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«Былые годы» (Bylye Gody) – российский исторический журнал

Периодичность – 4 раза в год.

Издается с 2006 года.

3 September 02, 2020


1. Andrey A. Pushkarev
Nuremberg Jetons as Cultural and Chronological Markers of the Russian Period in Western Siberia

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 57. Is. 3: 919-929.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.3.919CrossRef

Nuremberg jetons are coin-shaped pieces that were minted in Nuremberg and originally used as counters on a special board called an abacus. At the turn of the 16th and 17th centuries, the jetons began to be imported in large volumes into the Russian State, where they were in great demand among indigenous peoples of the Volga Region, Western and Eastern Siberia. They used the jetons as badges and pendants to decorate their clothes. The paper focuses on studying the Nuremberg jetons as chronological markers that can be used to date changes in cultures of indigenous and Russian populations of Western Siberia from the late 16th to the early 19th centuries. Based on the numismatic analysis of a collection of jetons from Western Siberia, three “waves” of their importation to the region were identified: the “first wave” jetons date back to 1554–1635; the “second wave” jetons – to the 1650s–1700s; the “third wave” jetons – to 1775–1793. A study of numismatic catalogs and written sources established a connection between the identified “waves” and the history of coinage and supplies of the jetons from Nuremberg. The territorial and chronological analysis of the sources revealed some distribution patterns of the jetons from various periods in certain historical and cultural zones of Western Siberia. The “first wave” jetons have been shown to appear mainly in the southern taiga zone of Western Siberia. The distribution area of the “second wave” artifacts in the Irtysh River Region remained the same. In the Ob River Region, it moved north – to the Narym and Surgut Ob Region. The “third wave” jetons were found further north – in the Surgut- and Lower Ob Region. The findings of this study concerning the existence of the Nuremberg jetons in Western Siberia can be further used to create fractional chronology of archaeological and ethnographic sites in the region. This, in turn, will provide more detailed insights into cultural changes in the communities of Western Siberia in certain periods of its development.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1599574063.pdf
Number of views: 317      Download in PDF

2. Andrey Yu. Dvornichenko, Regina-Elizaveta A. Kudrayvtseva
The First Russian Lithuanists: the Karamzin’s Case

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 57. Is. 3: 930-943.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.3.930CrossRef

This article is devoted to the analyses of the views of the prominent Russian historian N. M. Karamzin connected with a history of Great Duchy of Lithuania (GDL) before the Union of Lublin (1569) during a period of independently development of this state, because the next period is a separate theme. The authors show that these views are complex and having not a single meaning. We must have in mind that historian himself developed together with his main work: “The History of Russian State”. In the first volume one can notice some lack of knowledge concerning Lithuanian-Russian history, but already in the second volume and in the further volumes he constantly presents for us this history. GDL became in his book one of the main actors of Russian history. And what is more that one can see to some degree a bifurcation of his consciousness in connection with GDL. From one side, this state was an enemy of Muscovy, which took some territories, which had had been the State property of Muscovy. But from an other side, Lithuania itself have united vast Russian lands and transformed in so called “Lithuanian Russia”. Such bifurcation keeps before the rain of Ivan the Terrible. In consideration of a reach historiographies and sources base in Karamzin’s book, we can tell about him as a notable lithuanist. His work is a significant stage in development of Russian scholar in this field, which flourished during second part of 19th century.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1599574076.pdf
Number of views: 294      Download in PDF

3. Evgeny A. Naumenko
Psychological Factors in Suicides Among the Indigenous People of the Arctic Zone of Western Siberia in the XVII – XIX centuries (Based on Materials from the Regional Archives)

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 57. Is. 3: 944-951.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.3.944CrossRef

The authors of the article analyze the attempts of missionaries to overcome suicidality among the indigenous peoples of the North through the implementation of two different religious and economic models: "Orthodox" and "Muslim.” While Christian influence was spreading through the missionary work of the Russian Orthodox Church in the Arctic regions, Muslim influence, coming from Siberian Tatars, was hidden. Both groups of missionaries have faced certain cultural peculiarities of northern peoples where suicide was not a sin, moreover, in some situations – was even the preferred behavior. In both missionary models, it was assumed that conversion to the new faith would introduce a taboo on suicide among indigenous peoples. However, Christianization did not solve the problem, but partially caused an increase in suicidality. The authors analyze historical sources taking into account the opinions of the peoples of the North themselves and come to the conclusion that one of the reasons for suicides is the syncretic nature of beliefs that developed in the conditions of Christianization. Orthodox beliefs were not yet deep enough to perceive suicide as a sin, but they changed the lives of indigenous peoples, partially severing them from their natural habitat and creating a set of socio-economic problems. Thus, the "Orthodox" model of suicide prevention did not lead to success. The "Muslim" model, having more ancient roots in the region, was based on norms shared with indigenous peoples: the Siberian Tatars also had idols and elements of shamanism. The encounter took place during the common opposition to Christian missionary work. As a result, some groups of Northern peoples have completely converted to Islam. In contrast to Orthodoxy, this transition was not superficial, which ensured the rejection of suicides.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1599574087.pdf
Number of views: 294      Download in PDF

4. Evgeny V. Vodyasov
The Islands in a Cultural Landscape of Lower Tom River Region in the XVII–XVIII centuries

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 57. Is. 3: 952-960.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.3.952CrossRef

The article is devoted to the islands of the Lower Tom River Region and their role in the life support system of the Tomsk Tatars in the XVII−XVIII centuries. The main difficulty in studying island landscapes is associated with the lack of such direction as ‘island archeology’ in Siberia. The weak interest of scientists in this topic can be explained by the annual flooding of the islands during the spring, which for many archaeologists is a marker of a not promising search for island archaeological sites. However, the islands with rich vegetation were well suited for summer settlements for the economic model of the Tomsk Tatars. The basis of the economy of the Tomsk Tatars was cattle breeding with a predominance of horses, so the floodplain and island lands in the summer seasons served not only as an important natural resource, but also as a place for seasonal migrations. Such a model led to the fact that the same population lived in different places, depending on the time of the year – in winter yurts, usually located on high terraces and having fortifications, and summer yurts located in a floodplain or on islands. Based on the various sources, it is proved that the Tatar population used the islands for arable land, mowing, pastures and places of seasonal summer settlements. The total area of the developed islands of the Lower Tom River Region is about 100 square km. Today, 7 islands are known where, with a high degree of probability, summer settlements could be located, but archaeological search has never been carried out so far. For the first time, archaeological finds from the Enekov Island are published, proving the permanent seasonal habitat of the Tatar population here in the XVII−XVIII centuries. The settlement on Enekov Island is unique in that its materials clearly trace the initial stage of penetration of Russian ceramics into the cultural environment of Tomsk Tatars, which ultimately led to the complete disappearance of molded ceramics. The main conclusion is made that the islands are extremely promising areas for searching for new archeological sites despite the fact that in the spring they are flooded with high water.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1599574097.pdf
Number of views: 274      Download in PDF

