Abstract: The article deals with the formation and functioning of land routes in the southern part of the Putivl district (uyezd) in the 17th century. The authors analyzed a significant number of written and visual sources and proposed options for passing the routes of the roads known at that time. At the end of the 16th century, Putivl played an important role in organizing guard and border services on the border with uninhabited steppe areas of the Wild Field (Dike Pole). At that time, roads in the modern sense of the term did not exist in the region under study. The act documents stipulated the general direction of movement and indicated the places of crossings over the rivers. In the middle of the 17th century, in the regions bordering the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, several fortresses appeared, located far from the populated territories of Muscovy. Their lives were directly dependent on the supply of food and military supplies. At this time, the load on the old roads increases, and a primitive road network between these cities is being formed. These roads were not equipped with engineering and hydraulic structures, and their throughput and ease of movement remained at a primitive level.
The second half of the 17th century was marked by changes in the administrative structure of the region. Ukrainian settlers began to form a qualitatively new system of communications. The road network was improved, and cities and large villages made it possible to receive groups of merchants who came from remote regions. Fairs began to appear in these settlements, to which merchants from the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Lithuania and Hetman Ukraine came. The construction of a new road network allowed the cities of Sloboda Ukraine to quickly integrate into the economic trading model of Eastern Europe.
Abstract: The article discusses various aspects of the influence of the internal policy of the House of Romanov on social relations, the formation of the physical and moral health of the population on the example of the military-physical training of the personnel of the Russian army and the development of the ideas of Olympism in pre-revolutionary Russia. Even Peter the Great, in need of like-minded people who were strong not only in spirit, but also in body, adhered to a demanding attitude towards the physical form of his officers. Representatives of the ruling House of Romanov not only formed the state policy of the physical development of the population of the Russian Empire, but also patronized the development of sports, sports organizations, clubs, personally took part in the Olympic Games. Sports and sports traditions are one of the components of the diversity of our cultural heritage. Russian athletes have made a great contribution to the modern development of Olympism, Russian Olympic sport occupies a leading position in the sports world. However, high performance sports cannot emerge in a vacuum. Worthy positions of any country in the world of Olympic sports are based on national historical, cultural, ethnic, social characteristics. The purpose of this study is to analyze the state policy and the contribution of the Romanov dynasty to the creation and development, based on the historically established practice of military physical education of the Russian army, not only amateur, professional and mass Russian sports, but also in Russia's participation in the development of Olympism. Modern life cannot be imagined without sport, which has become an important area of social policy. It is all the more interesting to turn to the origins of the sports movement and pay tribute to the memory of its initiators and organizers.
Abstract: The article examines in detail the Kalmyk-Kuban relations in 1726 and the role of the rebellious Kuban sultan Bakhta-Girey in them, which brought serious destabilization on the steppe border of the Russian and Ottoman empires. Recently, in historiography, there has been an increasing interest in the personality of Bakhta-Giray, to whom a number of publications are personally devoted. The aim of the work is to introduce new information about Kalmyk-Kuban relations into scientific circulation in 1726. The main source base for this work was the materials of the National Archives of the Republic of Kalmykia. Their analysis led to the conclusion that in 1726 Bakhta-Girey, after a series of failures, again entered the struggle for power in the Kuban, resorting to military assistance from the Kalmyks. The Kalmyk owners, led by the governor, sought to return the Nogai edisans and dzhemboiluks from the Kuban and they were vitally interested in minimizing any threat from the Kuban direction. The example of the events of 1726 shows how Bakhta-Girey, in a hopeless situation, was able to break out of the encirclement and, through negotiations with the Kalmyk owners, captivate them with the idea of moving forward with an army to the Kuban and returning the Nogais, despite strict government prohibitions.
Abstract: The article examines the role and significance of the steppe nobility of the Junior Horde, which played a significant role in the process of establishing Kazakh-Russian relations of the XVIII - early XIX centuries, since the role of the steppe elite was very relevant. In the context of the management of their possessions, representatives of the Steppe elite were guided by the norms of the "customary law" of the code of laws compiled by Tauke Khan, who was known as "Zhety Jargy" and had a certain influence on the decision of not only internal, but also involved in external processes of the Kazakh statehood. Their presence during important negotiations was explained by the fact that each steward was interested in the safety of those tribal groups that made up his entourage and represented his allotment. Therefore, the khan accepted the solution of issues on which the welfare of the Steppe depended in the presence of elders, influential sultans, biys and batyrs. The same case is recorded in written sources when the fate of the fatherland was decided after the death of Tauke Khan. Then Abulkhair Khan took a key position in the Kazakh steppe. This was a person who was appreciated by the external rulers by the elder khan. The role of the Khan of the Junior Horde Abulkhair in the life of both the Kazakhs themselves and his relationship with Bashkirs, Kalmyks, Russians, Khivins, etc., is described very meaningfully in the writings of representatives of these peoples.
Here the authors tried to reconstruct the picture of the circumstances that radically changed the socio-political structure of the Steppe and intend to assess some historical figures that played an important role in solving the strategic tasks of the Kazakh steppe.
Abstract: The article is devoted to the problems of Kazakh horse breeding in the works of researchers and scientists of the Russian Empire. As you know, the Russian people from Ancient Russia to the Russian Empire have been interested in horse trading with the Kazakh Khanate for a long time. Due to the small number of horses in the Russian army and the general population, the Russian Empire provided its army and people with horses from neighboring Kazakhstan.
Most of the works devoted to horse breeding in the late XIX - early XX centuries are limited only to the description. Since the materials were collected haphazardly, many issues of this topic were investigated in them differently. Many of the works about horses are written superficially, dictated by curiosity and surprise caused by the original horse breeding of the nomadic people. In such works, for the most part we are talking about grazing, keeping horses, and only occasionally about breeds. Analyzing the literature of the Soviet era, we can say that with all the variety of materials collected about the Kazakh horse, it is still not brought into a single system. Horse breeding in those years was studied from the point of view of agricultural sciences, so its historical and ethnographic side remained poorly studied.
Abstract: The article reveals the process of formation of maternity clinic space in pre-revolutionary Russia. The research is based on the medical literature of the 18th–early 20th centuries, archival materials, ego-documents. The main approaches were the social history of medicine, gender history and the concept of medicalization. The article shows that clinical obstetric care acquired legitimacy exclusively in large cities and was perceived by the population as a pathological place for childbirth. Clinical obstetrics destroyed the traditional culture of childbirth, based on the free behavior of the woman in labor, the preservation of the female space of childbirth, the use of religious rites, traditional medicine. The approved biomedical model of childbirth reduced the level of maternal and infant mortality, provided surgical care and anesthesia. But on the other hand, patients were isolated, rigid ideas about norm and pathology were introduced, the number of surgical interventions increased; patients became an object for medical actions, losing their individuality and initiative, and a single maternity pose was fixed. The space of the maternity clinic reflected primarily the interests of physicians, aimed at maximizing the efficiency of their obstetrical manipulations of the laboring women.
