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«Былые годы» (Bylye Gody) – российский исторический журнал

Периодичность – 4 раза в год.

Издается с 2006 года.

4 December 01, 2020


1. Konstantin S. Zaikov, Nikita M. Kuprikov, Mikhail Yu. Kuprikov
Northern Frontier of Russia and Norway in the 13th−17th centuries

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 58. Is. 4: 2272-2279.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.4.2272CrossRef

The article is devoted to an overview of the historiographic discussion and the subsequent reconstruction of the Russian and Norwegian political borders formation in the Far North in the 13th–17th centuries. Analyzing the system of contractual relations between early state formations in the Far North of Europe, the authors have come to the conclusion that from the 13th to the 16th centuries the “common tax districts” were legally a condominium − joint ownership of Novgorod/Moscow State, Sweden and Norway. But in political terms they were a territory without clear borders of separate, spatial dimensions of power, including the borders of power competence, that is, a frontier. The gradual consolidation and centralization of state power in Norway–Denmark, Sweden and the Moscow state predetermined the subsequent reduction in the size of “common districts” and the number of state actors claiming them during the 16th–17th centuries. Thus, by the 18th century, in the Far North, a geographically narrowed buffer zone was formed. It was a territory where different ethnocultural and political state formations collided and interpenetrated. Russia was a huge dynastic empire with an absolute monarchy and an active expansive foreign policy. Norway was a territory dependent on the metropolis (Denmark) without its own independent administration and political institutions.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1606820679.pdf
Number of views: 287      Download in PDF

2. Tatiana I. Pelipenko
Women’s Studies and Gender History of Great Duchy of Lithuinia in Soviet and Postsoviet Historiography (Main Tendencies)

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 58. Is. 4: 2280-2291.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.4.2280CrossRef

The article is devoted to main tendencies of women’s studies and gender history of GDL in soviet and postsoviet historiography. The author shows the specific features of these national schools. In Russian historiography, for example, Great Duchy of Lithuinia very often is only an object for comparativistic researches of Russian native history. Ukrainian and Byelorussian gender studies are related to scientific problems of national identity and cultural collective memory. The point of view to the historical development of GDL as a part of common European processes is typical for Polish or Lithuanian researchs. As we can see, these attitudes have great influence to gender studies’ development. The author tries to find out how all these tendencies are able to specify subjects of gender researchs. The analysis of the most significant gender researches is also included.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1606820720.pdf
Number of views: 259      Download in PDF

3. Mariya P. Chernaya, Dmitry O. Osipov, Sergey F. Tataurov, Nadezhda S. Ben
"Wandering Beyond the Stone": the Development of Space in an Archaeological Context (Based on the Materials from the Tara Archaeological Leather as a Historical Source)

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 58. Is. 4: 2292-2304.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.4.2292CrossRef

The colonization of Siberia has become a global challenge that has changed the vector of development of the region and Russia as a whole. Siberia has received a new pace of development, a new, previously uncharacteristic appearance, and new historical prospects: while remaining in its place, it entered the all-Russian and global context. The development of the space proceeded by adapting the new settlers to new realities, relying on their own cultural and mental code, on long and firmly adopted traditions. At the same time, Siberia is becoming a space of continuing Europeanization of the country and the territory of Eurasian relations. The development of the Siberian space in concrete historical practice was embodied in a variety of forms and details, the study of which makes it possible to reveal the content of this complex process. The study of the cultural transformation of the region significantly expanded the possibilities with the progress of Russian archeology of Siberia, which gave massive sources, differently than written ones, reflecting historical reality. The analysis of artifacts is not limited to the scope of purely archaeological source studies, they are considered in the historical context as a material embodiment of the transfer and adaptation of traditions during the development of the region by the Russians. The article presents the cultural and typological characteristics of the collection of leather products obtained during the excavations of the town of Tara, which are the material remnants of the development of leather production in the city, and on its basis – the manufacture of leather products, primarily footwear – shoe making trade. The article presents the cultural and typological characteristics of the collection of leather goods obtained during the excavations of Tara, which serve as a clear evidence of the synthesis of traditions transferred from the historical homeland, as well as the assimilated and processed foreign patterns and fashion, a marker of cultural changes in the process of frontier modernization.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1606914558.pdf
Number of views: 220      Download in PDF

4. Vladimir A. Nemtinov, Alexander A. Gorelov, Yulia V. Nemtinova, Andrey B. Borisenko
Virtual Immersion into Timeframes of Residency of the Representatives of Chicherin Family – Famous Figures of the Russian Diplomatic Service in the Tambov Region

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 58. Is. 4: 2305-2314.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.4.2305CrossRef

At present, virtual reality and augmented reality are among the most promising technologies being implemented in museums. Virtual trips to memorable places allow experiencing history in an interactive form; they attract the audience and promote interest in museums and, accordingly, strengthen their cultural and educational functions. The article briefly reviews biographical information about the most prominent representatives of Chicherin family – famous figures of the Russian diplomatic service, as well as the history of the Karaul estate in the Kirsanovskiy district of the Tambov region and Chicherin’s houses in Tambov. Based on available historical materials the authors created a virtual museum of historical sites of the Tambov region associated with representatives of Chicherin family. The museum is a collection of virtual three-dimensional reconstructions of objects of Chicherin’s family estate in the village of Karaul, as well as spherical panoramic images and videos taken in the Chicherin’s house-museum in Tambov. Reconstruction of objects of cultural and historical heritage belonging to Chicherin family was carried out using the software for visualization of architectural projects Twinmotion. Images, videos, and panoramas created by Twinmotion were then used to create a virtual tour in 3DVista Virtual Tour environment. The virtual tour is a multi-platform one and can be viewed in any modern WEB browser, both on a desktop computer and on a mobile device, without downloading any additional programs, players or plug-ins. The use of modern immersive technologies in creating such a museum contributes not only to restoration and preservation of historical memory of Chicherin family, but also to the development and popularization of local history and museum activities, especially among the younger generation.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1609028925.pdf
Number of views: 256      Download in PDF

5. Olga N. Naumenko
The North Indigenous Peoples and the Inquisitorial Nature of Yamal and Yugra Prisons in the XVII – at the beginning XX centuries

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 58. Is. 4: 2315-2323.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.4.2315CrossRef

The article analyzes the two legal systems that existed on the territory of Yamal and Yugra, as well as their influence on the inquisitorial nature for the local prisons. The author concludes that these systems (customary law and continental law) were in conflict with each other. The legal customs of the North indigenous peoples who lived in the Arctic and subarctic zone did not imply the existence of prisons, torture and physical punishments for criminals from their ethno-confessional community; retribution was carried out by Northern gods and mythical creatures. Therefore, the introduction of Russian laws, the organization of prisons and torture chambers was not an effective measure for subjugating the indigenous population. In the XVIII century in the North, the state carried out a partial unification of local legal systems; Russian legislation began to penetrate the customs of the North peoples, but it was adopted by them only to the extent that it ensured humanity and justice from the position of traditional cultures. Their legal views and investigative practices have begun to be taken into account and used by local law enforcement agencies in the implementation of Russian law. Thus, there was a process of partial merging of legal systems and, accordingly, easing the inquisitorial nature of the Russian prison in the North. The author assess the scale of the use of torture in Germany, which extended its influence to the Arctic territories of Western Siberia, and conclude that the annexation of the North to the Russian state minimized the inquisitorial component in the life of indigenous peoples.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1606820868.pdf
Number of views: 246      Download in PDF

6. Alexey B. Krasnov
The Formation of Institutional and Organizational Forms of Economic Interaction between the State and Individuals in Russia (the second half of the XVII – XVIII centuries)

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 58. Is. 4: 2324-2335.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.4.2324CrossRef

The present study is devoted to a special period in Russian history associated with the overcoming of the negative consequences of the Time of Troubles by the Russian state and the transition to the development of economic relations on a market basis – through the development of entrepreneurship and commodity-money circulation. The peculiarities of this period were not only the fact that this process was carried out under the leadership of a new reigning dynasty, but also the fact that, due to the lack of sufficient forces to restore and develop the economy, it began to actively involve private individuals in this kind of activity, providing the latter with such exclusive legal regimes that made it possible to combine the conduct of actual economic activity with the simultaneous execution of certain public powers. Such legal regimes and instruments, first of all, should include the process of transferring by the state to the mercy of various fiscal fees, enterprises that bring stable income and other areas of activity, as well as endowing individuals with special benefits and advantages when organizing various industries in a certain territory or a unique, previously not mastered production. Such preferences, provided to individuals, as a rule, were indicated in special legal documents issued by the highest state authorities and were originally called letters of gratitude, and later – privileges. It was the letters of commendation and privileges that contained benefits, preferences and special public powers of private individuals, granted to them "in a targeted way" for doing business under the auspices of the Russian state, that became the formal legal basis for the institutional development of economic interaction between a commercial initiative and the state.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1606820909.pdf
Number of views: 226      Download in PDF

7. Milana V. Ragulina, Anna A. Sirina
Flour and Bread in the Life Support of the Tunguses of Central and Southern Siberia in the second half of XVII – early XX centuries

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 58. Is. 4: 2336-2345.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.4.2336CrossRef

The article discusses the entry of flour and bread into the culture of local groups of Tungus (nowadays Evenks) in Central and Southern Siberia. It was happened due to the fall of the sable trade, which produced the long and complex dynamics of the Evenkis' life support systems, including the introduction of flour and bread into the Tungus culture. The yasak tribute collectors were supposed to prevent the leakage of furs to the peasants. At the same time, they had to allow exchange relations between the Tungus and Russians. Thus, the basis was made for the creation of an extensive unofficial network of social interaction, mutual survival and cultural contacts, where bread played an important role. The influence of social and environmental crises on the restructuring of energy sources of the Tungus life support is shown. The symbolic role of flour food is traced. The significance of flour food for the formation of hybrid forms of nature use and management is considered. The peculiarities of the flour supply chains and the contradictory social relations associated with them are revealed. From an unfamiliar and rejected product in less than two centuries, flour becomes a strategic resource important for the survival of all the Tungus groups, regardless of their economic practices: hunters and reindeer herders, hunters and pastoralists, hunters and farmers of mixed origin with Russian peasants, who were moving to a settled way of life. The value of flour is reflected in everyday practices, spiritual culture, and the development of cooking and baking technologies. The formal economy of suppling the Tungus with flour created opportunities for informal economic relations connected with flour, including gift giving, sharing, exchange, meals and treat. Thus, a comprehensive informal network of mutual social and economic relations was established, supporting the energy balance of the Tungus life. Gradually, the main social and cultural capital of the region was created – the Siberian multi-ethnic social environment.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1606820955.pdf
Number of views: 235      Download in PDF

8. Yevgenia M. Lupanova, Leonid S. Nazarov
Length-Measuring and Drawing Intruments of 18-19th Centuries at M.V. Lomonosov’s Museum of Mae Ras (Kunstkamera)

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 58. Is. 4: 2346-2355.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.4.2346CrossRef