5. Aleksandr А. Cherkasov, Sergei N. Bratanovskii, Marina A. Ponomareva, Ludmila G. Zimovets
The Public Education System in Voronezh Governorate in the Period 1703–1917. Part 3

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 57. Is. 3: 961-972.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.3.961CrossRef

The article deals with the system of public education on the territory of the Voronezh province in 1703−1917. In this part of the work, the attempt is made to restore the picture of the activity of the public education system in the period of 1900−1917, as well as to assess its effectiveness. As research materials, we used documents from the Russian state historical archive (Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation), statistical data from the Memorial books of the Voronezh province, as well as from the most submissive report of the chief prosecutor of the Holy Synod. In conclusion, the authors state that the system of public education on the territory of the Voronezh province in the period of 1900−1917 experienced an unprecedented rise: a network of educational institutions was created, which included higher, secondary, special and lower levels of education. The number of educational institutions increased from 1,691 to 2,548, with a sharp increase in the quality of education, more than 350 domestic peasant literacy schools were abolished, and the number of high schools, as well as educational institutions for training teachers, increased sharply. There was a sharp increase in the number of children enrolled in educational institutions (102 thousand students – in 1900, 223 thousand – in 1914). This made it possible to put more than 90 % of boys and about 45 % of girls at their desks out of the total number of school-age children by 1914. Due to this, by 1915 it was possible to organize educational institutions and train teaching staff sufficient for the introduction of universal primary education in the region.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1599574140.pdf
Number of views: 280      Download in PDF

6. Mikhail S. Stetckevich, Tatiana V. Chumakova, Elena S. Stetckevich
Jonathan Clark's «Confessional State»: Concept and Discussion

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 57. Is. 3: 973-981.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.3.973CrossRef

The name of the British historian Jonathan Clark in Russia is known only to specialists in English history of the XVIII – XIX centuries. Meanwhile, his writings generated a heated debate and led to a partial revision of some established ideas. According to Clark, in England of the «long XVIII century», which lasted from the end of the XVII century until 1832, there was an «old order», based on a continued strong monarchy, cultural hegemony of the landed elite and the dominance of the Church of England. Historian uses the term «confessional state» to characterize this dominance. According to Clark, the main opponents of the «confessional state» were dissenters, whose opposition to the «old order» was based on theological grounds. Clark was heavily criticized for replacing economic reductionism, which he strongly opposed, with theological reductionism (J. Innes, R. Davis). It was emphasized that the opposition of dissenters can be explained not only by theological reasons (J. Phillips, R. Davis). F. O’Gorman, P. Corfield, E. Thompson pointed out to Clark that the «confessional state» did not exist in reality. J. Bradley, J. Phillips objected to the thesis of the «cultural hegemony» of Anglicanism. Ultimately, only a few researchers (N. Yates, W. Gibson) have shown a willingness to support the concept of a «confessional state». Nevertheless, Clark's extremely sharpened concept led to serious historiographic shifts. Researchers abandoned to underestimate the role of religion in the era of the «long XVIII century», starting to create synthetic works in which politics, culture, theology, and Economics are considered as part of a single complex.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1599574151.pdf
Number of views: 280      Download in PDF

7. Anna А. Kosmovskaya
Tax Receipts in Prikamye from House and Trade Baths in the 1720–1780ss

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 57. Is. 3: 982-992.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.3.982CrossRef

The article deals with the system of public education on the territory of the Voronezh province in 1703−1917. In this part of the work, the attempt is made to restore the picture of the activity of the public education system in the period of 1900−1917, as well as to assess its effectiveness. As research materials, we used documents from the Russian state historical archive (Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation), statistical data from the Memorial books of the Voronezh province, as well as from the most submissive report of the chief prosecutor of the Holy Synod. In conclusion, the authors state that the system of public education on the territory of the Voronezh province in the period of 1900−1917 experienced an unprecedented rise: a network of educational institutions was created, which included higher, secondary, special and lower levels of education. The number of educational institutions increased from 1,691 to 2,548, with a sharp increase in the quality of education, more than 350 domestic peasant literacy schools were abolished, and the number of high schools, as well as educational institutions for training teachers, increased sharply. There was a sharp increase in the number of children enrolled in educational institutions (102 thousand students – in 1900, 223 thousand – in 1914). This made it possible to put more than 90 % of boys and about 45 % of girls at their desks out of the total number of school-age children by 1914. Due to this, by 1915 it was possible to organize educational institutions and train teaching staff sufficient for the introduction of universal primary education in the region.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1599575729.pdf
Number of views: 259      Download in PDF

8. Utash B. Ochirov
Stavropol Kalmyk Regiment in the Napoleonic Wars: Military Awards of Their Members

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 57. Is. 3: 993-1002.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.3.993CrossRef

Stavropol Kalmyk Host was formed in the 1730s from Kalmyk Christians that had settled in the Middle Volga around the fortress then referred to as Stavropol-on-Volga (present-day Tolyatti). The host was functioning as a Cossack one but its members were equalized in rights with those of the Don Host only in the early 19th century. Units of the host served to patrol borders and act as policemen, in extreme cases yielding a complete regiment for Russia’s wars in Europe. However, Stavropol warriors initially received no military decorations for their deeds of valor since they were not viewed as common soldiers, services of Cossack officers being identified as zauryad, i.e., were actually discharging functions of officers but without any official military ranks and related social privileges (including titles of nobility). The situation changed during the Napoleonic Wars. Since 1807, the unranked started receiving a special military decoration, and zauryad officers were granted officership and opportunities to be bestowed (i.e., enlisted as members of) Russian Imperial orders. In the War of 1806–1807, Stavropol Kalmyk Host participated in final combats only, but spent the whole of the 1812–1814 campaign in military expeditions. In 1812, Stavropol Kalmyks got in line with M. Platov and F. Wintzingerode’s ‘flying’ squads. In 1813, they would block a number of fortresses and later joined M. Miloradovich’s corps (combined Russian-Prussian army) and A. de Langeron’s group of corps (Silesian army). In 1814, they witnessed the end of the war sieging the Fortress of Mainz. Unfortunately, the inefficient bureaucratic procedures resulted in that quite a number of military decorations were delivered either in bad time – or failed to reach the addressees at all.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1599574222.pdf
Number of views: 259      Download in PDF

9. Vladimir T. Tepkeev
Kalmyk Сavalry in the Russo-Turkish War of 1735–1739: Сampaign of 1736

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 57. Is. 3: 1003-1010.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.3.1003CrossRef