Abstract: The study examines the issue of the influence of the system of material support for physicians in Russia in the XVIII–XIX centuries on the general state of health. During the preparation of the article, unpublished documents of the Russian State Historical Archive from the funds of the Medical Council under the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Medical Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, legislative acts, sources of personal origin and numerous reference materials were used. The methodology of the work is based on the complex application of comparative and system analysis. Based on the results of the conducted research, it was concluded that up to the period of 1870–1880s the system of material support for medical personnel functioned generally unsatisfactorily. The latter was determined by objective factors: the limited resources of the treasury against the backdrop of frequent military conflicts did not allow providing doctors properly. To a large extent, they were forced to support themselves through free practice. The great reforms of Alexander II and the successful industrial policy of his heir formed the economic basis for a significant increase in the scale of material support for physicians by the state. The success of the zemstvo reform also played an important role in increasing the welfare of doctors. However, by the end of the XIX century the general state of the material support of medical personnel can be characterized rather as satisfactory. Despite the tangible successes of the state and zemstvos in this area, most doctors continued to experience financial difficulties. Even the expansion of the scope of private practice could not compensate for the insufficiency of salaries due to low effective demand among the bulk of the population and, in part, regulatory restrictions on the amount of remuneration. A natural consequence of problems in the field of wages was a high "staff turnover", overtime and the inevitable decline in the quality of service. The prestige of the medical profession was also undermined and the influx of promising personnel into the industry was blocked, at least in the system of state and zemstvo health care.
Abstract: Despite the fact that aspects of the spiritual and cultural structure of Kazakh society were considered in medieval historical works, it was not of a scientific systemic nature. The process of the Kazakh society's entry into the Russian Empire opened a comprehensive path to the recognition of its cultural potential. Outstanding pre-revolutionary progressive Russian researchers have made an invaluable contribution to the development of ethnography and ethnology of the peoples of Siberia and Central Asia. The bulk of Russian scientists were advanced people who sincerely believed in the future of the indigenous inhabitants of these lands.
Many of them were fluent in the languages of the Turkic peoples, so they found an opportunity to successfully explore new regions. Russian scientists lived in yurts for several years in order to thoroughly familiarize themselves with the structure of the lifestyle of Kazakh villages and thereby brought their fundamental works to science. When studying the internal cultural and economic system of Western Siberia and Central Asia, the tsarist administration paid great attention to the education of scientific personalities and representatives of indigenous peoples. At the same time, one can cite as an example the names of such Kazakh scientists as Sh.Sh. Valikhanov, A. Dzhanturin, H.K. Babajanov et al. That is, an effective dialogue was established between the power and the local population. Undoubtedly, the established historiography about the peoples of Central Asia during the period of tsarist Russia contributed to the emergence of the Orientalist trend in science. This scientific step influenced the creation of a basis in the study of the history and culture of the peoples of the East as a whole. And also, as one of the main values of the complex of works of this historical period, it should be noted that it was outside certain political and ideological principles.
Abstract: This article discusses the features of the legal regime of aquatic biological resources in the 18th century, enshrined in the positive and customary law of the Permian peoples. Considerable attention is paid to commenting and analyzing archival and historical-legal documents that are narrative carriers of information, as well as sources of law systematized in the Complete Collection of Laws of the Russian Empire (PSZ). The paper analyzes the features of regulation by the legislator of the legal regime of aquatic biological resources. The options for the use of aquatic biological resources, sanctioned by the customary law of the Permian peoples, are considered. The purpose of the undertaken study is to study the peculiarities of the legal regime of aquatic biological resources in the 18th century, regulated by the norms of positive and customary law of the Permian peoples. The authors came to the conclusion that the customary law of the Permian peoples did not contradict, but rather supplemented the norms of positive law, expanding the possibilities of using water natural resources. If in positive law throughout the 18th century the legislator provided the opportunity to widely use aquatic bioresources, then the customary law of the Permian peoples regulated in detail those areas of activity of the population that were not affected by positive law or were poorly regulated. The authors formulate the conclusion that an important historical feature of nature management among the Komi was the presence of communal natural objects that could be used by all members of the community, as well as individualized objects that were in the peasant use of the one who owned the nearby hayfields and maintained these water bodies in a suitable for operation condition. Among the Udmurt peasants, the customary legal practice of leasing was widespread, which made it possible to use aquatic biological resources.
Abstract: The problem of evolution of fairs in the Penza region as a socio-cultural phenomenon and a significant part of organizational culture, as a way of forming a regional identity in the imperial period, is considered in the article. The purpose of fair trading in the culture of everyday life of a provincial society was established on the basis of an analysis of documents from the office of the governor and sources of the epistolary genre. Throughout the 19th century fairs not only acted as a form of organization of import trade and satisfied the needs of the population in manufacturing and colonial goods, but also provided the processes of social interaction, cultural diffusion, translation and assimilation of images of imperial identity through communication, transmission of verbal meanings and visual images in the mass consciousness of the provincial society. During the period under study the general trend in the development of fairs in the Penza province was the processes of decentralization, the development of a network of rural fairs, and, consequently, the democratization of the forms and means of organizational culture, penetrating to a new level of social interaction.
Abstract: In the article, based on the materials of travelogues of Russian travelers F.M. Nazarova and N.I. Potanin to the Kokand Khanate, the representations of the region as an object of geopolitical interests of the Russian Empire in the first half of the 19th century are revealed. The methodological basis of the study is the approaches of the “new cultural-intellectual” and “new imperial” history, and the reliability and validity of the conclusions is ensured by the involvement in the work of a wide range of additional materials: reports of travelers who visited the states of Central Asia during this period with diplomatic visits.
It has been established that when organizing the expedition, not only current goals related to escorting foreign embassies to their homeland were taken into account, but also promising ones, involving the examination of lands included in the orbit of Russia's geopolitical interests. The heads of such embassies, as a rule, were appointed persons of the Cossack rank, who had an average educational qualification, but at the same time knew oriental languages and/or the skills of route shooting and mapping. In the course of the study, it was proved that the range of problems faced by travelers was determined by the foreign policy situation in the eastern periphery and the place of Russia in this disposition, which to a certain extent provided them with relative freedom of action in making decisions. The result of the imperial expertise of the Kokand Khanate was the preparation and publication of detailed reports on the progress of the expedition, the territory of its movement, population, administrative structure, which was accompanied not only by textual material, but also by route maps. All this together constructed a plausible picture of the world of the inhabitants of the east, made it possible to form ideas of the military and the administration about the possibilities of moving to the east not only by means of diplomacy.
Abstract: The article examines the Russian-Jigeti relations in the Caucasus in the middle of the XIX century.
The source base of the research consists of archival materials of the State Archive of the Krasnodar Krai (Krasnodar, Russian Federation), collections of documents, materials of personal origin and pre-revolutionary periodicals.
In solving research problems, the authors applied the principle of historicism, which made it possible to make a comprehensive analysis of pre-revolutionary, Soviet and modern sources and historiography related to Russian-Jigeti relations.
In conclusion, the authors state that Russian-Jigeti relations developed in a difficult military-political situation. After the construction of the fortification of the Holy Spirit at the mouth of the Mzymta River in 1837, the jigets, despite the influence of a stronger and more numerous tribe of Ubykhs, systematically contacted the Russian command. The Jigeti princes regarded the Russians as a new military and political force on the eastern shore of the Black Sea, capable of preventing attacks on the small tribe of Jigets by the Ubykhs and other powerful tribes of the Caucasus. The acceptance of Russian citizenship by the Jigets had a positive impact on the political stability in Jigeti and contributed to the establishment of peaceful relations between the Jigets and Russians.