There are many different rulers in a number of various museums. However so far they are hardly ever conceived as significant items for researches. This fact can be explained by the lack of related experience. Special problem can be the attribution and description of the ruler when it is the only one in some, for example, memorial museum. M.V. Lomonosov’s museum in MAE RAS (Runstkamera) stores comparatively large collection of rules, that can be used as a base of study, comparison and elaboration of common recommendations. The results of the research are as follows. The division value in mm does not always provide important information, as it does not lead us to any conclusions about region, sphere of usage or basic system of measurements. The inner divisions of inches into 10 pieces turned out to be quite exotic for 16-19th centuries. Division into 12 sections was more wide-spread. Rulers had extensive use – in drawing, charting, artillery, navigation, measuring the weight of liquids, engineering, architecture and many others. The study leads to one more important conclusion: the countries with uncomfortable adjustment of small units with bigger ones (11 inches in the foot of Amsterdam and so on) were the most liable to the metric system introduction.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1606821007.pdf
Number of views: 229      Download in PDF

9. Andrey S. Ryazhev
Unwritten Law: Social Privileges of the Highest Command Staff of the Stavropol Сorps of Christened Kalmyks in State Policy (from the 40s through the 60s of the 18th century)

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 58. Is. 4: 2356-2364.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.4.2356CrossRef

The article mainly concentrates on the formation of a border military-political structure in the south and southeast of the Russian Empire in the second third of the 18th century. The fundamental principles of the relations between the state and the ethno-confessional groups of the steppe borderlands and their local elites at the head of them in a certain period of the early Modern Time were first studied in the scholar history literature. A representative example of the study is the Stavropol Kalmyk host (since 1745 – the corps of christened Kalmyks). The formation of the host upper estate around the first ruler of the Kalmyk settlement in Stavropol-on-Volga, convert princess Anne Taishin/Daichin (Tseren Yandji, granddaughter of Ochirt Tsetsen Khan) was traced on the base of little-known documents. The character/nature of social relations in which the ruling and most influential host commanders was included is indicated in proposed research, and the manifestations of social differentiation in this layer are revealed here also. Most attention is paid to the actual status and social claims of the privileged stratum of the host in comparison with its legal status. It is demonstrated that during the reign of Elizaveta Petrovna this group sought corporate feudal privileges by an explicit procedure due to the connivance, expressed both in laws of the state and in the policy of the local civil-military administration. However, it is indicated that with the advent of Catherine II, the situation began to change in the opposite direction. The author states in conclusion that with the development of political interaction of Russia with the Steppe and in the conditions of Catherine's toleration, the local group of the baptized Kalmyk aristocracy ceased to be in demand by the state, and, accordingly, the growth of its social privileges was limited.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1606821049.pdf
Number of views: 226      Download in PDF

10. Sergey I. Degtyarev, Mikola A. Mikhaylichenko, Lyubov G. Polyakova
The Features of the Acquisition of the Nobility by the Sloboda Ukrainian Cossack Foreman at the late of the XVIII century

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 58. Is. 4: 2365-2376.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.4.2365CrossRef

The article analyzes the features of the acquisition of the rights of the Russian nobility by representatives of the Cossack foremen of Slobodskaya Ukraine in the first decade after the publication of the "Charter to the nobility" in 1785. The most common algorithms for proving the nobility are considered among the Cossack foremen of Sloboda Ukraine. The authors determined the specific features of the nobilization process on the territory of the former Ukrainian Cossack regiments, which distinguished it from similar processes on the lands of the former Hetmanate. The work is based on handwritten sources that are stored in the funds of the Central State Historical Archive in Kyiv, the State Archives of the Kharkiv Region and the Central Scientific Library of Kharkiv National University named after V.N. Karazin. Particular attention was paid to the study of the noble genealogy book of the Kharkiv governorship. Analysis of sources confirms that for holders of Cossack ranks from a sotnik (centurion) and above it was not difficult to obtain the rights of the Russian nobility. Many representatives of the former Cossack foreman and their descendants took advantage of this. The authors highlighted a specific feature of the nobilization of the former Cossack foreman of Sloboda Ukraine. When local representatives of the Cossack foremen proved their rights to hereditary nobility, they rarely appealed to the Polish gentry origin. This way of proving one's noble origin was more characteristic of the Cossack elite of the former Hetmanate.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1606821119.pdf
Number of views: 268      Download in PDF

11. Elena E. Ovchinnikova, Tatiana Yu. Bartashevich, Tatiana V. Chumakova
Formation of the Academic Language of Russian Ethical Thought in Russian Universities in the late XVIII – early XIX centuries

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 58. Is. 4: 2377-2384.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.4.2377CrossRef

The article is centered on the study of speeches of University professors of the Russian Empire in the late XVIII – early XIX centuries. The subject of research interest in this article is the ethical terminology, the philosophical language of the speeches of Russian professors. The main attention was paid to the speeches of professors of Moscow University – N.N. Popovsky, H.A. Chebotarev, E.B. Syreyshchikov, M.M. Snegirev and professors of Kazan University – A.S. Lubkin and I.E. Syreyshchikov. Being focused not only on the academic environment, but also on the enlightened Russian society in General, the speeches of professors contributed to the emergence of a philosophical culture and moral reflection of society. The historical period chosen by researchers for analysis was characterized by the formation of moral concepts, the careful work of University professors with the word. Many of them taught not only philosophy, but also literature, were publishers and translators. The research conducted by the authors allows us to reconstruct the historical stage of the formation of the moral consciousness of Russian society, the Genesis of ethical concepts in Russian thought. Professors of Russian universities in their speeches proclaimed and justified the importance of the science of moralizing as the first and necessary stage of moral improvement of a person and the beginning of all knowledge. Especially in the speeches sounded the educational task of the moral Sciences, the most important goal of all educational and educational institutions proclaimed the moral education of man as the Foundation of all education. By the beginning of the XIX century, the Russian University academic culture had developed a philosophical language, ethical terminology, and this very complex process was largely facilitated by the public speeches of Russian University professors.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1606821168.pdf
Number of views: 237      Download in PDF

12. Gulbanu B. Izbassarova
Legitimization of Power in the Kazakh Steppe in the XIX century. Search for the Cartridge: Khiva Khanate or Russian Empire? (by the Example of the Fate of Sultan Kaipgali Ishimov)

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 58. Is. 4: 2385-2395.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.4.2385CrossRef

The article is devoted to the fate of Kazakh sultan Kaipgali Ishimov, who descended from the older branch of sultans of the Abulkhayr house and faithfully served the Khan of Bukeyev Horde Dzhangir. Sultan's activity fell on the imperial period, at one of the turning points of the early XIX century, when the khan's sacral power and the status of Genghisids significantly changed. K. Ishimov was at the head of the Kazakhs' movement against the policy of Khan and the Russian Empire. It was he who led the exodus of Kazakh clans to the Trans-Ural Horde. During the period under review, the Kazakh khans became appointees of the Russian administration, and those who did not agree with the policy of the empire sought refuge in Khiva, hoping to maintain their influence in the Steppe. The article examines the role and significance of the Khiva Khanate in the fate of the Kazakh Genghisids.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1606821214.pdf
Number of views: 267      Download in PDF

13. Larisa V. Tataurova, Kristina O. Sopova
Russian Pottery of Western Siberia – from the Present to the Past: Methodological Aspects

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 58. Is. 4: 2396-2408.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.4.2396CrossRef

Pottery is the commonest type of artifacts in archaeological research. Also it is extensively represented in the ethnographic collections of museums. Despite these facts pottery is poorly understudied. This article presents the results of a study of Russian archaeological ceramics from the complexes of Modern age and ethnographic pottery from museum collections. We use unified methodology for this research. A pot is the most represented type of clay ware and we focused on its study. We have identified consistent pattern in relation to pot diameters, height and volume. Three groups of pots are singularized: small, medium and large pots. The results showed resemblance of the sizes and morphology of the archaeological and ethnographic Russian pottery. To interpret the results, we analyzed historical documentation containing information about pottery in counties, towns and villages of Western Siberia of the 19th century. The results showed that craft and home pottery production had a wide distribution. The production volume was estimated in thousands of items per year. A functional purpose of size groups of pots was revealed by ethnographic materials, linguistic and folklore sources. There is a terminological difference in the characteristics of the size groups of pots. Ethnographic sources trace the functional features of the dishes, not only within the framework of everyday, but also in ceremonial and ritual use. These interpretations are important for a retrospective analysis of the archaeological material.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1606821262.pdf
Number of views: 229      Download in PDF

14. Anvar M. Mamadaliev, Dmitrii V. Karpukhin, Natalia V. Svechnikova, Aude Médico
The System of Public Education in Tiflis Governorate in the Period 1802–1917. Part 4

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 58. Is. 4: 2409-2426.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.4.2409CrossRef

The fourth part of the series of articles is devoted to the problem of the development of the education system in the Caucasus at the end of the Russian Empire, that is, during the reign of Nicholas II after the adoption of the law of May 3, 1908, which changed the approach to the primary education system. Thus, the chronological framework of the study is 1908−1917. The geographical scope is limited to the territory of the Tiflis governorate, but statistics are also provided and a general analysis of the situation in the education system of the Caucasian district as a whole is made. Such documents as the Complete collection of laws of the Russian Empire, acts of the Caucasian archeographic commission, reports of the Trustees of the Caucasian educational district for 1908−1914, etc. were used as sources. The article also examines the conflicting opinions about the law of May 3, 1908 in Russian and foreign historiography. The paper provides statistics on the average (male and female gymnasiums, real and technical schools and teacher's seminaries) and elementary (lower technical school, higher primary and city schools, mountain school, elementary and industrial schools, procedural courses, classes, and women's vocational schools, etc.) educational institutions (as Tiflis province and district) based on criteria such as the number of schools, classrooms, employees and students, the value of the library collection (both fundamental and student libraries of educational institutions), as well as the amount of funding for each type of institution. Separate statistics contain tables on the gender ratio of students, as well as class, religious and ethnic distribution. It also highlights the advantages and disadvantages of the governorate's educational system in comparison with other regions of the Caucasus educational district, as well as its individual educational institutions. Based on the analysis of statistical data, the conclusions are drawn about the development of the education system in the district as a whole, and in the Tiflis governorate in particular, as well as about the problems and achievements that were achieved by the administration and the government during this period.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1606821332.pdf
Number of views: 222      Download in PDF

15. Roman O. Raynkhardt
Personal Factor in Russian Academic Diplomacy of the 1810s – early 1820s: Experience of the Imperial Lyceum’s First Pedagogues

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 58. Is. 4: 2427-2436.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.4.2427CrossRef