The article examines in detail the participation of the Kalmyk cavalry in the military campaign of 1736 in the framework of the Russo-Turkish War of 1735-1739. This topic was superficially covered in the works of most researchers, who only briefly covered the main events of the participation of Kalmyks in this war. The aim of the work is to introduce into scientific circulation new information on the circumstances of the preparation and participation of the Kalmyk cavalry in the 1736 campaign. The main source base for this work was the materials of the National Archives of the Republic of Kalmykia, where documents relating to the correspondence of Khan Donduk-Ombo with regional administrations in southern Russia were postponed. Their analysis led to the conclusion that the active and massive participation of Kalmyks in the Russian-Turkish war was the result of the decision of the Russian government to vest the governor of the Khanate Donduk-Ombo with power, since it was he who was able to ensure the advance of the Kalmyk cavalry in the Kuban direction in order to cover the left flank of the Donskoy army. In 1736, Kalmyk cavalry twice made campaigns in the Kuban region, causing considerable damage to the enemy. The participation of the Kalmyk cavalry in the 1736 campaign was highly appreciated by Empress Anna Ioannovna, who in March 1737 granted the Donduk-Ombo Khan's title.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1612271485.pdf
Number of views: 282      Download in PDF

10. Tatiana A. Volodina, Konstantin A. Podrezov, Tamara A. Taruntaeva
Russian Army as a Phenomenon of Empire: Analysis of Historiography

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 57. Is. 3: 1011-1024.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.3.1011CrossRef

The article deals with analyzing the historiography, which is devoted to studying the role and significance of the army in the context of Russian development as Empire. The authors study the approaches and assessments that have been shown by researchers in relation to the factor of language, confession and origin "heterogeneity" of Russian army during XVIII-XIX centuries. The research sources are the works of Russian historians beginning from the XIX century and up to the present day. Some works of contemporary Western researchers also came to the attention of the authors. As a result the authors distinguish the factors which made an impact upon a reconfiguration of research "methodological optics": practical issues in forming and using national units in military forces, understanding the causes of the collapse of Russian army during the Great War, anti-Imperial consideration of Soviet historiography, "complimentary" ethnocentric approach of the late Soviet and post-Soviet time, attention to the phenomenon of Empire in nowadays studies. The authors point out the role of Western historiography as an additional incentive that disposes Russian historians to move away from the "battle" paradigm of studying army to conceptual understanding of the relationship between the army, state and society. However, according to the authors of the article, it was the collapse of the USSR, that had been crucial in changing the focus of research attention.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1599574271.pdf
Number of views: 248      Download in PDF

11. Andrey S. Ryazhev
Traditions of the Military Service Group in the Investigation Materials of the (Un)baptized Kalmyk, 1746: the Experience of Social Regulation in the Russian Empire

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 57. Is. 3: 1025-1033.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.3.1025CrossRef

The article mainly concentrates on the state measures relative the new (created from the 30s through the 40s of the 18th century) military service strata, especially in final years of the Empress Anna Ioannovna's reign and the first half of the Empress Elizaveta Petrovna's reign. The regulatory role of social policy of the Russian Empire in the early Modern Time influenced the inner state of the ethno-confessional groups is investigated for the first time in historiography. The proposed research bases on the materials of the history of the one of largest military service estates of mentioned years the Volga Stavropol' Kalmyks which remain generally are unknown to current day. The article based on rich sources describes the process of forming the Stavropol’ Kalmyk host as result of convertation of the of a part of the Kalmyk elite led by noyon Baksadai- Dordji – Prince Peter Taishin to Orthodoxy, the christening and inclusion in the host of a number of prominent representatives of the then Kalmyk aristocracy and their entourage also traces in the article. Most attention is paid to the characteristics of social relations among baptized Kalmyks, and the preservation of traditional norms and obligations of the upper and lower levels of society is demonstrated. The research reveals the support of the existing social relations by the Russian authorities, which are focused on protecting the social privileges of the nobility, regardless of their religion. The author states in conclusion that the change of the confession did not affect the social status of new-christened aristocrats their previous horizontal connections. As result baptized and unbaptized parts of the Kalmyk nobility coexisted on equal terms, without antagonism within the complex service relationship that supported the religious policy and was the basis of Imperial political and military system.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1599574307.pdf
Number of views: 253      Download in PDF

12. Sergey I. Degtyarev, Olena G. Tkachenko, Lyubov G. Polyakova, Diana I. Stepanova
Formation of a System of Material Support and Encouragement of Civil Servants of the Russian Empire at the end of the 18th – first half of the 19th centuries

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 57. Is. 3: 1034-1044.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.3.1034CrossRef

The article is devoted to the formation of the system of material support and motivation of civil servants of the Russian Empire from the end of the XVIII to the middle of the XIX centuries. The study was conducted on the example of ukrainian provinces that were part of the Russian Empire during the study period. In particular, the attention is paid to such types of material motivation as wages (salary), other monetary payments, gifts, etc. The authors conclude that during the first half of the ХІХ century the rewards and incentives that the government applied to civil servants were finally systematized and regulated by law. The leading place among them was occupied by material incentives. The encouragement of officials was one of the mechanisms by which the continuous functioning of the Empire's bureaucracy was ensured. On the lands recently incorporated into the Russian Empire, service incentives could also play the role of one of the elements of the policy of incorporating the elites of these regions into the social and administrative structure of the empire. In general, during the first half of the ХІХ century, incentives for civil servants of the Russian Empire were finally systematized. There was a specific set of them and the conditions under which they were applied.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1599574377.pdf
Number of views: 261      Download in PDF

13. Leonid V. Sidorenko
The Origins of the English Counterrevolution in the Context of a Comparative Analysis of the Main Interpretations of the American Revolution of the XVIII century

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 57. Is. 3: 1045-1054.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.3.1045CrossRef

The aim of this article is to analyze the origins of counterrevolution by the metropolis in the American Revolution of the XVIII century by comparing two main historiographical interpretations of this event: as a socio-economic phenomenon and as a colonial revolt. Counterrevolution is understood as a sum of decisions of the metropolis and their ideological bases directed against the actions and ideology of the colonists. The research tasks include an overview of the two main interpretations of the American Revolution; a description of the grounds for the English response to the activity of the colonists; examination of the problems in the metropolis that led to specific proportions of counter-revolutionary forces in it; a description of figures who can be considered counter-revolutionaries in English politics. The novelty of this article is to examine the American Revolution of the XVIII century through the counter-revolutionary response and the internal situation in the metropolis, what allows to be distant from the American-centered view on the events of the war of independence of the United States. The article concludes that despite the importance of socio-economic interpretation of the American Revolution, it is useless to search the origins of the British counter-revolution. Only a view at the events as an anti-colonial revolt allows us to find and analyze the origins of the counterrevolution in the metropolis, which should be sought in the challenge to the system of relations between Great Britain and the colonies by the colonists, who put forward new ideas for understanding the Constitution and raised painful issues of taxation and representation. So the English counter-revolution is seen as an attempt to preserve the old constitutional and political system, which was unsuccessfully attacked not only by the Americans, but also by internal radical forces. This led to the preservation of pre-revolutionary principles of representation and government, only slightly changed by moderate reforms of the aristocratic opposition.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1599574411.pdf
Number of views: 255      Download in PDF

14. Nadezhda L. Khait, Аnna P. Dvoretskaya, Denis N. Gergilev, Olga V. Konovalova
The Evolution of the Orthodox Parish on the Territory of Yenisei Siberia in the late XVIII – first half of the XIX century

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 57. Is. 3: 1055-1064.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.3.1055CrossRef