Russian-Jigeti relations began to deteriorate in the early 1850s, after a joint attempt by Jigets and Ubykhs to invade Abkhazia for plunder. The Jigets were deprived of their privileges. The anti-Russian activities of Naib Mahomet-Amin among the Ubykhs also negatively affected the military-political situation in Jigeti, since the Jigeti societies partially joined Mahomet-Amin. As a result of the outbreak of the Crimean War in March 1854, the garrison of the fortification of the Holy Spirit was evacuated, and the Jigeti police station also ceased to exist.
Abstract: The article examines the process of the establishment and activities of the Imperial Orthodox Palestinian Society in the XIX century. The authors pay attention to some cultural, organizational, as well as geopolitical issues.
As sources there were used the official documents of the Imperial Orthodox Palestine Society (for example, the Charter), as well as materials of the pre-revolutionary periodical press, such as the official organ of the society – the newspaper “Russkii palomnik”, which was published since 1885.
In conclusion, the authors state that by the middle of the XIX century, a difficult situation was developing for Orthodoxy and Orthodox in the Middle East, which was explained by the creation of the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem in the region and the opening of a significant number of Catholic schools. At the same time, the number of Orthodox pilgrims from Russia to the Holy Land sharply increased, who faced a large number of organizational difficulties in traveling through the Holy Land. To ease the fate of the pilgrims and the local Orthodox population, two spiritual missions were sent there, and in 1858 a Palestinian Committee has been established. The Committee managed to solve the pressing problems of pilgrims by acquiring special farmsteads, nevertheless, very soon the number of pilgrims increased even more, and the Russian government established the Imperial Orthodox Palestine Society in 1882. Relying on state support and donations from Russian benefactors, a significant number of institutions of the society were opened in the Holy Land, including farmsteads, schools and medical outpatient clinics. All this in general allowed not only to preserve Orthodoxy in the Middle East in the pre-revolutionary period, but also to strengthen the influence of the Russian Empire on the entire Middle East region.
Abstract: The article is devoted to the analysis of the personnel policy of the imperial authorities in relation to the atamans of the Don Host of non-Cossack origin. From 1848 to 1917 the post of Don ataman was occupied exclusively by generals of the regular army. Although in recent decades their figures have begun to attract the attention of researchers, the personnel policy of the imperial government in relation to them has not yet been analyzed.
The article shows that usually lieutenant generals aged 48 to 56 years were appointed Don atamans (11 cases out of 13). At the same time, their previous activities could be completely different: among the atamans there are both cavalrymen and infantrymen, both people with administrative experience, and people who are completely deprived of it. The author comes to the conclusion that the personnel policy of the imperial government gradually degraded. Initially, only cavalrymen with administrative experience, either already serving in the region or being popular figures of the imperial scale, were appointed as Don atamans. However, then, from the turn of 1860-1870, the position of the Don ataman began to be interpreted as an ordinary lieutenant general vacancy, and any lieutenant general was appointed to it, up to an infantryman without administrative experience. In addition, if for the XIX century long atamanships were characteristic, allowing the ataman to engage in long-term projects, then in the XX century the imperial authorities begin to constantly change atamans, preventing them from incorporating into the local elite or showing themselves, with the exception of one case.
Abstract: This article is the third part and completes a series of works devoted to the study of the public education system in 1849–1917 in the Erivan province of the Russian Empire and explores the period 1908–1917. The educational institutions of secondary, lower and primary levels of education are analyzed. The features of the development of librarianship in secondary educational institutions are also considered as an indirect criterion of the quality of education at the beginning and end of the chronological period under consideration. Traditionally, the ratio of the number of students according to confessional, ethnic and class criteria is also analyzed.
Based on the statistical analysis of the data, the authors conclude that the development of the education system, which (with the exception of primary education) should be recognized as very weak in comparison with other regions of Transcaucasia. The demand for secondary education has remained stable for many years (the number of secondary educational institutions has not changed), and the number of female students prevailed over male students, which is completely uncharacteristic for the regions of the Caucasus and Transcaucasia; the number of students increased 1.25 times over the period 1908–1914. The lower education has not changed quantitatively (the number of institutions has practically remained the same), but it has improved significantly qualitatively, since two- and three-grade city schools were transformed into four-grade higher primary schools with a more in-depth program; the number of students increased 1.5 times over the period 1908–1914. The primary education was successfully developed largely thanks to the law of May 3, 1908 and in terms of development rates was in no way inferior to other regions of the Caucasian School District; the number of students increased almost 1.7 times over the period 1908–1914. At the same time, in the first military year of 1914, the number of students falls significantly, especially sharply (almost twice) – in lower educational institutions.
Abstract: The article discusses certain aspects of the interethnic interaction of the East Slavic population of the foothill regions of the Kuban region with the Greeks in the second half of the 19th - early 20th centuries. The main sources for this are the parish registers of the church of St. Sergius of the village of Yaroslavskaya (for 1903 and 1912) that have survived to this day, the history of which quite fully reflects the processes that took place during the designated period on the territory of the entire Trans-Kuban region. The homeland of Greek immigrants (Asia Minor, Turkey) is established, the reasons for their resettlement to the Kuban are indicated, as well as the specifics of economic activity in the new place (the Greeks were mainly engaged in tobacco cultivation and grain trade). Based on the analysis of the information recorded in the parish registers, it is concluded that the communication of the Russian-speaking inhabitants of the Upper Laba basin and the Turkey subjects as a whole proceeded in line with mutual respect and good neighborliness. This is confirmed by numerous facts of the participation of colonists in the rites of baptism of Cossack and peasant children. Specific examples show that members of the Greek community were in contact not only with ordinary villagers, but also with representatives of the Cossack elite (in particular, atamans of the village of Yaroslavskaya P.A. Kireev and M.A. Tiskovsky were in artificial kinship with the Greeks). At the same time, the godparents of the children of Turkey subjects most often became their fellow tribesmen. The authors share some of their thoughts on the reasons for such selectivity. In conclusion, they outline the problematic issues in the history of the Greek community of the village of Yaroslavskaya, which historians will have to solve in the course of further research: the exact time of the emergence of the ethno-local group, the specifics of occupations and the number of its representatives on the eve of revolutionary upheavals.
Abstract: The presented article aims to highlight the process of the release and consolidation of Russian alcohol in the European markets in the second half of the XIX century. The study of this topic is becoming particularly relevant and important at today's turning point in the history of international relations. The author draws attention to the fact that alcohol appeared late in the list of goods exported from Russia. Only under the influence of the rules introduced by the wine reform of 1863, alcohol production in Russia grew and came in discrepancy with the needs of the domestic market, significantly exceeding them. The Government has taken measures to promote Russian alcohol to the European market, exempting the percentage of alcohol exported from excise duty and reimbursing suppliers for travel costs. The main buyer of the Russian product was Germany, which willingly purchased cheap raw alcohol from Russia, cleaned it and sold it at a high price to Spain, France, Italy, where alcohol was used for fixing grape wines. Russian alcohol producers made attempts to independent foreign trade activities, but the low quality of the domestic product, the shortage of containers, the lack of convenient transport routes, ignorance of the market of the countries where alcohol supplies were planned, all this restrained the size of alcohol supplies abroad. The final consolidation of Russian alcohol on the European market was carried out in the late 1880s and early 1890s. Russia, despite the difficult competition, managed to improve the quality of alcohol and take one of the leading places among alcohol suppliers to Europe.