The article provides an analysis of the role of personalities in the academic diplomacy of the first quarter of the XIX century on the case of the Imperial Tsarskoye Selo Lyceum. Using the materials of the Foreign Policy Archive of the Russian Empire alongside specialized literature with recourse to the prosopographic method, the author outlines the impact of professional diplomatic background of the above school’s first directors and teachers on their academic and pedagogic activity. As the most prominent and elitist academic institution of the period in question, the Imperial Lyceum initially did not have an explicitly stipulated specialization. Still, many of its alumni upon graduation embraced a career in diplomacy and became civil servants at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Such a choice was to a considerable extent influenced by the professional skills and values transmitted to them by ex-diplomats, who used to be their headmasters and pedagogues. The analysis looks into the particular features, on the one hand, and similarities, on the other hand, of the respective career paths of the latter. It reveals that most of them shared certain values and ethical principles typical for the diplomatic professional community, i.e. patriotism, defense of the State’s national interests and networking. At the same time, a lot of attention was paid to technical training in terms of working with archives, as well as acquiring mastery in foreign languages. The author concludes that in the aggregate these factors shaped a unique educational environment for future diplomats and experts in international relations.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1606826026.pdf
Number of views: 222      Download in PDF

16. Aleksandr А. Cherkasov, Sergei N. Bratanovskii, Ludmila G. Zimovets, Marina A. Ponomareva
The Unknown Pages of the Caucasian War: Children in Circassian Captivity in 1812–1815 (based on the materials from “The Circassian Slave Narratives”)

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 58. Is. 4: 2437-2442.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.4.2437CrossRef

The article deals with the problem of kidnapping by Circassians on Russian territory in the period of 1812−1815. The work “The Circassian Slave Narratives (A Documentary Collection)” was used as materials. This collection was published under the editorship of doctor of historical sciences A.A. Cherkasov in September 2020 on the pages of the Russian historical journal “Bylye Gody”. The collection consists of 1.2 thousand documents of the State archive of the Krasnodar Krai (Krasnodar, Russian Federation). Methodologically, the statistical and chronological methods were widely used in the work. The statistical method allowed us to estimate the scale of child captivity, while the chronological method allowed us to consider this problem in its chronological sequence. Using these methods, the authors were able to calculate the percentage of people who were ransomed or escaped from Circassian captivity and to make estimates on the number of those people whose fate remained unknown. In conclusion, the authors state that cases of kidnapping by Circassians from Russian territory were recorded from 1795 to 1862. During this time, at least several hundred children were kidnapped, only from the Russian side. The child abduction was economically profitable for kidnappers in Circassia, since the cost of children on slave markets in Circassia exceeded the cost of an adult and healthy man by three or more times. At the same time, the capture of a Cossack, for example, posed a significant danger to the attacker, since he was trained in the use of cold weapons and was a much greater burden in delivering the prisoner to the Circassian side. It is also important to note that the slave traders valued both boys and girls equally. Because of the high price of children, most of the captured children were immediately sent to the slave markets and sold to the Turks. This fate befell 78 % of children abducted by Circassians in the period of 1812−1815.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1606914643.pdf
Number of views: 239      Download in PDF

17. Lyalya T. Faizrakhmanova
Scientific and Pedagogical Activity of N.I. Lobachevsky and S.V. Smolensky in the Context of Socio-Cultural Processes (Kazan Province, XIX century)

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 58. Is. 4: 2443-2455.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.4.2443CrossRef

On the basis of archival materials and literary sources, the article shows the socio-cultural processes that arose in the Kazan province in the 19th century. These processes are studied in close relationship with the activities of outstanding scientists and educators N.I. Lobachevsky and S.V. Smolensky, whose fates are closely intertwined with the history of Kazan. The analysis of the sources made it possible to identify factors that influenced the development of the processes under study. Among them: 1) the historical and geographical position of Kazan, which was the eastern outskirts of the Empire with a gradual change in its status by the end of the 19th century. as a large provincial city in the central part of Russia, which has become one of the centers of educational, spiritual, military and judicial Russian districts; 2) the peculiarities of the historical time, caused by the state reforms of the emperors Alexander I and Alexander II, the "anti-reforms" of Nicholay I and Alexander III, as well as the state national policy, which is based on the rejection of compulsory methods of missionary activity among the "foreign" part of the population; attention to the region of representatives of the House of Romanov, their repeated visits to Kazan, which contributed to the economic and cultural development of the city; 3) the state of society and the characteristics of the socio-cultural environment associated with the multi-ethnic and multi-confessional composition of the population of the province, with the isolation of the Russian and "foreign" part of urban residents; with the gradual formation of a cultural environment of the "European" type, due to the activities of secular higher, secondary specialized, general educational institutions, the functioning of the theater, various public, scientific and artistic associations, amateur music making, the emergence of music and art schools; at the same time, the revival of public interest in the ancient layers of Russian spiritual culture; 4) the personal qualities of historical persons: the work shows the scale and significance of N.I. Lobachevsky and S.V. Smolensky for the development of socio-cultural processes in the Kazan province of the XIX century.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1606821480.pdf
Number of views: 200      Download in PDF

18. Timur A. Magsumov, Teymur E. Zulfugarzade, Aleksey A. Korolev, Elena V. Krasnenkova
The System of Public Education in the Orenburg Cossack Army (1820–1917). Part 2

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 58. Is. 4: 2456-2463.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.4.2456CrossRef

The article deals with the system of public education in the Orenburg Cossack army and Orenburg province in the pre-revolutionary period. This part of the paper analyzes the period of 1900−1913. Various statistical materials were used as sources. First of all, these are the documents of the Russian state historical archive (Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation) that were introduced into scientific circulation for the first time. Besides this, the address calendars and commemorative books of the Orenburg province for different years, as well as statistical reviews of the Orenburg province were attracted. The statistical method is widely used in this work. So, the authors made samples from a statistical array of various reporting documents: the number of military schools, muslim and parochial schools. This made possible to calculate the average number of students per military school, as well as to identify the ratio of gender balance in different educational institutions. In conclusion, the authors state that the system of public education on the territory of the Orenburg Cossack army, despite the existing problems, more harmoniously covered both men and women. This was reflected in the percentage of literate people in the army, and by 1914 it was the population of the Orenburg Cossack army that was the most literate of all the Cossack troops of the Russian Empire – 60.9 %. As for the entire territory of the Orenburg province, in the period of 1900–1913 there was an active increase in the network of secondary, lower and primary educational institutions. In terms of gender balance among students, parochial schools have made great progress: the percentage of girls in them has reached 39. The regional specifics of the Orenburg province consisted in the presence of a fairly large number of muslim schools (colleges, medresse, mektebas), where the percentage of girls studying was traditionally insignificant. In general, taking into account all factors, by January 1, 1915, out of 182 thousand school-age children, 107 thousand children were covered by the school, and this work was actively continued.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1606821541.pdf
Number of views: 214      Download in PDF

19. Ivan A. Ermachkov, Larisa A. Koroleva, Elena K. Mineeva, Leonid L. Balanyuk
Slave Trade in Circassia (first half of the XIX century): Some Characteristic Features

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 58. Is. 4: 2464-2470.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.4.2464CrossRef

The article discusses the features of the slave trade in Circassia in the first half of the XIX century. The attention is paid to the driving forces of this process, regional specifics, as well as to the regulatory measures of the Russian administration to prevent the capture of slaves and the slave trade. The work was performed on archival sources that were first introduced into scientific circulation, and documents from the state archive of the Krasnodar Krai (Krasnodar, Russian Federation) were involved. The sources of personal origin were also used, such as the diary entries of the polish emissary T. Lapinsky. When solving research problems, both General scientific methods (analysis and synthesis, concretization, generalization) and traditional methods of historical analysis were used. The paper uses the historical-situational method, which involves the study of historical facts in the context of the studied epoch in conjunction with "neighboring" events and facts. By using the analysis method, it was possible to consider the evolution of the regulatory framework for the prevention of the slave trade on the territory of Circassia during the first half of the XIX century. In conclusion, the authors state that in the first half of the XIX century, one of the main sources of Circassian exports was a living commodity – human trafficking. Due to the high prices for slaves in Circassia, the slave trade was actively developed, making another process related to slavery, namely the process of slave capture, economically attractive. At this time, almost the entire free Circassian population was included in the slave trade, since the presence of slaves was an indicator of wealth and a high position in society. After the appearance of Russia on the borders shared with Circassia, the process of civilizational dialogue began, aimed at eradicating the slave trade and slave-grabbing in this region.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1606821600.pdf
Number of views: 219      Download in PDF

20. Aleksandr A. Kartskhiya, Sergey A. Tyrtychnyy, Mikhail G. Smirnov, Mariya G. Dolgikh
Formation of the Russian Oil Industry in the 19th century: Historical Experience and Modern Assessments

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 58. Is. 4: 2471-2484.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.4.2471CrossRef

The article analyzes the experience of creation and industrial development of Baku oil fields in the middle of the 19th century and provides a comprehensive analysis of the factors that ensured the accelerated development of oil fields on Apsheron. A comparison is made with the American experience in the development of the oil industry of the 19th century. For the first time in Russian historiography, the authors make a multifaceted comprehensive analysis of the formation and development of the oil industry in the Russian Empire, which should be considered a unique property of the formation of the oil industry in the Russian state. The paper shows that the role of the state and large industrialists has still been insufficiently studied, and the scientific and technical development of oil fields in Baku fields did not only lag behind foreign competitors, but also surpassed them in a number of indicators. A number of well-known historical myths related to the development of new technologies in the oil industry are revealed. The article examines the development of the oil industry in chronological order – from the first historical mentions of Apsheron to the world's strongest oil industry creation of oil production rate in the area of Baku.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1607123825.pdf
Number of views: 221      Download in PDF

21. David I. Raskin
Pension Reform of Nikolai I

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 58. Is. 4: 2485-2494.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.4.2485CrossRef

The paper is devoted to the history of the 1827 pension reform in Russia, which remained entirely unstudied until now. Our investigation is mainly based on the documents of the State council of the Russian empire. The reform preparation started under Alexander I and ended under Nikolay I encompassing a whole decade. Nikolai I had personally participated in preparing the reform that was a result of a long process of creating the system securing pensions of Russian military officers and civil servants. It played a significant role in the final formation of the Russian bureaucracy. Simultaneously with reform preparation, a discussion in the governing circles was going on regarding the cancellation of the Table of Ranks, i.e., elimination of civil ranks. This project, although not implemented, in the long run, made a significant imprint on the reform development. The dignitaries of the empire, such as Counts A.A. Arakchejev, A.D. Gur’ev, V.P. Kochubei, and also E.F. Kankrin, had conflicting opinions on how the reform should proceed. Behind the discussion on whether the pensions of civil servants should correspond to their salaries, or to their civil ranks, were fundamentally differing views on the role of ranks in civil service. As a result, the final Pension Charter was a compromise. All civil service positions were divided in categories (“razryady”), and the amount of the full pension in each category corresponded to the average salary of positions in this category. However, the salaries grew with the time, while the pensions did not. The pension system of government servants resulting from 1827 pension reform existed until 1917.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1606821703.pdf
Number of views: 215      Download in PDF

22. Аndrii E. Lebid, Anatolii V. Honcharenko, Natal'ya A. Shevchenko
"Journal of the Ministry of Public Education" as a Source on the History of Higher Education in the Russian Empire in the 19th – early 20th centuries: Issues of Scientific Certification of Personnel