The article discusses the functioning of the Orthodox parishes of Yenisei Siberia, shows the dependence of this process on the frontier location of the region and the cathedral beginning of life of the local community. Attention is drawn that at the considered time the vertical line “parish – diocese” is being built. It should be noted that due to the significant mobility of the parishes, their network was formed and constantly expanded, the number of parishioners increased. Parish management was bureaucratic, which affected the relationship between the episcopate and parishioners. The remoteness of the region from all the diocesan departments of Siberia, a rare visit to parishes by bishops, and the maintenance of clergy by communities led to significant parish autonomy. The parishioners quite actively defended their power in the parish in the field of managing church property, land, the church building, the choice of the church elder and the builder of the church. Most of the northern and southern parishes of Yenisei Siberia had an indigenous population. However, while in the north, there were few cases of Christianization, in the south there was a process of religious interaction between Russian and autochthonous peoples.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1599574428.pdf
Number of views: 260      Download in PDF

15. Anvar M. Mamadaliev, Dmitrii V. Karpukhin, Natalia V. Svechnikova, Aude Médico
The System of Public Education in Tiflis Governorate in the Period 1802–1917. Part 3

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 57. Is. 3: 1065-1084.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.3.1065CrossRef

The article is devoted to the development problem of the education system in the Caucasus at the end of the existence of the Russian Empire, i.e. during the reign of Nicholas II. The geographical range is limited by the territory of the Tiflis province. In this part, we consider the development of the education system before the adoption of the law from May 3, 1908, which changed the approach to the primary education system, so the chronological framework is designated by 1894−1907 years. The article analyzes statistical source data on the number of educational institutions and their “rank” level (primary, secondary, higher), the level of accessibility (for example, Tiflis province), as well as the problems and quality of the functioning of the educational system of the province in the transition from absolute monarchy to constitutional, as well as the Russian-Japanese War and World War I. Such documents as the Complete collection of laws of the Russian Empire, acts of the Caucasian Archeographic Commission, the First General population census of the Russian Empire in 1897 (Vol. 18), “A set of statistical data on the population of Transcaucasia, with a complete alphabetical index of cities and villages of the region” (1894), Reports of the Trustees of the Caucasian school district for 1894−1907 and etc. were used as sources.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1599574466.pdf
Number of views: 247      Download in PDF

16. Dmitry V. Ovsjannikov
The Aristocratic Groups of Dagestan in Relations with the Russian Empire and the Imamate in the first half of the XIX century

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 57. Is. 3: 1085-1092.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.3.1085CrossRef

The article refers to the problem of the ruling aristocratic groups in Dagestan in the first half of the XIX century. The attention is paid to the issues related to the relations of representatives of the mountain nobility with the Russian military administration and with the structures of Muslim statehood (Imamate) in the specified period. The opus presents the results of an analysis of military-political events during which the region became part of the Russian Empire. Particular (Special) attention is paid to the issue of the struggle for power and the subsequent change of traditional power groups in Dagestan. It is concluded that this process took place not only under the pressure of Russian military officials who doubted the loyalty of the mountain aristocracy, but also due to the fact that only a few of the representatives of nobility were able to integrate into the new system of power relations within the framework of the Imamate. The question also arises of the degree of influence of individual owners and their relatives on the genesis of the Imamate and its further functioning, including the extent to which their actions contributed to the spread of the ideas of muridism in Dagestan and Chechnya. The novelty of the study is seen in an attempt to present these events using the terminological apparatus adequate to describe the Islamic society. The work is relevance due to the acute controversy taking place in the scientific community on the role of individual historical figures in these events and ambiguous interpretations of their heritage. All this is analyzed on the basis of a system-historical approach, using the achievements of social science and attracting a wide range of material, including unpublished archival sources.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1599574502.pdf
Number of views: 235      Download in PDF

17. Bella A. Bulgarova, Victor V. Barabash, Valerii L. Muzykant, Kairkul E. Kasymalieva
The Trade Communication in the Kyrgyz Steppe (first half of the XIX century): Some Characteristic Features

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 57. Is. 3: 1093-1100.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.3.1093CrossRef

This paper examines the features of trade and communication in the Kyrgyz steppe during the first half of the XIX century. The attention is paid to measures to protect trade routes from nomad attacks, to the means of communication, as well as to the slave trade and its main driving forces. There were used as materials the sources of personal origin of travelers and emissaries who visited Central Asia in the XIX century. The another source for our research was collections of documents. When solving research problems, we used general scientific traditional methods of analysis, synthesis, concretization and generalization. The historical-comparative method is of great importance in the study, which made it possible to look at the events in Central Asia through comparison with similar events at this time in the Caucasus. The authors concluded that in the first half of the XIX century in the Kyrgyz steppe (in Central Asia), trade was a very important source of income for the indigenous population. Due to the regional characteristics (the presence of nomads), trade routes were constantly under threat of blocking, and trade caravans were under threat of looting. The intrigues of the rulers of the Bukhara and Khiva khanates played an important role in curbing the region's trade relations with other countries. In an effort to prevent each other from strengthening, they created terms for looting trade caravans, as well as carrying out raids on neighboring countries in order to capture people. Subsequently, the captured prisoners became one of the most important goods on the territory of the Kyrgyz steppe, which encouraged the capture of slaves, the slave trade and the use of slave labor in agriculture. It is also important to emphasize that many socio-economic processes in Central Asia were identical to those in the Caucasus (Circassia and Abkhazia).

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1599047779.pdf
Number of views: 241      Download in PDF

18. Tatyana V. Koshman, Maral K. Khabdulina
Antiquities of the Kazakh Steppes in Travel Notes of the Russian Researcher I.P. Shangin

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 57. Is. 3: 1101-1112.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.3.1101CrossRef

The article is devoted to the results of the first major reconnaissance expedition deep into the Kazakh steppes in 1816. The geological and geographical expedition led by I.P. Shangin was aiming for the exploration and fixation of polymetallic ores in Kazakhstan. However, thanks to the versatile personality of I.P. Shangin, a highly educated, thoughtful researcher, this expedition became also historical-ethnographic and archaeological. It also covered the description of ancient monuments, places of worship, the ruins of ancient buildings, faced along the expedition route. The article provides a brief description of the route that stretched across almost the entire territory of Kazakhstan - from the northern edge of the steppe strip to the Northern Balkhash area. The return trip from the Kyzyltau mountains lead to the North-East, to the Irtysh, the area of modern city of Pavlodar. The main attention is paid to the characterization of modern archaeological research of Saryarka steppe’s objects, noted by I.P. Shangin. In conclusion, it is indicated that the high effectiveness of the scientific expedition is associated with the personality of its leader – I.P. Shangin, as a prominent representative of a nascent Russian Scientific school of Natural scientists. Keywords: I.P. Shangin, Kazakh steppes, ore deposits, archaeological site, research, Bаtagai, Nura

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1599574559.pdf
Number of views: 271      Download in PDF

19. Timur A. Magsumov, Teymur E. Zulfugarzade
The System of Public Education in the Orenburg Cossack Army (1820–1917). Part 1