Abstract: This article analyzes the reflection of the ideological and aesthetic struggle and socio-cultural life of Russia at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries in the memoirs of A.N. Benois. The scope of traditional studies of memoirs of the Silver Age figures as sources of cultural achievements of the period has been expanded. The factors that influenced the development of Benois’s worldview, his political beliefs, and played a significant role in determining his public stance in relation to certain phenomena of public life has been considered. First, such factors include the patriarchal way of life of the family distinguished by rich cultural traditions, the years of study at Karl Mayʼs School where he met his future friends in creative activity, meetings at lectures with Professor N. Korkunov, acquaintance with masterpieces of Russian art.
The evolution of the national identity of A. Benois developed from partial neglect through acquaintance with great creative achievements to admiration and glorification of Russian culture, in particular through the organization of the Ballets Russes in Paris. The analysis of the artist's creative activity makes it possible to identify his aesthetic views that predetermined his relationship with the aristocracy of talent and art patrons. The comparative study of Benois’s memoirs with the works of professional historians and memoirists shows their objectivity and the author’s proper understanding of the socio-political situation in the country.
Abstract: The publication reflects the main issues of design and construction of railways in Russia on the example of the Sumy line of the Kharkov-Nikolaev railway (Sumy railway). The next stages of its implementation have been highlighted: 1) setting of the objective by Sumy district zemstvo to build the road and the imple mentation of preliminary surveys in this respect; 2) promotion of the Zemstvo initiative on the agenda of the Committee of Ministers and the organization of planning and design work by the Ministry of Railways; 3) determination of the contractor and carrying out of the corresponding preparatory and construction work. It is indicated that the necessity to build Sumy railway was dictated, first of all, by the needs of the local sugar beet industry, which in the 1870s was under the threat of a crisis due to deforestation, rising prices for fuel and transportation of raw materials and products.
It is noted that at the same time, local authorities pursued other objectives in the implementation of the highway, corresponding to the expectation of a general economic recovery, as well as the improvement in passenger traffic. It has been defined that the route and the main technical documentation of the railway were developed by the engineer of the Ministry of Railways Rudnitsky. At the same time, its correction was allowed due to the request of the local authorities. Particular emphasize in the description of the railroad construction is put on Yevgeny Mikhailovich Dukhovsky, the chief engineer appointed by the Society of the Kharkov-Nikolaev railway.
Not only his obvious organizational skills, which resulted in the fast completion of the road, have been noted, but also negative aspects associated with unscrupulous financial calculations, as well as neglect of the quality of track execution and the formation of rolling stock, which threatened to cause accidents and additional cash injections into correction of deficiencies during the operation of the road. Legal aspects of the road construction recorded in the charter of the Society of the Kharkov-Nikolaev railway construction have been analyzed.
The particular attention is paid to the issues related to construction – the alienation of private property, the description according to the government order of the economic potential of the territories located on both sides of the road, changes in postal routes and the formation of numerous access roads to the stations. The positive effect of Sumy railway functioning has been proved on the basis of data for the first decade of its existence.
Abstract: The article examines the history of entrepreneurial activity in the livestock industry, specifically the origin and development of market relations in the late 19th to early 20th centuries in the Steppe region. Based on archival documents, statistical collections, and works of Russian pre-revolutionary researchers, the features of transformation and adaptation of farms of nomadic pastoralists to new commodity-money principles have been analyzed. Moreover, this article examines the basic directions of the livestock breeding business at different stages of the development of Kazakh society and their causality. The scientific novelty of the article lies in a comprehensive study of entrepreneurial activity in the sphere of commodity livestock breeding in a specific macro-region at the stage of its involvement in the all-Russian market. As a result of the study, it was concluded that the Kazakhs were at the origins of the livestock industry in the Steppe region, because of having a number of competitive advantages. First of all, it was their better knowledge of livestock breeding, as from ancient times it was their only occupation due to the arid natural conditions. An important factor of entrepreneurial activity was a sufficiently high adaptive potential of nomads, who quickly adapted their economy to the needs of the market.
One manifestation of this was a flexible reorientation of the livestock breeding business from sheep breeding to cattle breeding, which had greater market demand and sufficiently high profitability. In the process of analyzing the profitability of agricultural budget items at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, the features of the development of commercial pastoralism were identified in the following areas: sheep breeding, horse breeding, and cattle breeding. Finally, this research studies the specific mechanism of pricing policy in specific-historical conditions, the innovation potential of entrepreneurship, as well as the influence of state policy on the development of regional livestock breeding businesses.
Abstract: The article presents an analysis of the scientific heritage of the French researcher of Central Asia, an active member of two pre-revolutionary scientific societies – of the Orenburg Scientific Archive Commission, the Turkestan circle of archeology amateurs. The amateur researcher has done an enormous amount of work to describe the objects of the sacred geography of Central Asia, archaeological sites, study of local lore of the Kazakh steppe, and ethnographic research. Scientific heritage of J.A. Castagnier is currently of undoubted interest for archaeologists, historians, ethnographers, geographers. At present, the results of Castagnier's research are of great scientific and practical importance. For a long time, the personality of Castagnier was a “default figure”, since he was considered a foreign agent and spy without good reason in previous historiography. The analysis of the content of the works of J.-A. Castagne, published in the in «Proceedings» of the Orenburg Scientific Archival Commission, made it possible to determine their high value. The works of Castagnier are distinguished by a wide source base, including the works of famous orientalists, rare manuscripts from the OUAC funds, saturation with author's photographs, engravings, drawings of the objects described, tables, an accurate topographic and cartographic description, indicating geographical coordinates, distances in sazhens and versts. Detailed geographic coordinates are very valuable for modern scientists, for example, for compiling digital maps of sacred objects. Of particular interest are legends, legends about ancient cities, burial places, detailed descriptions of shrines recorded by Castagne.
Abstract: In article, the evolution of the "Armenian issue" in the Russian foreign policy agenda is analyzed. The authors has demonstrated how the problem of the Armenian population in the Ottoman Empire was evolving during the last quarter of the 19th century was transforming into a serious international agenda associated with the Eastern question. The necessity of reforming the Armenian vilayets administration was included in various geopolitical contexts of the Russian Empire foreign policy, such as the use of the Black Sea straits, ensuring the security of the Caucasian periphery, maintaining the integrity of the weakening Ottoman Empire.
Russian diplomacy came to the need to put pressure on the Sultan under the influence of two factors: on the one hand, the Armenian revolutionary movement intensified and the number of refugees from Turkish Armenia raised, which threatened to destabilize the Caucasus, on the other hand, the British became more active in the Ottoman Empire and the number of their consulates grew, which was also negatively perceived by the Russian side. In the article, a comparative study of the political approaches of Great Britain and Russia to the “Armenian issue” is carried out. For the British in the 1880s this question was not raised, for the Russian central and regional authorities it existed and was connected with the security of the Caucasus. Because of the complexity of the political situation in the Ottoman Empire Russia faced up with a dilemma. Turkey was needed weak, but preserved in its borders. The collapse of a huge and complex state at the very borders gave rise to enormous difficulties for Russia. At the same time, there were implicit talks about the possible connection of Western and Eastern Armenia at a distance future. A. Nelidov was an eager supporter of strengthening links between the two groups of the Armenians, including with the help of the spiritual center – Etchmiadzin. He proposed a whole range of measures, which in modern international relations are called "soft power": strengthening cultural, religious and educational ties.