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 58. Is. 4: 2495-2504.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.4.2495CrossRef

The paper examines the potential of the "Journal of the Ministry of Public Education" as a source on the history of higher education in the Russian Empire in the 19th – early 20th centuries. Based on the analysis of the materials of the journal (announcements about the defense of dissertations), the issues of scientific certification of personnel in Russian universities are analyzed. The structure and thematic focus of the journal is analyzed. It is indicated that in many respects they were determined by the personality of the editor and the minister of public education, their vision of the journal's mission. In this context, the trajectories of the evolution of the journal for the entire period of its existence are revealed: polythematic journal; scientific and pedagogical; pedagogical; official bulletin; scientific journal. As a result of the study, an insignificant amount of information was found about the defense of master's and doctoral dissertations – only 13 records, and then only about the defense of master's theses in two Russian universities – Moscow and St. Petersburg. It was established that the announcements about the defense of the dissertation were published not in the main part of the journal, but in the news section, which provided information about a number of secondary "incidents". The way things are going with the coverage on the pages of the journal of issues of scientific certification makes it impossible to objectively assess it and make conclusions about the number of defended dissertations for master's and doctoral degrees in universities of the Russian Empire, being guided exclusively by this source. It has been suggested that more complete information on this issue can be made public on the pages of official heralds, scientific notes, news of universities, and other documents of the Ministry of Public Education. In general, the significant potential of the "Journal of the Ministry of Public Education" is noted as an informative, educational and consultative source on the history of education in the Russian Empire.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1606821778.pdf
Number of views: 229      Download in PDF

23. I.V. Voloshinova, V.G. Afanas'ev, A.B. Tesla
Features of Training Professional Personnel for the Mining Industry in Russia in the first half of the 19th century

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 58. Is. 4: 2505-2513.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.4.2505CrossRef

In this article, the features of training personnel for the mining industry in Russia in the first half of the 19th century are discussed. The ambiguous policy of the government in the development and improvement of mining education was closely related to the situation in the mining industry, in particular with the crisis in ferrous metallurgy in the first two decades of the 19th century, due to a sharp reduction in metal imports, taxes and wars. Feudal Russia lagged behind European countries, where a large machine industry drove the rapid development of metallurgy. The situation was also reflected in the "Mining regulations" introduced in 1806, which became the main regulatory document for the country's mining industry. The special section on education, which required mining chiefs to establish mining schools at factories, changed over the course of three years and schools were abolished. The subsequent increase in metal production, higher prices for products, and the government's patronizing policy led to a shortage of mining personnel. The urgent need for miners required the government to expand opportunities for entering the profession of mining engineers. Not only the Saint Petersburg Mining Institute and corresponding schools and colleges, but also educational institutions that had suitable existing laboratory facilities were involved in the process of training professional mining engineers. These other institutions were the Institute of Technology, the School of Land Surveyors and the Mint of St. Petersburg. Economic and political changes in the country caused the development of mining education to continue for several decades.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1625583030.pdf
Number of views: 209      Download in PDF

24. Sergey Rudnik, Anton Mokeev, Regina-Elizabeth Kudryavtseva
Russian and Western European Mining Schools in the first half of the 19th century: A Comparative Analysis of Educational Process Organization

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 58. Is. 4: 2514-2521.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.4.2514CrossRef

In the first half of the 19th century, an industrial advance began in the leading countries of Europe, as well as in the Russian Empire. The mining and processing industry, which formed the fuel and energy complex of national economies, developed intensively. New deposits of natural resources were discovered and old ones were actively used. The need for qualified specialists led to much attention being paid to the system of mining education. The main mining educational institution in Western Europe was the famous Freiberg Academy, which has always been distinguished by a high level of teaching in technical subjects, as well as its excellent material base. Productive cooperation with this mining academy was supported by representatives of the St Petersburg mining institute – the main technical educational institution of the Russian Empire. These relationships laid the foundation for international cooperation on this issue for many years to come. The European system of mining education in the first half of the 19th century was represented by a large number of national mining schools, but these educational institutions worked most seriously and productive in Germany and France. Ural academies are a good example of Russian regional mining schools of this period. This article is devoted to the history of the creation and functioning of Russian and Western European mining schools in the first half of the 19th century. The features of the administrative structures of these educational institutions, such as their admission requirements, how their courses were structured, and what the graduation requirements were considered. A comparative analysis is offered of the organization of the educational process in German and French mining schools, as well as in domestic mining engineering schools. The main historical sources for this article are materials from the Russian State Historical Archive (RGIA).

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1606821880.pdf
Number of views: 229      Download in PDF

25. Sergey S. Belousov
To the Issue of the Emergence of Migrant Villages on the Kalmyk Lands of the Astrakhan Province According to Toponymic Legends

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 58. Is. 4: 2522-2530.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.4.2522CrossRef

The article analyzes for the first time in historiography toponymic legends about the history of the emergence of settlement villages in the Kalmyk lands of the Astrakhan province in the second half of the XIX century. The information contained in them is compared with archival documents and historical facts, on the basis of which the degree of their reliability is determined. The article is based on the documents of the Russian state historical archive (RSHA), The State archive of the Astrakhan region (GA AO), The National archive of the Republic of Kalmykia (NA RK) and published materials. It is revealed that toponymic traditions are divided into two groups by their nature: 1. Realistic information about historical facts and legends. 2. Legends in which a significant place is occupied by fiction. The research has shown the presence in the legends mainly of stories related to the time, circumstances of settlement formation, geography of places where migrants left and the origin of the names of localities. The author comes to the conclusion that the relatively late nature of the emergence of settlements on the Kalmyk lands, as well as the implementation of this process by the state, predetermined a fairly good preservation of the documentary base, so most of the most important events described in the legends can be rechecked by archival documents. At the same time, the legends contain information that was not reflected in the documents, which allows us to expand and deepen our understanding of the process of settlement of the Kalmyk steppes by migrant farmers. A comparative analysis of the traditions of residents of settlements formed on the initiative of the state and unauthorized migrants has shown that in the memory of the latter, the initial period of their settlement and relations with the authorities and nomads has been preserved more fully than that of organized migrants. This was due to the fact that unauthorized migrants had to live for years in a conflict situation, in a state of psychological tension and stress, under the influence of which the circumstances of settlement in a new place were fixed in their memory more fully and more firmly than those of other migrants.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1606821919.pdf
Number of views: 222      Download in PDF

26. Nicholas W. Mitiukov, Anatoly N. Loshkarev, Yurii N. Makarov
Reconstruction of the Volume of Shipbuilding Production in Votkinsk

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 58. Is. 4: 2531-2545.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.4.2531CrossRef

Over its more than 250-year history, the Votkinsk state-owned plant has repeatedly carried out important tasks of state importance. One of them was shipbuilding, which lasted for about a hundred years. In this work, the list of shipbuilding orders, consisting of 412 items, was reconstructed. It was found that, apparently, in the 1880-s the plant conducted double numbering of orders – of the military department and private ones, which predetermined the duplication of numbers for about one and a half dozen positions. Analyzing the departmental affiliation and the typical composition of orders, four stages of the existence of shipbuilding in Votkinsk are identified. Stage 1 (1848–1879) is characterized by the predominance of orders from the War Department over the rest. The production of ships in Votkinsk was organized exclusively for military purposes, which it successfully did. During this period, non-self-propelled ships prevailed, and of the most important tasks, the Aral flotilla was completed and the floating craft of the Kronstadt and St. Petersburg ports of the Baltic Fleet were radically re-equipped. During stage 2 (1880–1913), a complete reorientation was made to private orders and more intelligently capacious products (steamships, motor ships). Since the Votkinsk plant retains the status of a state enterprise, under the guise of unprofitable shipbuilding, the fact of state subsidies for domestic river carriers is hidden. This was of the greatest importance at the beginning of the oil boom in the Caspian Sea, as well as the development of waterways on the rivers of Siberia and Far East. During World War II, stage 3 fell (1913–1929), when there was a complete reorientation to defense needs. The main customer of the plant is the Ministry of Industry and Trade and the War Department. Due to the massive construction in this period, non-self-propelled vehicles again predominate – barges and ground scows. Votkinsk products carry out a complete re-equipment of technical facilities at strategically important points – the Volga-Caspian canal and the Arkhangelsk port. Stage 4 (1930–1946) is characterized by the degradation of the Votkinsk shipbuilding industry.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1607123884.pdf
Number of views: 252      Download in PDF

27. Alexey H. Abazov
The Caucasian Army in the Late 1850s: Management Features in the Context of the Unification of Administrative Institutions

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 58. Is. 4: 2546-2553.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.4.2546CrossRef

The article considers the structure and management bodies of the Caucasian Army in the late 50s of XIX century Described as head administrative institutes (Main Headquarters in the Chancellery, Office of the Quartermaster General and Duty General) and regional (on the Right and Left Wings of the Caucasian Line, Caspian Territory, Lezgi Cordon Line, Kutaisi Governorate General orate). Attention is drawn to the fact that the functions and principles of organizing the activities of regional headquarters were largely comparable to those of the General Staff. The role of the Regulation "on the management of the Caucasian Army" (1858) in the formation of the system of military-public administration in the Caucasus was determined. It is noted that the prerequisites for these processes developed in the region long before 1858, and the adoption of the Regulation "On the Management of the Caucasian Army" only gave its normative legal form. The powers of structural units of the Main and regional army headquarters are described. The place of artillery and engineering departments in the administrative hierarchy of the Caucasian Army has been determined. It was concluded that with the adoption of the Regulation of 1858, an attempt was made to unify the management mechanisms of army structures (including artillery and engineering) in different subregions of the Caucasus.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1606822029.pdf
Number of views: 205      Download in PDF

28. Sergey A. Safronov, Larisa Yu. Anisimova, Mikhail D. Severyanov
A.P. Nikolsky – One of the Developers of the Stolypin Agricultural Course

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 58. Is. 4: 2554-2562.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.4.2554CrossRef

The article is devoted to Alexander Petrovich Nikolsky – a public and political figure of the Russian Empire in the second half of the XIX – early XX century, one of the ideologists and developers of the Stolypin agrarian reform. The author focuses on the analysis of the evolution of A.P. Nikolsky's views on the peasant community. Nikolsky, adhering in the late 1870s to socialist views on the reform of peasant allotment land ownership and calling for maximum socialization of communal land, over time, changed his views on this issue and moved to the opposite point of view – supported the creation of a private individual peasant economy. Moreover, if at the first stage of its evolution, A.P. Nikolsky allowed the preservation of the peasant community, although in a reformed form, then at the last stage (at the beginning of the twentieth century) he called for its complete elimination. At the same time, A.P. Nikolsky suggested effective steps to rescue the peasantry from landlessness, with which they would be encountered as a result of destruction of the community. A.P. Nikolsky also advocated allowing free migration beyond the Urals and called for reform of Russian legislation so that it does not interfere with this process. Having appeared for two months in 1906 as the chief Manager of land management and agriculture, A.P. Nikolsky took certain steps in this direction. The first Russian revolution of 1905−1906 shifted P.A.'s political views. After becoming a member of the State Council, he began to adhere to the right center, but nevertheless actively participated in the reform processes of that time.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1606822077.pdf
Number of views: 231      Download in PDF