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 57. Is. 3: 1113-1123.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.3.1113CrossRef

The article considers the system of public education on the territory of the Orenburg Cossack army in the pre-revolutionary period. This part of the article analyzes the period of 1820−1900. There were used as materials different statistical data. These are the address-calendars and memorable books of the Orenburg province for different years, regulations, as well as specialized literature. The statistical method is widely used in this work. So, the authors made samples from a statistical array of various reporting documents: the number of military schools, students and their gender balance. This allowed us to calculate the average number of students per military school. Also, the use of this method allowed authors to identify the characteristic features of the evolution of the system of public education in the territory of the Orenburg Cossack army in the period 1820−1900. In conclusion, the authors state that the system of public education on the territory of the Orenburg Cossack army had its own regional features, which related to teaching along with civil and military disciplines. At the same time, a bet was made on the creation of a teaching corps from among the Orenburg Cossacks themselves. During the period under review, namely 80 years (1820−1900), there was a gradual development of the network of military schools, as well as an increase in the students' number. By the turn of 1900 the Holy Synod is also beginning to take an active part in public education issues with the help of an extensive network of parochial schools.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1599574585.pdf
Number of views: 235      Download in PDF

20. Tatyana G. Karchaeva, Alexander S. Kovalev, Nikolai R. Novosel'tsev, Mikhail P. Yatsenko
Act Materials as a Historical Source about the Functions and Personnel of Siberia Local Authorities in the 19th century

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 57. Is. 3: 1124-1131.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.3.1124CrossRef

The article shows the experience of using assembly materials as historical sources on the history of Russia during the period of the empire. On the basis of the archival documents presented for the first time, the significance of traces and agreements of the population in the study of the issues of defining the functions and establishing the staff of local government bodies in Siberia in the 19th century was proved. The source of the work was previously unpublished wills, donation records, letters of attorney (letters of trust) of the residents of the Minusinsk district of the Yenisei province, drawn up in the Minusinsk district government and the Minusinsk district court, as well as formulary lists of local officials who certified and testified to such documents. By analyzing the act books of public places of different levels of government (Yenisei provincial government, Minusinsk district court, Minusinsk district government, Abakan volost government), the prevalence and proven mechanism for providing the population with such a service due to the absence of notarial structures in Siberia until 1897 were proved. The representativeness of act materials as sources for establishing the names of employees of local authorities is shown on the example of the will of a retired non-commissioned officer A. M. Kvashonkin (1839), the power of attorney of the Yekaterinburg merchant A.Ya. Kharitonov (1839) and a donation record of a well-known public figure, who was in exile in Siberia, M. V. Butashevich-Petrashevsky (1860). The subsequent application of data from the formal lists of officials made it possible to detail the facts of their biographies as representatives of the service class. All this made it possible to reconstruct the historical reality of the Russian Empire at the provincial level.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1600474834.pdf
Number of views: 267      Download in PDF

21. Alexander G. Gryaznukhin, Tatiana V. Gryaznukhina, Lyudmila V. Belgorodskaya, Larisa F. Malyutina
Charity as the Demonstration of Mentality of the Merchant Class and Entrepreneurs of Russia in the XIX century

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 57. Is. 3: 1132-1141.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.3.1132CrossRef

The object of interest of this project is charity in Russia which is viewed as a social phenomenon. The origins and types of activity of charity providers which at first was unorganized and consisted of almsgiving and donations for the benefit of the church are shown in historic contest. The reasons due to which the merchants started taking up the leading positions in this type of activity by the XIX century are revealed. Also the numerical and comparative analysis of the merchant class in the regions has been performed, during which it has been determined that the number of merchants in both European Russia and Siberia was much less than that of other social groups. The source of merchant class formation from the peasantry and bourgeois class allows making statements regarding its mentality based on the commitment to customs and traditions. It has been determined that it is especially clearly in evidence regarding the Old Belief class. The analysis of the incentives to conduct charity shows the absence of regional differences between them. They included both lucrative and selfish incentives and humanistic ones based on the sincere desire to help. The determining criteria were the personal characteristics of the donors. Charity was a way of possible rehabilitation of the merchant class in the eyes of the society for the wealth accumulated using unjust ways and therefore motivated the activity of the merchant ways. The correctness of the theoretical conclusions is approved by the facts from the life of the most well-known charity providers of Russia. The article also deals with patronage as the type of charity, its role in the lives of artists and general preservation of the cultural heritage.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1599574662.pdf
Number of views: 256      Download in PDF

22. Аndrii E. Lebid, Anatolii V. Honcharenko, Natal'ya A. Shevchenko
Social Portrait of the Population of Ukrainian Provinces in the middle of the 19th century (Based on Materials from the «Military Statistical Review of Russian Empire»)

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 57. Is. 3: 1142-1157.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.3.1142CrossRef

The paper explores «Military Statistical Review of Russian Empire» as a source on social and economic history of Ukrainian provinces in the middle of the 19th century. The authors look into the history of creation, structure, presentation plan and the character of information presented in the Reviews. The people who compiled this historical source are indicated and a brief information about them is given. Based on the analysis of reviews of the Ukrainian provinces, a social portrait of the local population was compiled, it takes into account its ethnic, religious and social affiliation. The social portrait of the population of Ukrainian provinces was compiled on the basis of the description of life and customs of the local population in «Military Statistical Review of Russian Empire», as well as the level of its education and intelligence via analysis of data on the number and types of educational establishments available in the Ukrainian provinces, the number of students who studied there, the ratio to the total population of the province, and number of the teaching staff. The student-teacher ratio is calculated. The data is generalized for each of the provinces: Right-bank, Left-bank, South-Ukrainian and Ukraine as a whole.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1599574691.pdf
Number of views: 276      Download in PDF

23. Yuliya A. Lysenko
The Natural Resource Potential of the Central Asian Outskirts Regional Development in the Plans of Russian Imperial Political Elite (second half of the 19th – early 20th centuries)

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 57. Is. 3: 1158-1167.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.3.1158CrossRef

The article analyzes the plans of the imperial political elite regarding the use of the natural resource potential of the Central Asian outskirts in the post-reform period on the basis of regulatory legal acts and office documentation. It was revealed that the political leadership of Russia was faced with the need to revise the traditional principles of imperial politics related to the satisfaction of exclusively geopolitical interests by the 60s 19th century. Increasing the profitability of regional economies was recognized as more rational. In the context of the multinationality of the country, the civilizational and socio-economic asymmetry of ethnoregions, the transition to solving internal problems aimed at integrating and unifying the imperial space. The state followed the path of using exclusively land spaces during the period of modernization and the creation of grain and cotton farms, while having an objective idea of the natural resource potential of the Steppe Territory and Turkestan, a significant number of copper, oil, gold and coal deposits. An obstacle to the full-scale industrialization of the Central Asian outskirts was a number of circumstances: the frontier of the territory and, as a consequence, the dilemma of the central and regional authorities regarding the priority of external expansion or internal development; a difficult ethno-confessional situation associated with the "Islamic factor" and the possibility of threats to Russia's presence in the region; artificial containment by imperial circles of modernization processes to prevent the growth of national ideologies; lack of financial opportunities for the state and entrepreneurs for active investment.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1599574731.pdf
Number of views: 261      Download in PDF