Abstract: The article analyzes the experience of transporting oil and petroleum products through pipelines in the Russian Empire, in the second half of the XIX century. A comprehensive analysis of the prerequisites for the construction of pipelines in Transcaucasia is carried out. A comparison is made with the American experience of oil transportation in the XIX century. For the first time in Russian historiography, the authors attempt to show a multifaceted integrated approach to the problems of transporting oil and petroleum products using pipeline transport in the Russian Empire. At the same time, the negative experience of competition with foreign companies in the markets of transportation of petroleum products in Transcaucasia is analyzed. The paper shows that in conditions of weak logistics and high length of routes, the Baku-Batum kerosene pipeline turned out to be the most effective means of transporting petroleum products, which predetermined the scientific and technical development and the formation of a new pipeline transport. At the same time, it is proved that with a consistent state policy regarding foreign-made products in the oil industry of the Russian Empire, national companies will be able to develop under the conditions of import substitution policy and the development of the domestic engineering school. The paper analyzes various examples of non-competitive struggle of foreign oil companies in the field of intellectual property. The article studies the origin and subsequent development of pipeline transport in chronological order – from the first kerosene pipeline at the Balakhan fields, to the creation of the largest kerosene pipeline in Russia, Baku-Batum. For the first time in studies of the features of the construction of the oil pipeline of the XIX century, the authors studied the scientific, technical, economic, logistical and financial reasons for the development of oil pipeline transport in Russia in aggregate.
Abstract: The practice of organizing and the effectiveness of public charitable forums by Russian Muslims in the Steppe region and Western Turkestan has not previously been specifically studied in historiography. The historical experience of nurturing the skills and traditions of philanthropy among the Muslim youth of the Russian Empire is relevant through the prism of dichotomy: both as adherence to general Muslim practice, and as a real model of socialization and expression of ethnicity through active secular positive behavior. The relevance of humanistic education in the modern globalizing world is beyond doubt; the argumentation in favor of the researched direction consists of authoritative opinions of scientists, psychologists and experts in the field of art history, sociology, cultural studies, history of pedagogy and ethnology. The article provides specific examples of patronage from written sources that have become rare, reflecting the realities of educational and educational practices on the outskirts of the state, in such remote regions as Central Asia, the Kazakh steppe, etc. The study examines the influence of the Turkic-language periodicals at the turn of the 19th – 20th centuries. on the readers' self-awareness as a formative tool for the actualization of identity and the institution of charity, in the relationship of historical, cultural, psychological and pedagogical aspects of the topic. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of such a sphere of charity as educational institutions. In addition, the Turkic-language press of the early 20th century, which took an active role in promoting the idea of benevolence, is considered. In Russian Turkestan, for the indicated period, there was a peak in the growth of charitable activities among Muslim student youth.
Abstract: In the second half of the XIXth century, the socio-economic, cultural processes reorganization Russian began but the war with Turkey suspended this modernization.
Transformations began to enter an active phase by the end of this century, when tsarist Russia began to actively work to overcome the socio-economic and technical backwardness of the country.
One of the key factors in the development of trade and industry was the construction of railways and the connection of the east of the country with the west, the southern territories with the northern part, that is, this involved the opening of peripheral regions through railways to the central part of the state.
The Russian Empire was considered an agrarian country, despite the increase in various types of transport, the expansion of territories it still remained a predominantly agrarian empire.
However, by the end of the XIXth century, the State Program was created, which contributed to the accelerated expansion of industrial development at the expense of territories with rich minerals including the territory of Kazakhstan. Such a political and economic course made it possible for Russia to free itself from dependence on industrial imports and at the same time gave impetus to the economic development of the country.
This research considers the history of the construction of railways in Siberia, Kazakhstan in which the industrial and merchant nobility of Siberia, Kazakh landsmainly played, using the example of public personalities Pleshcheevs, A. Moskvin and others.
Abstract: The article is devoted to the study of the process of formation and development of secular education in Kabarda and Balkaria. The transformation of primary education into secondary education in the Nalchik district of the Terek region has been studied. The reasons for the modification of education are substantiated, the main of which was the desire of the peoples of the region to increase their level of education. In 1880, the first petition was filed for the transformation of the Mountain School in Nalchik into a gymnasium or a real school, and it was implemented only in 1909. The committee built a building that became a hotbed of knowledge and science in the region.
The composition of the students of the Nalchik real school consisted of three categories: "state", received 50 established scholarships of 180 rubles a year. “Svoekoshtnye”, who pay for accommodation and tuition at 150 rubles a year, and “coming ones”, who lived in the settlement and pay tuition at 150 rubles a year. Pupils who did not have funds for their studies received a scholarship from the Kabardian Public Sum of 50, 75, 100 and 150 rubles. Later, they became "points of growth" in their villages, places of work. During the years of work of the Real School (1909–1920), hundreds of Kabardians, Balkars, Russians, Ossetians, Georgians received graduation diplomas.
In Soviet times, it housed the Leninsky educational campus, the Palace of Pioneers, the historical-philological and medical faculties of the Kabardino-Balkarian State University named after Kh.M. Berbekov. Today, within its walls, work is underway to create the Hermitage-Caucasus Museum.
Abstract: The relevance of this study is related to the interest in the development of visual culture in the press of the Russian Empire in the second half of the 19th century, where there was a turn towards the synthesis of various means for creating images – author's illustrations, reproductions of famous paintings and sculptures, photographs, explanatory diagrams and drawings, and also to the study of the nature and tools of educational activities in Russia in different eras. The study was carried out on the material of the analysis of the 1882 archival filing of the “Niva” journal – one of the most popular illustrated magazines of the second half of the 19th – early 20th centuries. Attention to 1882 is associated with the holding of the Moscow Art and Industrial Exhibition, which expands the range of illustrative material to the level of all-Russian significance. The research methods were quantitative and qualitative content analysis. Based on the results of the study, some areas of educational activities of the “Niva” journal were identified.
Abstract: The article provides a source analysis of the application of the weekly regional newspaper “Vostochnoe obozrenie” – “Sibirskii sbornik”. Like the newspaper, the supplement was published under the editorship of N.M. Yadrintsev. This periodical is considered as a source of historical information along with more traditional types of documents of a static, clerical, economic and other nature. Being an appendix of one of the most significant publications, the Sibirskii sbornik is nevertheless of interest as an independent basis for determining the actual socio-cultural context of life in the Russian Empire at the end of the XIX century. The purpose of this article is to identify the features of the information image of the northern territories of the state during this period. Regularly published publications of the Sibirskii sbornik allow us to form a circle of key concepts about the North as a unique region: qualitative content analysis has shown that the main characteristics of the North are related to its natural and climatic conditions, indigenous peoples whose traditional places of residence are the northern territories of Russia, the identity of life in the Far North. In this case, the local information publication served as a tool for the representation of regional identity.