29. Dmitriy M. Sofjin, Marina V. Sofjina
The Court of Grand Duke Sergey Alexandrovich: a Review of Primary Sources

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 58. Is. 4: 2563-2571.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.4.2563CrossRef

Unlike the Imperial Court, small (Grand Duke’s) courts have not been the subject of separate studies until now. Meanwhile, these institutions played a significant role in the life of each Grand Duke, formed the basis of his entourage and the main support in the various activities of the Grand Ducal couple. If in the correction of positions in the state and military service, Grand Duke Sergey Alexandrovich relied primarily on subordinates who were not part of his Court, the multifaceted social, cultural and charitable activities of Sergey Alexandrovich and his wife, Grand Duchess Elizabeth Feodorovna, to a large extent, provided by the involvement of the ranks of the Court. They played a major role in the history of the formation and development of a number of institutions headed or patronized by Grand Duke Sergey Alexandrovich and Grand Duchess Elizabeth Feodorovna, including the currently existing the Imperial Orthodox Palestine Society and the Emperor Alexander III Museum of Fine Arts (now the Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts). A comprehensive study of such a small court as the Court of Grand Duke Sergey Alexandrovich, in institutional and personal dimensions involves the involvement of a wide range of archival sources, many of which were not previously introduced into scientific circulation.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1606997924.pdf
Number of views: 228      Download in PDF

30. Elena V. Vititneva, Mikhail D. Severyanov, Natalya V. Pahomova, Anna S. Zhulaeva
Students’ Everyday Life in the Russian Empire in the second half of the XIX – early XX centuries in the Context of the Relations with the Professors

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 58. Is. 4: 2572-2579.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.4.2572CrossRef

The article analyzes the characteristics of the relationship between students and professors in the higher education organizations in the Russian Empire in the second half of the 19th to early 20th centuries. The aim of this article isn’t just to find the features of the relationships, but the main idea is to determine the influence of these features to the system of the higher educational system in Russian Empire. As the historical sources in the article were used the sources of personal origin – students’ memoires, diaries and letters from different regions of Empire, university funds of the archives: GARF (State Archive of the Russian Federation), GATO (State Archive of the Tomsk Region), GA RT (State Archive of the Republic of Tatarstan), and the documents connected with higher education (the university charter, university office management documents). It was identified, how a university teacher important for the students in the prerevolutionary period. It was revealed 2 main trends in the development of the relations between students and professors: leading to conflict situations and causing cooperation and friendship. The prevalence of one of the trends directly depended on the form of realization of the political course. During the implementation of the liberal political course relations in a university were in harmony. At the same time, when implementing a reactionary policy, relations became worse. Also, it was identified, how the quality of higher education depended on relationships between professors and students in the Russian Empire in the second half of the 19th to early 20th centuries.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1606822171.pdf
Number of views: 206      Download in PDF

31. Oksana V. Klevtsova, Nikolai A. Zhirov
Training Teaching Staff for National Schools in Russian Empire in the second half of the XIX century

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 58. Is. 4: 2580-2587.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.4.2580CrossRef

Тhe Russian Federation continues to reform the education system, including the training of specialists in the field of public education. Due to the dynamic development of the school system, there is still an open question of a shortage of qualified personnel. This problem has always been relevant – in the conditions of modernization of the country's socio-economic and political development, transformation of public relations, specialists were required who were ready to meet dynamic changes, especially in the field of education. The relevance of the research is due to the need for a detailed analysis of the implementation of the educational process in the training of teachers for public schools and colleges in educational institutions of the Russian Empire in the second half of the XIX century.in the conditions of liberal reform of the country's education system. The sources used were archival materials of the state archives of the Lipetsk and Oryol regions, as well as published documents on the education system of the Russian Empire. The research methodology is based on the use of General historical methods (comparative-historical, retrospective, chronological, and the principle of historicism) and modern methods, such as the civilizational approach, which implies the justification of the theory of modernization of society and the phenomena accompanying this process (in this case, the development of the education system). The study analyzed the training of qualified personnel for educational institutions, primarily public schools of the Russian Empire. The problems of shortage of teachers, the reasons for their outflow from educational institutions were considered, their financial situation and the social composition of the teaching staff were studied. The article describes in detail the regional personnel policy in the field of public education of the studied period. The results of the study made it possible to study not only the process of teacher training, but also the implementation of state policy in the regions in relation to the development of the local education system and improving the level of literacy of the population.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1606822840.pdf
Number of views: 204      Download in PDF

32. Oxana P. Kolomiets
Diary of the Head of the Anadyr District N.L. Gondatti

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 58. Is. 4: 2588-2597.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.4.2588CrossRef

The article is devoted to unique historical materials – the diary entries of the second head of the Anadyr district, and subsequently of the prominent Russian statesman Nikolai Lvovich Gondatti. The Gondatti Archive is kept in the funds of the Chukotka Heritage Museum Center. The documents are handwritten originals of the official's notes. In addition to the diary entries of Nikolai Lvovich Gondatti (1860–1946), fragments of his correspondence with the teacher from Markovo village Afanasy Ermilovich Dyachkov (1840–1907) have been preserved. The uniqueness of these documents lies, first of all, in the fact that they are written in a simple, living language. The diary was kept by a man who, by the will of fate, ended up in Chukotka as an official-administrator. N.L. Gondatti wrote about everyday trifles, everyday administrative affairs, leisure time, anxieties, accidents, personal experiences, and often took travel notes. The records also found a place for his observations as a naturalist and ethnographer. The diary consists of the author's daily entries from May 7, 1896 to October 18, 1897 (except for the period from June 18 to September 1, 1896, since this notebook is not available). The entries in the diary vary in volume and content: sometimes the author made only notes about the weather, sometimes he recorded the most important events, on some days he wrote down rather voluminous and informative stories of the interlocutors and his own reasoning on various issues. The article contains selected extracts from the diary of 1896–1897, grouped by specific topics.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1606822937.pdf
Number of views: 205      Download in PDF

33. Irina N. Litvinova, Elena O. Danilova, Oksana A. Karagodina
Objects of Historical And Architectural Heritage of Volgograd: Urban Environment of Tsaritsyn at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 58. Is. 4: 2598-2608.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.4.2598CrossRef

The article analyzes the history of creation of architectural objects surrounding the main Alexander square in Tsaritsyn. The buildings belong to the historical and cultural heritage of Volgograd (Tsaritsyn) of the late XIX – early XX centuries, but were seriously damaged or lost during the battles for Stalingrad. The original purpose of buildings is shown. The historical mission of representatives of business circles in the formation of the architectural appearance of the urban environment and its individuality is outlined. This historical analysis is necessary for subsequent computer modeling of historical and cultural objects of Tsaritsyn-Stalingrad, based on the methodology of 3D reconstruction of structures. This approach is partly able to present to contemporaries various stages of the existence of historical monuments, to fix the current state of architectural objects for future generations. Historical buildings and structures suffered from wars, regime changes, atheistic propaganda and worldviews of the new owners, so they need to be protected and restored, and objects lost to posterity should be studied using new methods of reconstruction and compositional modeling.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1606823106.pdf
Number of views: 212      Download in PDF

34. Artyom Yu. Peretyatko
Administration of the Don Host and the Local Jewish Diaspora in 1860−1890

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 58. Is. 4: 2609-2621.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.4.2609CrossRef

The history of the Jews of the Don Host Oblast has not been sufficiently studied. In particular, professional scholars and amateur local historians did not specifically investigate the attitude of local authorities towards Jews. This article is the first attempt to investigate the policy of the administration of the three Don atamans of the late XIX century (M.I. Chertkov, N.A. Krasnokutsky and N.I. Svyatopolk-Mirsky) in the «Jewish question». Unpublished manuscripts about the history of the Jews in the Don region are drawn into scholarly circulation. They written by N.A. Maslakovets (assistant to N.A. Krasnokutsky and N.I. Svyatopolk-Mirsky for the civilian part) and P.S. Baluev (head of the office of N.I. Svyatopolk-Mirsky). The author shows that the Don Host Oblast for a long period of time, although for various reasons, was in a unique position, located outside the Pale of Settlement, but at the same time having a dynamically developing Jewish diaspora on its territory. Moreover, each ataman pursued his own policy towards the Jews, and their anti-Semitism was consistently increasing. M.I. Chertkov was quite loyal to the Jewish diaspora. N.A. Krasnokutsky displayed moderate anti-Semitism based on the fear that the Cossacks would lose economic competition to the Jews. N.I. Svyatopolk-Mirsky was distinguished by radical anti-Semitism based on the irrational demonization of Jews.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1606823178.pdf
Number of views: 219      Download in PDF

35. Alexey G. Topilsky, Ruslan M. Zhitin
National Question of Ruthenian-Ukrainian Peasants of Galicia in the second half of the XIX – early XX century

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 58. Is. 4: 2622-2630.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.4.2622CrossRef

The development of national consciousness of the Ruthenian-Ukrainian population on the territory of Austrian Galicia during the second half of XIX – early XX century were characterized by the presence of a number of alternative versions of national identity, especially Russian, Ukrainian, Polish, Ruthen. These types of national identity were primarily due to the peculiarities of interaction with the prevailing Polish and Jewish influence in the cultural, socio-economic, and socio-political life of Galicia during this period. Their significant role in the economic development of the region, and above all-control over large tabular land ownership-caused the presence of a pronounced national dichotomy of large land owners and peasants who worked in the agricultural sector of Galicia. In view of the above, this article examines the Polish-Ruthenian and Jewish-Ruthenian representations of the second half of the XIX-early XX century in the context of the analysis of the press and the program settings of political parties. It is shown that certain Ruthenian-Ukrainian political parties in Galicia (primarily radicals) fought against the growing anti-Semitism and polonophobia among the peasantry, as well as among the secular and spiritual intelligentsia. Manifestations of negative attitudes towards Jews among a number of political figures and publicists of the Ruthenian movements are considered, and key ways of promoting their views are indicated. The article describes the connection of hierarchs and individual representatives of the Greek Catholic Church with existing interethnic contradictions, the role of its clergy in the development of Ukrainian national consciousness in Austrian Galicia during the second half of the XIX – early XX century.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1606823543.pdf
Number of views: 214      Download in PDF

36. Igor A. Tropov, Sergey I. Podolskiy, Sergey V. Lyubichankovskiy
The Auerbach Dynasty of Engineers and the Development of Mining in Russia in the second half of the XIXth – early XXth centuries

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 58. Is. 4: 2631-2639.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.4.2631CrossRef