24. Artyom Yu. Peretyatko
“Turned the Ruble over the Entire Cossack Economy”: the Evolution of the Don Cossack Households in 1860−1890

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 57. Is. 3: 1168-1177.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.3.1168CrossRef

Questions about the social status of the Cossacks attracted serious attention of authoritative historians from the Soviet era (only for the Don Host we can distinguish the works of V.A. Zolotov, A.I. Kozlov, V.P. Trut). However, only the period that immediately preceded the 1917 revolution was deeply studied, and the researchers were not able to develop a generally accepted classification system for Cossack households. This article attempts to analyze the previous stage of the evolution of Cossack farms in the years 1860-1890, relying on the methods and approaches proposed by contemporaries (V.Ya. Biryukov, P.G. Mordvintsev, N.A. Maslakovets). The article is based on the works of these authors and materials of the State Archive of the Rostov Region (GARO). The article concluded that the dynamics of the development of Cossack households were determined not by the economic indicators of these farms themselves, but by the policy of the Russian Empire in relation to the Cossacks and the development of military affairs. It was a sharp increase in the cost of equipment and a reduction in the subsidies to Cossacks from military sums in 1870 predetermined the transition of the Cossacks from cattle breeding to agriculture as the main employment. In 1890 these same factors led to the beginning of the depletion of Cossack lands and a serious crisis of the average Cossack households. And the main conclusion of the article is that the classification system of Cossack households cannot be created without taking into account non-economic factors.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1599574762.pdf
Number of views: 245      Download in PDF

25. Andrey A. Solovyev, Aleksandr V. Zakharov, Nadezhda L. Vinogradova, Lyubov S. Solovyeva
Literary Enlightenment in the Russian Province in the second half of the 19th century (the Examples of the Don Cossack Host and the Kamishin Region)

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 57. Is. 3: 1179-1185.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.3.1179CrossRef

The Russian Empire was a complex socio-political phenomenon in the second half of the 19th century, thus the study of the history of the period should include a wide spectrum of subjects. The problem of the attitude of russian intelligentsia and different state agencies towards the cultural development and public education of the population of the country deserves special scientific investigation. Rapid cultural progress of the russian society of the time provoked the emergence of different self-defence forms of traditional society. One of them was a strict state control of education. Almost all cultural changes were hindered by rules and regulation imposed by state officials. New books were often immediately banned. The paper studies various ways of comprehension of several literary texts, which were considered illegal by the Russian state institutions of the time. The questions raised in the paper may contribute not only to scientific research but also into solving social problems. The study of the history of the educational sphere allows us to expand knowledge about the Volgograd region and Russia in general and outlines guidelines for the development of modern teaching and educational projects, since many of the tasks facing education today were relevant in the Russian province already in the pre-revolutionary period.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1599574809.pdf
Number of views: 252      Download in PDF

26. Ekaterina M. Berestova, Anna M. Subbotina
Prostitution and Russian Society in the second half of the XIX and early XX centuries

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 57. Is. 3: 1186-1193.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.3.1186CrossRef

The article discusses the problem of the prostitution spread in Russia and the attitude of different strata of Russian society to it in the second half of the XIX and early XX centuries. The authors focus on state policy, Zemstvo doctors activities, and women's charities position. The complex of published and archived sources became the basis of the research. The article pays great attention to the data of the First General population census of 1897 and special statistical surveys. Legal documents of the studied period represent the state approach. Materials of congresses of doctors and public organizations, meetings of Zemstvo assemblies, periodicals, and literary works show the spectrum of public opinion. The authors conduct a comparative analysis of all-Russian and regional data on Vyatka Province and Saint Petersburg. They conclude that prostitution was widespread in the country in the second half of the XIX and early XX centuries. One of the reasons for this was the migration of men and women to cities and industrial centers, where they lost their usual social ties and restrictions. The article proves that Russian society considered prostitution and its negative consequences to be the fault of prostitutes themselves. The government controlled the growth of sexually transmitted diseases and criminal cases by regulating the brothels activities. Doctors and local authorities supervised prostitution for the sake of public health and morals. Representatives of public and charitable organizations in the early XX century began to actively promote the idea of solving the problem in the context of the struggle for women's rights and social transformation.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1599574856.pdf
Number of views: 249      Download in PDF

27. Natalya V. Pashina, Tatiana A. Kattsina, Ludmila E. Mezit, Valery I. Fedorchenko
The Organizational Potential of the Societies of Agricultural Colonies and Craft Shelters at the Stage of Formation (on the Example of Siberia at the end of the 19th – beginning of the 20th century)

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 57. Is. 3: 1194-1201.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.3.1194CrossRef

Societies of agricultural colonies and craft shelters have a short (1895−1917), but unique history in Siberia. For more than 20 years, they created and operated correctional institutions where children and adolescents were kept isolated from adult criminals, and the prison regime was replaced by educational and combined with labor and spiritual and moral influence on the personality of the pupil. The author's analysis focuses on the activities of preparatory commissions that provide organizational and legal measures from the development of constituent documents to the attraction of resources (material and financial resources, organizational abilities of actors) of future companies. The study of such societies has shown that the prosperity of any of them depends on the level of organizational potential, defined as the ability to attract all those organizations and those people who can make a positive contribution to this process. These materials showed that, despite the significance of the social project, its implementation in Siberia was hindered by the lack of support from the population, which did not show active sympathy for teenagers caught in committing offenses and the inertia of the administrative and managerial apparatus. The article verifies the claim of a number of Russian researchers that membership and collection of donations in favor of charitable organizations operating in Siberia were not always voluntary.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1599574889.pdf
Number of views: 248      Download in PDF

28. Valentina A. Veremenko
Women in the Service of Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs (second half of the XIX – early ХХ centuries)

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 57. Is. 3: 1202-1217.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.3.1202CrossRef

The article, based on a wide range of sources, primarily archival ones, examines the status and working conditions of women who served in Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs during the post-reform period. The attention is drawn to the fact that despite the official prohibition of admitting women to work in state institutions, thousands of them served in the structure of this department during the period under study. Telegraph and prison attendants during the 1860–1890s have risen from working as an experiment or on the local administration initiative to full equality in rights with their male colleagues. Clerical female officials at the beginning of the XX century continued to perform their functions outside the legal framework. In need of qualified workers, but unable to find the required number of educated, disciplined and low maintenance employees among men, the heads of both central and local structures of the Ministry of Internal Affairs hired women for various, sometimes full-time, positions. But, receiving the same salary as men, women working “illegally” did not have any rights in the context of service. Attempts to give their activities an official status were not realized. Female servants were the latest to appear in the Ministry of Internal Affairs. The image of ministerial "barmaid", which had become familiar by the First World War beginning, was an important sign of radical changes in the views of various strata of Russian society on the female employment.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1599574915.pdf
Number of views: 264      Download in PDF