Abstract: The study reveals the history, conditions, statistics and characteristic features of escapes of prisoners of penitentiary institutions of Russia at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries from a historical and legal standpoint, and presents the practice of prison departments to combat them. The authors have established a direct dependence of escapes on the prevailing socio-political conditions in the Russian Empire, the development of the revolutionary situation in the country. The paper presents the influence of the revolutionary events of 1905–1907 on the activity of escapes from prison institutions. It is shown that the escapes of prisoners and their forced release have turned into one of the forms of revolutionary struggle. Therefore, despite the harsh punishments applied to fugitive prisoners, the flight from places of detention not only did not stop, but also had a steady tendency to expand. The article was prepared on the basis of extensive literature, as well as departmental regulations and archival materials, many of which were introduced into scientific circulation for the first time. The article uses both general scientific (historical, logical, dialectical methods, method of system-functional analysis and synthesis) and special historical (historical-comparative and statistical) methods of cognition. The study processed quantitative data available in various reports, references, correspondence and other documentary sources. Among them are data on losses among prisoners, on the number of escapes from places of deprivation of liberty, on cases of violence against guards and guards. The authors come to the conclusion about the significant scale and great public danger of escapes from Russian pre-revolutionary penitentiary institutions, the activity of which was directly related to the growth of the revolutionary movement, the state of places of detention and prison service.
Abstract: Pedagogical activity was an important period in the life of a prominent public and political figure A. Baitursynov. His activity as a teacher is about 15 years and has three time-geographical periods: Bistamak, Kustanai, Karkaraly. A certified graduate of the Orenburg teacher's school, Baitursynov, in 1895, after it, began to teach at the school of the Bistamak, Aktobe, Turgai regions. In the 19th – 20th centuries he taught in the village and volost schools of the Kustanai. He received the right to teach in the Kustanai pedagogical class, he also improving in the field of journalism. He publishes his articles of social and cultural significance. In the city of Kustanai, Baitursynov became close friends with Turkologist and teacher A. Alektorov. Alektorov served as director of public schools in the Turgai region. In 1902 he was transferred to the post of director of public schools in Akmola and Semipalatinsk. Baitursynov is appointed to the position of clerk of the director of public schools and moves to Omsk. Later he took place as the head of the Karkaraly district Russian-Kazakh school. He published in print a collection of translations of I. Krylov's “Forty fables”, Baitursynov was engaged in educational, social and political activities.
Abstract: The study of childhood is currently a relatively new area of scientific research. It is carried out within the framework of various approaches (legal, pedagogical, demographic, sociocultural, historical and sociological, etc.), and their main goal is to identify the legal status of the child, the “boundaries” of childhood, educational practices in relation to children, children's subculture, etc. In many modern studies, the child is viewed as an independent social subject who, like adults, is affected by various social events. These events determine the dynamics of the evolution of childhood, predetermine trends in the development of children in various spheres of their life.
For a comprehensive study of the position of the children in the general composition of society in relatively remote time periods it is necessary to use various types of sources. Statistical materials can be used as one of those types of sources, allowing, through sociographic analysis, to determine the main indicators of the social state of childhood. The materials of the First Russian Imperial Census of 1897 in this context make it possible not only to obtain basic demographic data regarding children as a special social group (its total size, percentage in the total population, etc.), but also to determine the level of children's literacy, to find out ethnic and confessional composition of children as a group. Comparison of similar indicators for different Russian regions leads the researcher to identification of the regional specifics of childhood.
The identified features of local children's worlds prove the thesis about the plurality of “childhoods” even in the conditions of one chronological stage and one region. Children from different class, ethnic and confessional groups lived in different conditions, led different lifestyles, had different quality of life.
Abstract: This article examines the role of the Tatars in the social and political process of a single region within the Russian Empire. We are talking about one of the main geographical and historical places in Central Asia – Semirechye.
In particular, materials are collected and archival data on the activities of the Semirechye Tatars in the early XX century is given. The Russo-Japanese War and the “First Russian Revolution” that followed became a turning point in the empire. Moreover, this article provides some data regarding the role of the Tatars in this historical moment and their influence on the mood of the local population.
It is worth noting separately the contribution of the Tatars to local education and enlightenment. The well-known Tatar merchant and philanthropist Iskhak Gabdulvaliev plays a special role. He was one of the first to open a new-method (Jadid) school in Semirechye, which was nicknamed “Ishaki” by the people. Iskhak Gabdulvaliev and his relatives were not so far from the political life of the region and the empire, in particular. They were well aware of the latest developments due to good connections both in Russia itself and beyond its borders. In addition, this article reflects archival materials confirming such data.
It is worth noting that bookstores and libraries opened by the Tatars also played a huge role in the enlightenment of the people of Semirechye. In which various books, newspapers, and magazines from different parts of the empire were sold and discussed. However, after reading this article, you can understand that the censorship of the empire and endless checks have become a real obstacle to further development.
Abstract: The article discusses the Russian-Japanese War of 1904–1905 on the pages of the “Yakutskie Eparkhial'nye Vedomosti” newspaper. The source base of the research was the materials of the pre-revolutionary periodical press, namely the official body of the Yakut diocese – the newspaper “Yakutskie Eparkhial'nye Vedomosti”. Due to the fact that the source in the study is the filing of newspaper issues, in methodological terms, the authors widely used the method of content analysis, which allowed them to identify publications on the topic of the study from extensive material and analyze them. The traditional attention is paid to the use of the chronological method, thanks to which events are considered in their chronological sequence.
In conclusion, the authors state that throughout the Russian-Japanese War, the reflection of these events on the pages of the “Yakutskie Eparkhial'nye Vedomosti” had its own specifics: it was expressed in poor coverage of these events due to the remoteness from the capitals and from the combat zone, so all materials were received by the newspaper with a significant delay. Besides this, life in the Yakut diocese was different in another respect: there was practically no commercial and industrial elite, which often became a source of charitable donations for the needs of the army and navy. As a result, either employees and teachers of educational institutions of the Holy Synod or parishioners of churches became benefactors in the region.
Despite such peculiarities, government manifestos, appeals to parishioners and the population, letters from the front, lists of donors and other messages from the local chronicle were published on the pages of the “Yakutskie Eparkhial'nye Vedomosti” in 1904. Russian Russian-Japanese war was not often considered in 1905 in connection with the events of the First Russian Revolution, and in the last three months of the war, the editors did not address it at all.
Abstract: The article examines the problematic aspects of providing the Russian army with uniforms and equipment, identified during the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905. The purpose of the work is to evaluate the effectiveness of transformations aimed at eliminating the relevant problems. The source base of the work includes unpublished documents of the Russian State Military Historical Archive, materials from the reports of the State Comptroller and all-subject reports on the actions of the War Ministry, official statistics and sources of personal origin. The research methodology is built through a combination of comparative, genetic and structural analysis. Based on the results of the research, it was concluded that the problematic aspects in the uniforms and equipment of the Russian troops, identified during the Russo-Japanese War, were well understood by representatives of both the military and political leadership of the empire. Large-scale measures have been taken to eliminate sources of risk. However, within the highest military bureaucracy there was no unity of views on a number of issues. The situation was hampered, on the one hand, by the limited budget of the military department and the presence of a number of priority funding areas (restoration of the fleet, development of artillery, etc.), and on the other hand, by the high degree of rigidity of the traditions of wearing uniforms inherited by the army corporation from the previous century. The uniform was largely endowed with a symbol, the demonstration of which emphasized the prestige of belonging to a professional corporation. Due to this circumstance, questions of aesthetics were given disproportionate importance. A significant factor that limited the potential to eliminate shortcomings in uniforms and equipment remained the relatively low degree of development of individual industries, combined with the high cost of raw materials and semi-finished products.