The article examines the role of representatives of the Auerbach dynasty of engineers in the development of mining in the Russian Empire in the second half of the XIXth − early XXth centuries. For the first time the main directions of Auerbach’s professional activity − science, rationalization, entrepreneurship and public education – were comprehensively researched. On the basis of archival sources and published materials, it has been proved that A.A. Auerbach and V.A. Auerbach, as representatives of the Russian engineering and technical intelligentsia, played an extremely important role in the development of scientific knowledge about mining, in the improvement of mining production, in the formation and development of stock corporations in the Urals and southern Russia, in the popularization of mining education and in the solving of social issues associated with the protection of the interests of mining workers. It is shown that the representatives of the Auerbach dynasty of engineers were characterized by the following features: a high level of education, exceptional diligence, the ability to achieve a set goal, a desire to combine scientific achievements and production practices, an openness to everything new and advanced, a readiness for critical understanding and the use of foreign experience in the development of mining, taking into account changes in the conjuncture of the Russian economy, and a significant personal contribution to the development of science, enginery and technology in mining. Scientific works and practical developments made by A.A. Auerbach and V.A. Auerbach became an important basis for the further development of mining in our country.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1606823608.pdf
Number of views: 209      Download in PDF

37. Aleksei Yu. Viazinkin
Russian Narodnichestvo and American Populism in the late XIXth century: Experience in Comparative Analysis of Ideas

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 58. Is. 4: 2640-2650.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.4.2640CrossRef

The article provides a comparative analysis of the ideological complexes of Russian Narodnichestvo and American Populism. The novelty of the study lies in the first experience of such comparative analysis in domestic historical science. As a key problem, the interpretation of the concept of «people» by Narondiks and populists as a combination of the labor population is considered. The different social composition of the movements and the historical conditions of emergence affected the aims and methods of political struggle of Russian Narodniks and American populists. The political platforms of Russian Narodnichestvo and American Populism reveal both conservative ideological elements and attitudes to protect some socio-economic conditions, as well as the demands for radical political and social changes. Russian Narodnichestvo is considered as a kind of socialist doctrine («Russian socialism») about the ideal of social solidarity with elements of a democratic system. American Populism was essentially an updated ideology of «agrarian democracy» with some socialist evasions. The solution to the problem of individual freedom, common to Russian Narodnichestvo and American Populism, was determined by the socio-economic historical conditions of the development of Russia and the United States, as well as the traditions of political thinking. It was concluded that Russian Narodnichestvo and American Populism have many ideological points of contact.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1606823651.pdf
Number of views: 231      Download in PDF

38. Igor V. Zozulya, Anastasia A. Kondrashova, Maxim S. Trofimov
The Highest Reports of Regional Heads and Governors of the North Caucasus as a Historical Source for the Study of the Russian Pre-Revolutionary Judicial System

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 58. Is. 4: 2622-2630.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.4.2622CrossRef

The article is devoted to the analysis of the pre-revolutionary judicial system in the administrative-territorial formations of the North Caucasus based on the materials of the Highest reports of regional chiefs and governors of the last quarter of the XIX – early XX centuries. The authors offer a detailed description of the regional and all-Russian judicial system and legal proceedings typical of the post-reform period after the final annexation of the Caucasus to the Russian Empire. A special feature of the region's development was the combination of customary law and Russian legislation, the simultaneous operation of which was supposed to facilitate the gradual integration of the entire population into the unified legal space of the country. The proposed study shows the activities of Ekaterinodar, Vladikavkaz and Stavropol district courts, magistrates' courts, mountain verbal courts, village and volost courts, as well as Zemstvo district chiefs who replaced magistrates. Statistical data on the growth of criminal offenses and the number of convicted persons in the first years after the introduction of Judicial statutes in 1864 and in the dynamics for the twenty years from 1894 to 1914 are given. One of the main objectives of the article was to trace the transformation of socio-political views of the leaders of the local administration of the Kuban and Tersk Cossack regions and Stavropol province through their assessment of the criminal situation and the role of law enforcement agencies, including the courts, in stabilizing social and economic life in the region.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1606823708.pdf
Number of views: 199      Download in PDF

39. Marina E. Kolesnikova, Olga I. Shafranova
Abkhaz History of the XIX – early XX century in Bibliographic Indexes: Experience of Historiographic Reconstruction

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 58. Is. 4: 2661-2670.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.4.2661CrossRef

The consistent formation of an adequate understanding of the problem posed presupposes a purposeful study of the previous historiographic tradition, including differentiated asynchronous narratives. A meaningful analysis of the author's concepts is based on the structural composition created by the initial list of involved works. Purposeful study of bibliographic indexes created in the previous period and characterizing the socio-economic, political and cultural development of Abkhazia in the 19th – early 20th centuries, allows us to highlight significant research trends that remain relevant in new conditions. Genetic reconstruction of problematic bibliography makes it possible to correct the initial ideas about the objective prospects for further analysis of the selected problematics, to expand the complex understanding of value judgments that deserve a discussion review. Within the framework of the presented article, the authors consider pre-revolutionary bibliographic indexes dedicated to the general Caucasian problems and formed by S.L. Avaliani, E.G. Weidenbaum, A.L. Gisetti, B.M. Gorodetsky, K.A. Kompansky, E.D. Felitsyn. Special attention was paid to the generalizing works of Russian bibliography, which characterize the research interest in ethnographic literature, Orthodox monasteries and the customary law of Russian foreigners. With regard to the Soviet period, special attention was paid to bibliographic indexes embedded in scientific works as a structural element. Certain results of the analysis are summarized in the framework of a comprehensive description of modern publications directly devoted to differentiated bibliography, covering the Abkhaz history of the 19th – early 20th centuries.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1606823757.pdf
Number of views: 220      Download in PDF

40. Yuliya A. Lysenko
Evolution of the Structure of the Financial and Tax Authorities of the Turkestan General Governorship (second half of the 19th – early 20th centuries)

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 58. Is. 4: 2671-2678.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.4.2671CrossRef

The stages and features of the formation of the financial and tax authorities of the Turkestan General Governorship from the moment of its creation in 1867 to the revolutionary events of 1917, which led to a radical transformation of the political system of the Russian Empire are highlighted at the article. The main sources during the preparation of the article were the materials of two senatorial audits of the Turkestan Territory, the first one – under the leadership of F.K. Girs, took place in 1881, the second one – under the leadership of K.K. Palena – in 1908. The author was able to reveal that until 1886 the structure of the region's financial and tax authorities did not correspond to the general imperial structure. This was due to the territorial remoteness of the Turkestan Territory from the political center of the country, its recent annexation to the Russian Empire and, and a result was that wide financial freedom of regional power was controlled by the Governor-General. Since the end of the 80s XIX century there was a desire of the imperial authorities to unify the structure of the financial and tax authorities of Turkestan,to bring it to the general imperial standards, to limit the financial powers and the autonomy of the governor-general.The evolution of the financial and tax system was also significantly influenced by the processes of its integration into the general imperial economic space, the formation of new sectors of the economy, and the active development of trade. Not least importantance for this process played the fact that since 90s of the 19th century, the government set a course for increasing the profitability of the region.The profitability required improving the structure, functionality and efficiency of the tax institutions of the Turkestan General Governorship. As a result, in 1917 the regional financial and tax system was represented by the following institutions of the Ministry of Finance, and later, since 1905, by the Ministry of Industry and Trade: treasury chamber, exchequer chamber, tax inspection, excise and customs authorities, regional mechanics.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1606823810.pdf
Number of views: 192      Download in PDF

41. Pavel S. Seleznev, Roman V. Pyrma, Viktor V. Titov
The Solution of the "Polish Question" within the Framework of the Internal Policy of Alexander III

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 58. Is. 4: 2679-2687.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.4.2679CrossRef

The presented research is devoted to the topic of the policy of Alexander III in the framework of the solution of the "Polish question". The purpose of this work is to assess the effectiveness of the emperor's policy aimed at integrating Polish territories into the common space of the empire. The methodology of the work is built on the basis of a combination of elements of descriptive, structural and comparative analysis. The authors conclude that the policy of Alexander III towards Poland was not built on the basis of xenophobia or adherence to any value systems. In terms of strategic goal-setting, the emperor formulated his point of view regarding the solution of the "Polish question" taking into account two objective factors: first, the growing military threat from the bloc of Germany and Austria-Hungary; secondly, the negative experience of the policy of concessions and liberalization, which his predecessors periodically resorted to. The emperor planned to achieve the integration of Polish lands into the administrative, cultural and educational space of the empire. To this end, he introduced the practice of monolingual functioning of state institutions and educational institutions. As the main support of the Russian government in the region, he considered the poor and middle peasantry, whose interests were ensured by the state by limiting the privileges of the gentry through the mechanism of easements. However, the full implementation of the emperor's plans required compliance with such conditions as a large-scale renewal of the administrative apparatus in terms of increasing the general level of competence of its representatives, as well as the allocation of funding sufficient to create a system of universal primary education in Russian and create an infrastructure for the dissemination of Russian culture in the region. Despite regular requests from local authorities, the political leadership of the empire did not ensure the fulfillment of the indicated conditions. As a result, measures aimed at integrating the region not only did not bring the desired result, but also turned into one of the driving factors in the spread of Russophobia. In the absence of a full-fledged cultural and educational expansion, comparable to the programs implemented by the German authorities in Poznan, the assimilation process actually stopped. Moreover, prohibitive measures regarding the use of the Polish language began to be perceived exclusively as a discriminatory practice devoid of practical meaning. The situation was aggravated by the fact that the political leadership in St. Petersburg ignored the initiatives proposed by local officials regarding the development of economic integration of the region and the "Great Russian" provinces. As a result, Poland's isolation only strengthened, and even more favorable preconditions for the development of aggressive forms of nationalism emerged on its territory.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1606823860.pdf
Number of views: 184      Download in PDF

42. Lyubov N. Shchankina, Irina A. Fedorova, Ilya V. Tyurin
The Special Court of the Governing Senate as the Russian Empire Highest Judicial Body for the Political Cases

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 58. Is. 4: 2688-2697.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.4.2688CrossRef

The article is devoted to the activities of the body of the highest court specially created in the Senate to consider the most important political cases that used to fall within the competence of the 1st branch of the 5th department of the Senate. The special presence of the Governing Senate was established on June 7, 1872. From the moment of creation until the 90s. XIX century. this institution survived two independent stages. During this time the institution survived two independent stages. The first covers 1874–1879, when cases on charges of revolutionary propaganda prevailed. The trials were constantly monitored by the Government, and the practice of the court showed a tendency to reduce the procedural guarantees of the defendants. In most cases, the cases of the Special Presence were heard in public meetings, official records were issued, the defendants 'speeches were usually of a propaganda nature and generated a wide political resonance in society. The second stage, 1881–1890, is connected with the movement of people organized into the party «People 's Will». At this time, there was a decline in the revolutionary situation and the government changed its political course to a new, highly reactionary one. In the practice of the presence of this time, publicity and publicity were effectively abolished, and competition was severely limited. All the sentences handed down in the cases of the People 's Islamic terrorists were as severe as possible. According to historians, even the military court during this period was «... much more humane than the court of gentlemen senators». Until the revolution of 1905–1907, the special presence of the Senate existed nominally and was eliminated only by the February Revolution on March 5, 1917.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1606823907.pdf
Number of views: 162      Download in PDF

