of similarity and difference of images on the example of such distinctive and different from each other states, such as the United Kingdom and the Russian Empire. Therefore, in this article, the author compares the experience of propaganda of the “image of the German conqueror” in Great Britain and in the Russian Empire. His task is to highlight the common and distinctive features of this image, which was distributed among the population of the two countries during the First World War. As a conclusion, it should be said that despite the presence of similar methods and goals of propaganda, its content had distinctive features, which only underlines the identity of a particular country.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1551354423.pdf
Number of views: 493      Download in PDF

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URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1551861315.pdf
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URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1551354827.pdf
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