Abstract: During the years of the Russian-Japanese War, the Russian Red Cross Society (RRCS) for the first time acted as an independent organization, which, together with the military medical service, participated in providing medical care to the wounded and sick. The lack of a sufficient number of nursing communities in the Far East predetermined the priority of the tasks of mobilizing personnel from the European part of Russia for the RRCS and deploying their own medical institutions in the front and in the rear. Different ways of organizing and training medical personnel determined the kind of their activities (staffing the existing or opening new medical institutions) and their responsibilities (care and feeding, sanitization, dressings and medical assistance). The working conditions of medical institutions depended on their location: in the area of the active army or one of the rear districts, which had their own purpose in helping the wounded and sick during the war. An analysis of the activities of the RRCS during the war made it possible to identify ways to solve the set tasks and the problems that the RRCS encountered in the course of its mission.
Abstract: The article is devoted to a comparative analysis of pre-revolutionary, soviet and modern Russian historiography about the naval battle of Chemulpo on January 27, 1904 between a Russian detachment consisting of the “Varyag” cruiser and the “Koreets” gunboat under the command of 1st rank captain V.F. Rudnev with a Japanese squadron consisting of nine ships under the command of Rear Admiral S. Uriu. The subject of the study is to identify differences in the description of the feat of the crews of Russian ships by the authors of different historical periods, not only from a military and diplomatic, but also from a propaganda point of view. To understand the scale of the feat, along the way, an analysis of the military-technical forces of the opposing sides and the diplomatic situation on the eve of the battle is made.
As a result of the analysis of historiography, it was concluded that the foundation for the heroization of the feat of the crews of the “Varyag” cruiser and the “Koreets” gunboat was laid by pre-revolutionary historians, who, however, evaded answers to contradictions in the documents.
The soviet historiography continued the trend of heroization with a certain degree of pathos, but due to the political correctness, it tried to shift responsibility for the vain death of a first-class ship to the naval leadership of the Russian Empire, as well as to the governor Alekseev. The soviet historians are introducing new sources into scientific circulation, so new names appear among the hitherto unknown heroes.
The modern historiography is very numerous, contradictory and multidirectional. The absolute majority of researchers deservedly recognize the fact of the existence of a feat in the actions of Russian sailors and personally the commander of the detachment of ships, the 1st rank captain V.F. Rudnev. Also, new sources are being introduced into scientific circulation, primarily Japanese. At the same time, the modern researchers are trying to find contradictions both in the sources (different assessment of combat effectiveness and materiel by Russian and Japanese sources, contradictions in information about ammunition consumption and cruiser speed, etc.) and in previously published works.
Abstract: The article deals with insufficiently studied confessional aspect of the resettlement policy of the autocracy in the Kazakh region at the beginning of the 20th century - the fight against sectarian proselytism. The authors used the materials from the funds of the RGIA and the Central State Archive of the Republic of Kazakhstan, reviews of the regions of the Kazakh Territory, periodicals of the Omsk and Turkestan Diocesan Committees, in which jurisdiction were the regions within the territory of modern Kazakhstan. Based on the results of the study, it was possible to determine that the poly-confessional composition of the population of the region, formed as a result of the peasant migration, included various ethnic groups, isolated on religious grounds. Interethnic contacts were not limited by the processes of economic interaction, but often acquired forms of religious acculturation. With the issuance of the Decree of April 17, 1905 “On strengthening the principles of religious tolerance”, the religious movement in the region revived, there was an increase in sectarian proselytism against the backdrop of a weakening of the Orthodox religiosity of the settlers. In this situation, the clergy feared the conversion of the Orthodox to other faiths, the fall of the authority of the Russian Orthodox Church and autocracy. The unification of the efforts of the spiritual and secular authorities was an important condition for confronting the sectarians, who often used aggressive forms of propaganda of their dogma. With the support of secular authorities, the church used various methods to counter sectarian proselytism, including those borrowed from sectarians. They were not always effective due to the small number of anti-sectarian missionaries in the region and the lack of experience among the clergy in conducting anti-sectarian propaganda.
Abstract: Based on archival materials from the State Archives of the Russian Federation, the article examines the activities of the Moscow Security Department aimed at preventing anti-government protests. Attention is paid to the reaction of Muscovites to the murder of Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich, swearing against Emperor Nicholas II. The formation of the trade union movement can be traced on the example of anti-government associations of bakers and printers. The authors of the article come to the conclusion about the insufficient resource base of the Moscow Security Department, which prevents the rapid suppression of revolutionary riots. Insufficient funding and, as a result, the lack of proper material supply and low wages demotivated employees and objectively deprived them of the opportunity to quickly respond to serious threats. At the same time, the Moscow security department did not have an effective system of communication and coordination of actions with similar territorial divisions of the Police Department in other provinces. The situation was aggravated both by the frequent change of leadership, which contributed to the disorganization of the work of the security department, and by the fact that it had clearly redundant functions. In the context of the growing revolutionary danger, the resources of the security department were diverted from the search for persons engaged in real extremist activities in order to bring to justice the inhabitants who publicly expressed disrespect or hostility to the authorities. At the same time, arrests for such statements only irritated the opposition-minded public even more, contributing to the growth of sympathy for the revolutionaries in the general population. The fact that criticism of the authorities in the conditions of everyday communication played the role of a resource for a relatively safe canalization of social discontent was ignored. It performed the function of ejecting negative emotions and getting rid of affective states. Which, it must be emphasized, facilitated the manipulation of human behavior by revolutionary activists.
Abstract: This article tested the facts of social and professional appearance of officials in Siberia. They served in the structure of local government under the Ministry of Finance. The object of the study is treasurers, senior accountants, clerks, clerks, controllers, assessors, auditors, technicians, secretaries, overseers, senior and junior assistants who served in the provincial, regional and district institutions of the Irkutsk province, the Yenisei province, the Trans-Baikal region and the Yakutsk region. The historical sources of the study were the “Lists of ranks in the Ministry of Finance” for 1907, 1909, 1910, 1911, 1914, which contain information about the name and rank, the ages, the presence of orders and medals, education (with the name of the educational institution), religion, stages of public service (years of entry into the civil service, department and current position). We analyzed and compared the data and established patterns in the professional appearance and personal qualities of officials who served in 1906–1917. We examined officials who worked in positions of the VI-VIII classes according to the "Table of Ranks" of Peter I. We discovered the following patterns. Firstly, the officials were younger in the Trans-Baikal and Yakut regions compared to the officials who served in the Irkutsk and Yenisei provinces. That is, younger officials went to more remote territories. In the Yakutsk region and the Trans-Baikal region, 54 % of officials were between 26 and 45 years old. In the Yenisei province and the Irkutsk province, officials aged 46 to 55 years old accounted for 46 %, and from 26 to 45 years old – 34 %. Secondly, 70 % of officials were Orthodox in Eastern Siberia, 20 % of officials were Catholics and Protestants. Thirdly, representatives of the local administration were traditionally awarded orders and medals for impeccable service. More than 60 % of officials were marked with orders of Saints Vladimir, Anna, Stanislav and medals.
Abstract: The article examines some features of Stolypin agrarian reform in the Caucasus (1908–1914 years). The attention is paid to the colonization of the Mugan steppe, the creation of Russian emigrant settlements, and the organization of medical care.
The published documents from the Complete Collection of laws of the Russian Empire (for example, the law of May 29, 1911 No. 35370 on land management), as well as materials of the periodical press – “Kavkazskii kalendar” and the publication “Voprosy kolonizatsii” were used as a source in the work. The work is based on general historical principles: historicism, consistency and objectivity. The chronological method is of great importance in the work, which allowed creating a general picture of the resettlement of Russian people to the Caucasus, identifying local problems of interaction with the outside world (epidemiological situation, problems of land use). The statistical method was also used, thanks to which the authors were able to summarize a significant statistical material and draw the reasoned conclusions.