43. Branislav Šprocha, Pavol Tišliar, Vladimír Bačík
Some Aspects of Demographic Reproduction in Carpathian Ruthenia in the Long Nineteenth Century

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 58. Is. 4: 2698-2707.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.4.2698CrossRef

Carpathian Ruthenia was a historical territory which is now mostly situated in the Zakarpattia Oblast in Ukraine. During the long nineteenth century, however, it was an integral part of the Kingdom of Hungary. It became a part of interwar Czechoslovakia after the First World War, and after the Second World War it was annexed to the Soviet Union. Regardless of the period or state to which Carpathian Ruthenia belonged, it has always been a peripheral area outside the main thrust of social and economic development. It is this peripherality, combined with unfavourable socio-economic conditions, that could be one of the reasons that Carpathian Ruthenia showed several signs of the old demographic regime for a long time in the twentieth century. The first signs of demographic transition occurred in Hungary at the end of the nineteenth century, and knowing the nature of the demographic reproduction of Carpathian Ruthenia and its possible changes in the second half of the nineteenth century is a key development. Using available data, the aim of the study is to analyse the basic demographic processes and their development over a longer period and to point out some possible differences in comparison with the whole population of the Kingdom of Hungary. The study will focus primarily on the intensity of mortality, fertility, and nuptiality, with an effort to identify their longer developmental trends. It will also analyse some aspects of the timing of marriages and motherhood, as well as the interconnection of nuptiality and fertility processes. For this purpose, the study will construct some basic indicators (crude marriage rate, crude birth rate, and crude mortality rate) as well as some more sophisticated indicators (life tables, total fertility rate, total marriage rate, mean age at marriage, and mean age at birth).

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1606823985.pdf
Number of views: 167      Download in PDF

44. Konstantin V. Taran, Ruslan M. Allalyev, Vladimir A. Svechnikov, Vladimir G. Ivantsov
Russian-Turkish War of 1877−1878: Combat Operations of the Sochi Detachment in the Sukhum Military Department

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 58. Is. 4: 2708-2719.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.4.2708CrossRef

The paper examines the combat operations of the Sochi detachment of the Russian army on the territory of the Sukhumi military department during the Russian-Turkish war of 1877−1878. The attention was paid to the activities of the Mahajirs on the Turkish side, as well as the relationship between Russian troops and the local population on the territory of the Sukhumi military department. The authors used the materials of periodicals. It is particularly necessary to note the newspaper “Kubanskie oblastnye vedomosti” on the pages of which a significant amount of information from the front was published, as well as the newspaper “Russkiy Mir”. The official chronicle was published in the main journal of the naval department “Morskoi sbornik”, as well as published collections of documents. Methodologically, the authors applied the principle of historicism, which made it possible to analyze the pre-revolutionary sources and historiography, which reflected the theme of the Russian-Turkish war on the Caucasian theater of military operations in 1877−1878. Besides this, the descriptive method was widely used, which made it possible to revive the picture of hostilities and endow it with numerous details without which the picture of hostilities would be incomplete. The problem-chronological and historical-comparative methods were also used. The authors came to the conclusion that it is necessary to consider the hostilities of the Sochi detachment in the Sukhum military department in conjunction with the operational situation in Abkhazia and take into account the historical aspects that influenced the relationship between the local population and the Russian administration. Ultimately, due to the changing in the operational and tactical situation on the main theater of war, the secondary Caucasian theater of military operations was curtailed by Turkey, which led to a decrease in anti-russian sentiments among the peoples of the North Caucasus, as well as a gradual restoration of socio-economic development on the Black Sea coast of the North Caucasus.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1606824305.pdf
Number of views: 198      Download in PDF

45. Nikolay A. Vlasov
The Image of Russia in Otto von Bismarck’s Mind

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 58. Is. 4: 2720-2728.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.4.2720CrossRef

The main topic of this article is the image of Russia by the famous German statesman of the second half of the XIXth century, Prince Otto von Bismarck. The reconstruction of this image is necessary for better understanding of Bismarck’s policy towards Russia. To achieve this goal we need to examine the whole set of Bismarck’s statements about Russia dispersed over his papers and speeches and to use different methods of textual analysis to discover patterns and interconnections between particular notions. An important part of the research process was the creation of a database including all relevant statements. The main finding of this research is that Bismarck’s judgments about Russian people and Russian Empire were shaped by his “race theory” regarding Slavs as weak, “womanly” and generally inferior to Germans. He believed that German elements were of crucial importance in Russian history and treated Russia as a “semi-barbaric” country. Bismarck held Russian elites and government officials in low esteem and was deeply pessimistic about the future of Russian Empire and Russian-German relations.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1606824350.pdf
Number of views: 174      Download in PDF

46. Natalia V. Nikiforova, Ilya V. Sidorchuk
Electrotechnical Education in Russia at the Turn of the XXth Century: Imagination about Technological Future and Creation of Engineers as New Cultural Heroes

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 58. Is. 4: 2729-2741.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.4.2729CrossRef

The article is dedicated to temporal ideas of Russian engineering community in the nineteenth century, their ideas about the future of electrical technology and its ability to transform the country and society. The article also covers the ways in which engineers treated time and worked with it within electrotechnical engineering education. The discussions among the engineering community covered concrete technical questions, and at the same time involved broader issues of social meanings of technology and had an apparent temporal perspective. The electrotechnical education, that was under transformation at the turn of the XXth century, conveyed to students the ideas about the status and perspectives of electrification. Laboratory became the new space of technical education where students elaborated various skills important for the new engineering profession – precision measurement, work with different devices, as well as practical corporeal skills. In the lab students also learned to work with time – to distribute, plan and control, these skills can be considered a prehistory of contemporary project management. Electrical engineer was becoming a new cultural hero who knew how to make a working machine, but besides this challenged himself to coordinate the development of technology with social development.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1606824395.pdf
Number of views: 176      Download in PDF

47. Paul L. Karabushenko, Elena E. Krasnozhenova, Sergey V. Kulik
Eschatological Representations of the Tsarist Elite on the Eve of the Great Russian Revolution

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 58. Is. 4: 2742-2755.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.4.2742CrossRef

The Great Russian revolution of 1917 was the fatal event in the life of the tsarist elites, which they could not overcome and which broke them as the basis of the system of making and implementing managerial decisions. The growth of crisis phenomena in the Russian Empire led to the growth of the revolutionary movement, which in turn had a direct impact on the formation of negative moods in the ruling elites and a premonition of the coming end of their existence. The reign of the last two Russian emperors simultaneously became the time of the last rise of Russian Imperial power and a time of deep systemic political crisis. Attempts to understand the essence of these events were made by the elites at the same time in their course. But these assessments were not always objective and constructive. In their memoirs, many representatives of the political class of Russia sought to give a fairly objective, although not always scientific, assessment of the events taking place in the country related to the systemic crisis of the management system. Some (such as General A. I. Denikin) pointed out that the authorities were late with the reforms being carried out in the country, while others (such as K. N. Pobedonostsev) argued that the country was not "frozen" enough and that it should be "frozen"even more. This paper examines the features of the worldview of the elite associated with their feelings of socio-political reality on the eve of a revolutionary revolution. Their eschatological premonitions were predetermined by a sense of their own historical impotence and inability to change the situation for the better by their own efforts.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1606824443.pdf
Number of views: 194      Download in PDF

48. Zulfira S. Zyukina, Dmitry S. Sknarev, Yulia A. Voropaeva, Natalia V. Poplavskaya
Rules on Parish Schools (June 13, 1884): Prerequisites and Preparation of the Bill

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 58. Is. 4: 2756-2764.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.4.2756CrossRef

The work analyzes the prerequisites and preparation of the bill “Rules on parish schools” dated June 13, 1884. The main source in this work is the “Rules on parish schools”, which were approved on June 13, 1884 by Emperor Alexander III. The actions of these rules extended on the territory of the Russian Empire, except for the Riga diocese and the Grand Duchy of Finland. The great importance in the work is given to the “Draft statute on parish schools and an explanatory note to it”. The principle of historicism was used in the work, thanks to it all events were considered in a historical sequence. This made it possible to look at the picture of the events taking place as an integral phenomenon, taking into account the specific historical situation. The problem-chronological method is of great importance in the work, which allowed us, while analyzing the complex process of preparation and legislative implementation of the “Rules on parish schools”, to abstract from neighboring events and consider the studied process in its chronological sequence. In conclusion, the authors state that the “Rules on parish schools” published in 1884 became an important milestone in the formation of an extensive network of primary educational institutions of the Russian Empire. With 1884, there was given the substantial resources and government support to the parish education of the Russian Empire, which made it possible, from almost home education of peasant children, to proceed to the implementation of a planned educational process with the consolidation of the status of a parish school on a par with schools of the Ministry of Public Education.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1606824504.pdf
Number of views: 175      Download in PDF

49. Nursan A. Alimbay, Bolat K. Smagulov
Fundamental Changes in the Traditional System of the Kazakhs-Nomads in the Context of the Colonial Policy of the Russian Empire (late 19th – early 20th centuries): Factors and Consequences

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 58. Is. 4: 2765-2776.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.4.2765CrossRef

The article analyzes the main factors and consequences of radical changes in the traditional land use system of Kazakh nomads. In this regard, we consider a set of socio-economic and administrative-legal measures aimed at colonization of Kazakh lands in the Russian Empire in the late 19th – early 20th centuries. The analysis of various sources shows that these factors led to the destruction of the traditional land use system of nomads. This is reflected in the fact that, on the one hand, sharply reduced the area under pasture, with another – practically destroyed a centuries-old traditional ways of exploitation of fodder and water resources of tribal areas. As a result, there were strong changes in the structure of social relations in the nomadic environment. At the same time, special attention is paid to the study of "Materials on Kyrgyz land use collected and developed by the expedition to explore the steppe regions", organized by the Russian authorities during 1896–1902. At the same time, the process of the expedition survey of Kazakh farms and the materials collected as a result of this event are considered not only as a unique source, but also as an integral part of the measures that served as an economic justification for the seizure by the Russian authorities of the so-called "surplus" lands from Kazakh nomads. The source base of the article consists of a variety of data from both Kazakh and Russian archives, official periodicals, as well as statistical information and materials contained in various publications of the period under review. Based on the analysis of these categories of sources, it is concluded that the colonization of Kazakh lands had an impact on various aspects of the life of the Kazakh society. At the same time, the colonization of Kazakh lands objectively had positive aspects, which were expressed, first of all, in the emergence and establishment of a settled way of life in almost all regions of the Kazakh territory.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1606824555.pdf
Number of views: 203      Download in PDF

50. Sergei T. Gaidin, Galina A. Burmakina, Ruslan V. Pavlyukevich, Tatyana G. Sheremetova
Efforts of State Bodies to Develop Siberia during the Modernization of the Russian Empire (1892–1914)