29. Elena I. Mayorova, Rosalina V. Shagieva, Maria A. Khvatova, Albina M. Fathutdinova
The Beginning of the “Big Game” (“Shadow Games”) in Central Asia through the Prism of the Fate of Individual Residents of Orenburg in the nineteenth century

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 57. Is. 3: 1218-1231.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.3.1218CrossRef

Based on the disclosure of the history of the Timashev family, influential in the Orenburg Territory, the article substantiates the concept of the relationship of specific events with the most important geopolitical processes based on the ecological principle of holism on the southern borders of Russia on the eve of the Great Game with Britain. A wide palette of retrospective, illustrative, personal-biographical methods was used to achieve the said purpose. Considering and analyzing the life of real historical characters, the author has managed to obtain convincing confirmation of the Russian avant-gardes’ progressive expansion on the south, to the distant India borders already at the beginning of the 19th century, as a result. The research made in the article was focused on the destinies of the head of the Timashev family, a pioneer Ivan Timashev, who skillfully managed the customs service of the Orenburg Territory, which was a “passive reconnaissance” in fact, and his children and grandchildren, who played a certain role in Russian expansion. Thanks to the wife of one of the Timashevs, the poetess and fair woman Ekaterina, a good friend of A.S. Pushkin, there have arisen bonds between this family and the creative work of the great poet. An analysis of the life of a gifted woman contributed to the description of the extraordinary personality of a forgotten scientist E.A. Eversmann, who combined his beloved natural sciences activities and finding out reconnaissance information for his new homeland of Russia amid the confrontation of the two nations. People create history, and without knowing the character and fate of these creators, one risks remaining in the field of speculative reflections. Biographical search, not being a goal in itself, is presented in any study of the past, allowing to make the necessary accents of content or adjust its scope.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1602101811.pdf
Number of views: 273      Download in PDF

30. Kalkaman T. Zhumagulov, Raikhan O. Sadykova
The Russian Spiritual Mission in Japan and the Role of Nikolai Kasatkin

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 57. Is. 3: 1232-1244.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.3.1232CrossRef

Spiritual religious relations among states and peoples are one of the most relevant topics for modern researchers since these relations become a unifying factor among states and nations even under conditions of armed conflict. A vivid example would be the activities of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Japan that have become an illustration of successful activity of the Orthodox Church. Especially it must be mentioned that this religious mission can’t be successful without the fruitful activity of such historical persons as Nikolai Kasatkin. The multifaceted activity of Archbishop Nicholas deserves study at once for many reasons. Firstly, Nikolai Kasatkin was not only the spiritual representative of Russia in Japan, but an educator. He made a huge contribution through his translations of religious books. Nikolai Kasatkin began his translation activity from the study of Japan itself, its culture, religious literature and society. Secondly, he devoted an important role to pedagogical activity. Under his leadership the Catechetical College, Theological seminary, Seminary foe Girls and other institutions were opened. Thirdly, despite the prohibition of Christianity in the initial period of the formation of missionary activity and further on the Russo-Japanese war, Nikolai Kasatkin continued to persistently explain to the Japanese people the attitude of the Orthodox religion. He found new ways to finance the activities of the spiritual mission in Japan persistently describing in detail all the necessary information to the Russian government in his telegrams. With the enormous support of the Japanese people and the Russian government, and through other sources of funding, Nikolai Kasatkin founded several churches that serve as spiritual centers in Japan to this day.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1599574981.pdf
Number of views: 256      Download in PDF

31. Konstantin V. Taran, Sergey D. Ludwig
The Russo-Turkish War of 1877−1878: the Hostilities in the Black Sea Region

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 57. Is. 3: 1245-1254.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.3.1245CrossRef

The paper considers the hostilities on the secondary area of the fighting during the Russo-Turkish war of 1877−1878, namely, on the territory of the Black sea region. The authors' attention is drawn to the aspect ratio, disposition, as well as some characteristic features of warfare. A whole range of different sources were used as materials: 1. The archival sources – the Archive of the Sochi city; 2. The sources of personal origin – memories of participants of events, for example, B.M. Kolyubakin; 3. The periodical press (used newspapers “Russkii invalid” and “Kavkaz”, as well as the journal “Morskoi sbornik”); 4. Reference literature. In solving research problems, we applied the principle of historicism, which allowed us to make a comprehensive analysis of pre-revolutionary sources and historiography related to the hostilities on the territory of the Black sea region during the Russo-Turkish war of 1877−1878. This also implies the use of other methods in their totality and relationship, namely the problem-chronological, system-structural, and comparative-historical ones. The authors conclude that in the Russo-Turkish war of 1877−1878 on the Black sea theater of military operations, the Ottoman Empire's main hope was to use Circassian and Abkhazian mahajirs on its side. It was assumed that the arrival of the mahajirs as part of the Turkish landing force would cause a general uprising of the mountain population, which would lead to the overthrow of the russian military presence in the region. There was an increased activity of the mountain population in the turkish fleet coverage area. However, the uprising could not spread to the trans-kuban territory thanks to the actions taken in advance by the russian command. Despite some successes (the capture of almost the entire coastal territory of Abkhazia), the fate of the turkish landing was sealed, and the defeat of the landing at Sochi had a demoralizing effect on the rebels and their offensive momentum began to fall.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1599575014.pdf
Number of views: 265      Download in PDF

32. Аleksandr А. Adamov
Locking Device of the Kalita Moneybag at the Late Middle Ages (According to the Materials of the Settlement Isker – the Capital of the Siberian Khanate)

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 57. Is. 3: 1255-1263.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.3.1255CrossRef

In the 1880s, a Tobol artist and local historian M.S. Znamensky discovered an attachable lock and a buckle made of a non-ferrous metal. They came from the Isker settlement, the ancient capital of the Khanate of Siberia, near the mouth of the Tobol River. Belts with attachable pouches substituting pockets were common elements of the medieval East-European attire. This leather purse was called either “kalita” or “moshna”. Attachable locks and buckles were essential elements of the moneybag. They would go to the bottom of the bag, with a pad with a hook or buckle attached to the outer flap. The Isker lock included a pad with a hook, a cast square case riveted to the purse, a deadbolt and a brass V-shaped spring. The lock would open by rotating a key rested against the lock plate and pushing the deadbolt with the key bit. The buckle included a punched near-square case and a rectangular staple which was lost. The case had a slot for the staple attached to the outer flap. The deadbolt was connected to the button on the outer side of the buckle. To prevent rotation, the deadbolt was restrained by a perpendicular plate with a slot for a latch inside the case. The latch would open and close by simply pushing the button. To prevent random opening, a V-shaped spring was holding the deadbolt in its extreme position. The Isker latch had a secret mechanism, and nobody could open it without knowing it. The stops on both sides of the deadbolt were connected to the buttons. When the buckle was closed, rotating the stops to the deadbolt would get them stuck in its cuts, making it impossible to move the deadlock and open the buckle. Surely, similar items were quite common in Eastern Europe and were exported to the capital of the Khanate of Siberia, either with merchants or by trading. Moneybags were attributes of wealthy citizens who had to protect their savings from thieves.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1599575070.pdf
Number of views: 245      Download in PDF