In conclusion, the authors state that by the beginning of the Stolypin agrarian reform, there was practically no free land left in the Caucasus and the government followed the path of irrigation of the steppe territories at the disposal of the state treasury. Russian settlers were transported to the territory of the Mugan steppe in a short time, and by the end of the colonization of this part of the Caucasus, the Russian population was supposed to be up to 100 thousand people.
Along with the resettlement, the government took steps to financially support the displaced persons, which consisted in direct investments to acquire a farm, providing agronomic assistance, as well as organizing spiritual, moral and sanitary support. All this as a whole made it possible to lay a solid foundation for Russian influence in some regions of the Caucasus and partially alleviate the landless situation of the Russian peasants in the European part of the Russian Empire.
Abstract: The article is devoted to the image of the territories of the Russian Empire in a media source. We analysed the articles published in 1913 in the magazine Nature and People. The results of the study show that the image of Russian cities and territories is created mainly from urban and natural sub-images. The ethnographic image of the Russian Empire is represented by the study of Slavic peoples, which takes into account the diversity of the composition in the formation of the Slavs, strong cultural ties are noted, as well as the multidimensional process of the formation of the modern population. The Russian Empire as a territory of scientific and technical achievements is represented by the advanced formation of scientific knowledge and the creation of inventions that also change approaches to scientific research. The role of the Russian Empire in the development of the North is represented by the leading one. The expeditions of Russian scientists have made a great contribution to the development of the country, science, enlightenment, education. The media image of the territories of the Russian Empire is a rich and positively built image of the country and society.
Abstract: First World War contributed to the formation of the destinies of Austro-Hungarian subjects in a new historical and geographical environment. In the West Siberian and Turkestan territories, which were considered distant provinces of the Russian Empire, their fate was checked as prisoners of war. The political-ideological and socio-legal aspects of prisoners of war in Western Siberia are among the historical issues widely discussed in historiography. Recently, researchers have been interested in the situation with the adaptation of prisoners of the First World War in the new regions where they were placed. And the issues of the national composition, socio-public and medical-sanitary situation of Austro-Hungarian prisoners of war placed in concentration camps and cities of Western Siberia and Central Asia (Turkestan) are becoming increasingly important in modern history. In Russian studies, one of the topics discussed at a high level is the aspects of ethnicity, labor conscription of prisoners of war in Turkestan and Western Siberia. But the social and everyday issues of the situation of refugees from the European part of Russia to Central Asia in 1915–1916, concerning prisoners of war, still require comprehensive consideration. Due to the arrival of refugees, the conditions of detention of prisoners of war in the camps and cities of Turkestan were complicated. In addition, scientific consideration of the socio-social status of prisoners of war in Turkestan is among the topical topics. This article examines the social and social levels of Austro-Hungarian prisoners of war in Western Siberia and Turkestan in 1914-1917 on the basis of archival data. Also, the research paper provides an objective assessment of the positions and views on the study of the history of prisoners of war.
Abstract: The article deals with the problem of social assistance to war invalids in 1914–1917, presented in modern Russian historiography. Most researchers claim that during the First World War, a full-fledged state social policy was carried out in relation to the crippled and wounded soldiers from the lower ranks. Conversely, the question of what was the number of people who returned from the front completely disabled remains debatable. In addition, another scientific problem is formulated in the article: was the “war invalids” an independent category of people in need of assistance, or were they assisted under the unified approach to solving the life difficulties of sick and wounded military personnel. The answers to both of these questions help to say more precisely whether the practice of state social policy actually existed in Russia. If the number of military invalids was significant, then they could indeed become an object of special attention from both state and non-state actors of assistance. Meanwhile, the disabled of the First World War had to have a special status that distinguished them from other categories of the disabled population, distinguished them from people who occupied a similar social position.
The article presents different points of view regarding the number of war invalids, considers the problems of organizing the registration of war invalids during the First World War, analyzes the materials of the questionnaires developed by the Medical Statistical Bureau under the Main Committee of the Zemsky Union and compiled for a group of veterans from the Barnaul district who returned disabled. All of the foregoing made it possible to identify war invalids as a separate group.
Abstract: In connection with the publication and reprinting of memoirs, diaries and letters of war veterans in modern times, the study of the topic of prisoners of war is becoming relevant. Being in captivity of a separate category of persons who voluntarily surrendered or forcibly taken is of scientific interest in the possibility of referring to the experience of human survival in an extreme situation. Appeal of researchers to the theme of the stay of individuals or groups of individuals in inhuman conditions pushes to ask new questions and get answers to them. During the First World War, prisoners of war were in special camps, kept in various conditions, watched life in the rear of the country, with the soldiers of which they fought at the front. An interesting fact is that the theme of captivity was present in the propaganda of that time. The presence of a connection between the content of propaganda information and the perception of a particular person of the reality surrounding him prompts us to turn to the question of the development of signs of “xenophobia”. This article is devoted to the study of the issue of "xenophobia" in the writings of the Russian prisoner of war V.V. Korsak (real name – Zavadsky), in order to determine the degree of "Germanophobia" reflected in them. When studying the historiographic side of the issue, the author notes the reflection by researchers of the problem of the manifestation of signs of “xenophobia” in the relationship between soldiers who fought on opposite sides of the trenches. Although, perhaps, “xenophobia” was due not so much to something general as to a particular case that occurred in individual episodes. As a result of the study, attention should be paid to the ambiguity of this issue. The view of a particular person, in our case, V.V. Korsak, is aimed at revealing the reality that the person himself has visited. He was a direct eyewitness and observed various aspects of life, and the question of "Germanophobia" is connected with his views on the image of war.
Abstract: Barges of the domestic merchant and military fleets have not yet been the object of scientific research. Many authors dealing with the history of shipbuilding mention the construction of non-self-propelled ships, but these are only eclectic references. Partially, this problem is overcome by statistical collections that published the composition of the merchant and military fleets on a certain date. However, a holistic picture of the evolution of the domestic non-self-propelled fleet is created either for the pre-revolutionary or for the Soviet period. The events of the revolution and the civil war pass by a kind of watershed, which makes it difficult to reliably connect the biographies of the vessels.
In 1916–1917 The Votkinsk plant received an order from the Maritime Ministry for the construction of 20 barges of a 250-ton raid and 200-ton river type. The entire order was fulfilled by the plant, but with some delay, given the "force majeure" of 1917−1918. These barges became the object of study of this work.
Of the ten barges of the 250-ton type, seven were handed over to the customer and became part of the watercraft of the Arkhangelsk military port. Three more, apparently, at the time of the start of active hostilities on the Northern Dvina were under construction. Since this type was not well suited for fighting on the rivers, all three barges were transferred to the Upper Volga.
Of the ten barges of the 200-ton type, within the existing source base, it is possible to trace only the biographies of five that entered the Kama River Shipping Company, and later the Vyatka. Most likely, at the time of the beginning of the Votkinsk uprising, these five barges were located in the city, used first as a prison, and then floated to the Kama to build a pontoon bridge. The fate of five more barges is unknown. If they did not die during the civil war, it is possible that they were assembled without the participation of the Votkinsk plant and the plant no longer appeared in their further registration data.