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 58. Is. 4: 2777-2789.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.4.2777CrossRef

The article is concerned with the efforts of state bodies to economically develop Siberia. The work took place under the state's modernization policy aimed at transforming an agrarian country into an industrial power. Therefore, the mobilization capabilities of state government bodies for the settlement and development of Siberia depended on the success of its long-term financial and economic policy. The Ministry of Finance had been able to stabilize the financial system by converting the country's monetary system to gold parity, attracting foreign loans, and comprehensively using other budget replenishment sources. It promoted entrepreneurial activity, attracted foreign investments and technologies to Russia, and developed measures to destroy the peasant community, the existence of which hindered the country's modernization process. Accumulating financial resources, developing industry and railway transport, the state began to construct the Siberian Railway and transfer the population from the European part of the country. Siberian Railway Committee used the planning principles in its work. It coordinated the efforts of various ministries and departments that made it possible to connect Siberia with the European part of the country and develop its economy under the all-Russian and international division. This created the conditions to accelerate the modernization process associated with the peasant community destruction and Stolypin's resettlement program. The state was interested in the creation of strong resettled peasant farms and considered the resettlers as a force capable to destroy the subsistence farming of the old residents. The construction of the Siberian railway and resettlement population influx led to the traditional industries development in Siberia and the creation of new ones related to the maintenance of railway and water transport. The specialization of Siberian peasants in dairy farming made butter manufacturing a branch of export production activity. The economic development of Siberia made it possible to accelerate the modernization not only in the European part of the country but also in the Siberian region.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1606914717.pdf
Number of views: 185      Download in PDF

51. Larissa Yu. Logunova, Ekaterina A. Mazhenina, Vladislav A. Rychkov
The History of Resettlement to Siberia in the late XIXth and early XXth centuries Captured in the Family-Patrimonial Memory

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 58. Is. 4: 2790-2797.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.4.2790CrossRef

Family-patrimonial memory is a type of social memory, its lowest level. The conventional content of social and f family-patrimonial memory is the basis of community solidarity. Family-patrimonial memory connects the tearing tissue of time through the mechanism of social inheritance. Descendants inherit the symbolic capital of victories, achievements, historical tragedies in the form of images of memory, which are socially differentiated and create mnemonic clusters contradictory in content. The content of family-patrimonial memory is consonant with the sociocode of community memory. Family-patrimonial memory not only fixes facts, but also evokes a historically conditioned feeling associated with involvement in the events of the past, in the territory with which people are connected by a single historical destiny. The history of Siberia is represented by the facts of "historical truth" recorded in the documents, and the truth of memory resounding in the oral histories of Siberians ("the voices of the silent"). The article shows the experience of working with a hybrid methodological complex, created to study the content of family-patrimonial memory of siberians. To understand the historical event, a mixture of various approaches of the humanities based on the principle of interdisciplinarity was used.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1606824661.pdf
Number of views: 191      Download in PDF

52. Boris N. Mironov
Ethnopolitical Discrimination in the late Imperial and Early Soviet Periods

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 58. Is. 4: 2798-2808.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.4.2798CrossRef

In Imperial Russia, almost all major non-Russian ethnic groups had their representatives in power structures − in central and local executive bodies, in the courts and in law enforcement agencies, since 1905, in legislative institutions, although in most cases the number of nominees from an ethnic group did not correspond to its population size. In some cases (Jews), this was due to direct discrimination, but more often it was due to a low level of culture, lack of knowledge of the Russian language, lack of professionals, and other factors not directly related to ethnic inequality. You needed the appropriate competence and at least at least a basic education and knowledge of the Russian language in order to participate in the management. As a result, citizens that are more educated also had a higher chance of entering the service of government structures, regardless of ethnicity. Ethnopolitical discrimination in the Empire was not so significant as to be the main cause of the 1917 revolution and the collapse of the Russian Empire. In the first decade of Soviet power, ethnic inequality in the formation of government bodies and power structures decreased, but was eliminated, respectively; the participation of non-Russians in government increased, but has not yet become adequate to their number. As the index of ethnopolitical representativeness shows, the inequality was not yet completely eliminated up to 1926: the index increased from 0.61 to 0.79 for all non-Russian peoples as a whole in 1897–1926, but did not reach 1,00, that is, the democratic norm. This reduction in inequality can be considered significant, but it cannot be called a qualitative leap in overcoming ethnic discrimination.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1606824709.pdf
Number of views: 166      Download in PDF

53. Tatyana G. Karchaeva, Galina M. Lushchayeva, Nikolai R. Novosel'tsev, Alexander S. Kovalev
"Outstanding Zemstvo Statist": about the Life and Work of Sergei N. Veletskii from Siberia and Ufa Province in the late XIX – early XX centuries

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 58. Is. 4: 2809-2816.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.4.2809CrossRef

The article shows about Sergei Nikolaevich Veletskii. The life’s and professional facts are questioning this research. He is known to historical science as a member of the Imperial Free Economic Society, a member and employee of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society, a "remarkable zemstvo statistician" who carried out a detailed study of the districts of the Ufa province and other places where he was in the civil service in the late 19th – early 20th centuries. His multivolume books call "Zemskaya statistics" (Moscow, 1899–1900), "Collection of statistical information on the Ufa province" (Ufa, 1898–1911) and etc. These publications are representing a significant source potential for historical research about socio-economic development of Southern Urals, Steppe region and Siberia. The evidence and theoretical conclusions presented in this article were obtained on the basis of an analysis of archival documents stored in the funds of the State Archive of the Krasnoyarsk Territory (KGKU SACK), as well as from databases compiled using relatively reliable materials, including declassified documents of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan. This article also establishes facts from the life of Sergei N. Veletskii. These are spouses Yadviga Iosifovna Veletskaya (or Gedronovich) and Nikolai S. Veletsky. Yadviga I. Veletskaya was guardians of orphanages in the Ufa and Yenisei provinces. Nikolai S. Veletsky was eldest son which participants in the Civil War and Soviet employee who suffered from repression in 1937. This data about Sergei N. Veletskii complements information about seniors and officials of the provincial administration in Siberia.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1606824775.pdf
Number of views: 173      Download in PDF

54. Sergey J. Suschiy
The Population of the Don and the Northern Caucasus at the end of the Imperial Period (1900–1910s): Wars and Other Factors of Geodemographic Dynamics

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 58. Is. 4: 2817-2825.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.4.2817CrossRef

The following article examines the geodemographic dynamics of the population of the Don and the North Caucasus at the end of the imperial period. It determines the ratio of natural growth and migration, evaluates the influence of various factors on demographic processes, including wars prosecuted by Russia at that time. It is concluded that the southern regions (except Dagestan) were distinguished by increased natural population growth, which was supplemented by a large-scale migration inflow in the Kuban and Terek regions, as well as in the Black Sea governorate. As a result, the population of the entire macroregion grew at a rapid pace (from 7 to 10.17 million people in 1901−1904). The Russo-Japanese War and the Russian Revolution of 1905−1907 almost did not affect the demographic dynamics of the southern regions. The negative impact of the First World War was more perceptible. By 1917, the conscription into the field army reduced the size of the existing population of the macroregion by 1-1.2 million people (by 10-12 %). But at the same time, hundreds of thousands of refugees and prisoners of war settled within the Don and the North Caucasus. Irrecoverable and sanitary casualties of the mobilized regional contingent, even according to incomplete statistics, exceeded 340 000 people. However, until the beginning of 1917, the macroregion maintained a steady natural population growth, which more than enough compensated for the irrecoverable battlefield casualties of servicemen called into the army from the Don and the North Caucasus.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1607079354.pdf
Number of views: 157      Download in PDF

55. Yuriy I. Nadtochey, Dmitrii N. Khristenko
The US Congress and Russian-American Relations on the Eve and During the First World War

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 58. Is. 4: 2826-2834.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.4.2826CrossRef

The article examines the features of the US Congress policy towards Russia on the eve and in the early years of the First World War. Based on the archival materials of the Congress the authors explain the reasons why negative dynamics in bilateral US-Russia relations in 1911-1913 prevailed and the ways partners were slowly seeking to overcome it just on the eve and at the beginning of the war. It is noted that the key role in whipping up anti-Russian sentiments in American public opinion and their broadcasting into the political, environment, including Congress, was played by Russian origin immigrant groups. The later consisted of people who left the Russian Empire because of prosecution and other political reasons, so they were trying to revenge Сzarist regime with support of that part of the American entrepreneurial class that viewed Russia as a direct a competitor to the United States on the world markets. However, the problem of protecting the rights of minorities as a matter of bilateral ties between Washington and St. Petersburg had to not only economic, but also ideological reasons. The American political environment developed under the influence of strong isolationist sentiments, part of which was hostility to the European empires, namely, as all these powers, including Russia and their alliances appeared to be guilt in unleashing the war. Antimonarchist sentiments were reflected in the nature of US foreign policy, especially in those aspects that directly affected the competence of the Congress (military supplies, immigration laws). As strong supporters of republicanism, liberty and democracy, American lawmakers, failed to grasp the importance of supporting the Russian Сzarist government, especially in the most difficult early years of the war. The anti-Russian sentiment of the Congress was overcome only by the February revolution of 1917. However, strengthening relations with democratic but weak provisional government of Russian Republic could no longer create a solid foundation for relations between the two countries, leading them to a state of affairs later named by historians as the "First Cold War".

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1606824865.pdf
Number of views: 156      Download in PDF

56. Alexandra S. Kuzmenko
Political Moods of Forced Migrants in Russia during the First World War

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 58. Is. 4: 2835-2844.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.4.2835CrossRef

Today, the study of migration remains as relevant as in the last century and, in a few last years, even more actual. The resettlement crisis, covered not only Europe, but also most countries from Mexico and Indonesia to Ukraine and Syria, has boosted interest in the political component of migration among the expert community. At the same time, the previous historical experience of mass forced migration during the First and Second World Wars is expected to be especially valuable due to its uniqueness for modern processes. These conflicts have revealed unexpectedly massive cross impact of forced resettlement both on politics and nation. As a matter of fact, migration affected on attitude towards not only the Government, but also political parties, public organizations and other active political subjects. Nevertheless, the influence of such processes on the migrants themselves used to escape researcher’s attention. Eastern Siberia in that case is assumed to be indicative region as a result of the fact that it was the receiving territory for such human wave. Forced migrants appeared in the area were potential social base for political powers in the region. Considering the reasons and conditions of their movements Siberian active subjects could use them as an effective recourse in their political struggle. But how successful were they in such attempts? What hurdles did they meet on that way? Were forced migrants active and political experienced or inert and inefficient? The purpose of this paper is to find answers to these questions. The author determines and characterizes certain aspects of political moods of forced migrants, caused by world military conflict. The article analyses the level of political activity/inertia of these different groups. Eventually the author defines reasons of these processes and makes a conclusion about a forced migrant’s political behaviour.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1606824936.pdf
Number of views: 170      Download in PDF

full number
URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1625583205.pdf
Number of views: 332      Download in PDF

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