33. Sergey S. Belousov
Influence of Railways on the Development of the Settlement Network in Astrakhan Province (the last quarter of the XIX – beginning of the XX century)

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 57. Is. 3: 1264-1271.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.3.1264CrossRef

The article analyzes the impact of railroads on the development of the settlement network in the Astrakhan province in the late XIX – early XX century. The article reveals the content of the process shown by the results described composition of immigrants, analysed the policy of the authorities in relation to rail migration, the peculiarities of the influence of railway’s on the settlement network in different districts of the Astrakhan province. The author notes that the appearance of railway transport introduced new features in the settlement process of Astrakhan province, while the formation of a settlement network along the railway tracks was a continuation of the previous policy of priority development of communication routes. The influence that the railways had on the settlement network of the province, in different parts of it, was not the same. In the Kyrgyz inner horde, the settlement network expanded and new commercial and industrial centers appeared due to the railway, the same was observed in the area of salt fields on the Baskunchak and Elton lakes, in other areas of the road's passage, its influence was not so significant, or even almost unnoticeable. The degree of influence depended on the natural conditions, socio-economic level of development of a particular area and its density of settlement. The population of railway stations was formed both by immigrants from other provinces and local residents. Among the settlers were many sectarians who spread propaganda of their teachings and managed to involve part of the Orthodox population in their societies, which in some localities led to their numerical dominance. The construction of railways played a positive role in the development of the settlement structure. It contributed both to the expansion of the settlement network and to the influx of population to old-time settlements through or near which the railway lines passed.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1599575149.pdf
Number of views: 254      Download in PDF

34. Viktor V. Titov
National Policy of Alexander III: an Attempt to Form an “Imperial Identity”

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 57. Is. 3: 1272-1280.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.3.1272CrossRef

This study focuses on the formation of a common "imperial identity" in the framework of the national policy of Alexander III. The aim of the present work is to assess the effectiveness of the “identity policy” of Alexander III and, in particular, its influence on the domestic political situation and the foreign policy position of the Russian Empire. The research methodology is based on a combination of case study elements, descriptive, structural and comparative analysis. The author comes to the conclusion that Alexander III, following the current trend of building a national state at that time, tried to form a single “imperial identity” through language expansion and the elimination of the elements of autonomy of individual parts of the empire. These measures were accompanied by the introduction of discriminatory practices in relation to specific ethnic groups. The latter was partly justified by the emergence of new external threats, partly by the spread of xenophobic stereotypes among representatives of the political establishment. It is also emphasized that in his policy the emperor often underestimated the extent of the spread of nationalism among individual peoples of the Russian Empire. Not given due attention and the role of foreign economic factors in the development of separatism. The policy of Russification was not accompanied by the development of the mass education system in Russian, which minimized its effectiveness. At the same time, the authorities failed to sufficiently smooth out social conflicts that arose as a side effect of the process of industrialization and the development of capitalist relations. The consequence of the latter was the erosion of the identity of the titular nation of the empire. Discrimination against specific ethnic groups contributed to the influx of its representatives into the revolutionary movement. This process contributed to the strengthening of xenophobic stereotypes, which provoked the expansion of repression by the authorities and public organizations affiliated with them. The latter naturally exacerbated the "national question" and strengthened the attractiveness of the revolutionary movement for "foreigners." Under these conditions, the efforts of the central authorities to strengthen the "imperial identity" gave only the opposite result. The national policy of Alexander III also contributed to the growth of anti-Russian sentiments within Europe and the United States.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1599575120.pdf
Number of views: 255      Download in PDF

35. Elena G. Guschina, Tatiana T. Titova, Adelia I. Khairullina, Arslan Kh. Mingaliev
Russian Collections in the Museum of Russian Studies of the Imperial Kazan University

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 57. Is. 3: 1281-1289.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.3.1281CrossRef

The article reconstructs the process of forming the collection on the Ethnography of the Russian people in the Museum of Russian studies of the Imperial Kazan University. The features of the collection at different historical stages are identified, and the composition of the collections is analyzed. The authors pay special attention to the role of the individual in the acquisition of funds and determining the trajectory of development of this collection. The materials used are extracts from reports on the state and functioning of the Imperial Kazan University, the Museum archive, inventories and the exhibits of the Ethnographic Museum of Kazan University. The authors come to the conclusion that this collection was actually disconnected from the research and educational process and did not have a scientific logic of formation. The main declared task of the collections was not solved: purposeful acquisition for a full and comprehensive representation of the peoples of the Volga region. These problems are explained by the peculiarities of scientific interest of Museum directors, who did not attach much importance to the specifics of ethnographic collections, and the lack of a tradition of keeping records. The authors were able to use museum and archive sources to identify the ownership of one collection (collector – N.L. Shabelskaya), which in Soviet times was designated as "a collection of unknown origin".

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1599575197.pdf
Number of views: 250      Download in PDF

36. Irina N. Litvinova
From the History of the Alexander Nevsky Cathedral in Tsaritsyn City (1888−1932)

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 57. Is. 3: 1290-1298.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.3.1290CrossRef

The article presents factual material about the creation and fate of the largest and most magnificent Cathedral in the Volga region, made in the Russian-Byzantine style, named after the Holy Prince Alexander Nevsky. The author analyze documentary sources related to important milestones in the construction of the main temple in Tsaritsyn-from the idea of creating it at the end of the XIX century to its destruction during the heyday of anti-religious principles of life in the country of the Soviets. The main Trustees – donors for the improvement of the temple were identified. A copy of the Cathedral, which was a fine example of the tradition of Byzantine architecture, is being re-erected in Volgograd today, as before, using public funds, and its history arouses considerable interest in society. The reconstruction of a relatively complete picture of the short-lived and complex fate of the temple, which was built for more than 15 years and remained the best architectural decoration of the city at the beginning of the twentieth century, is impossible without new research. Researchers-authors of the article cannot do without new "smart technologies" of the XXI century – three-dimensional reconstruction of this historical object. The materials of this article will be the historical basis for the reconstruction of the Cathedral using 3D models.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1599575226.pdf
Number of views: 250      Download in PDF

37. Fyalka N. Miymanbaeva, Nurzipa K. Alpysbayeva, Erke T. Kartabaeva, Gulzagira Zh. Oten
The Practice of Office Work in the Semirechensk Region in the late XIX – early XX centuries

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 57. Is. 3: 1299-1308.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.3.1299CrossRef

The purpose of this article is to study the practice of clerical work in the Semirechye region in the late XIX – early XX centuries. In the presented article on the basis of archival materials that are introduced into scientific circulation for the first time, normative regulation and clerical work of local government bodies were considered: county governors, volost managers (both Russian and Kyrgyz volosts), the structure of district and district offices was established; a list of paperwork required in the work; the storage periods of individual documents that ensure the adoption and implementation of management decisions are identified, the staff of the office staff is determined. Archival materials show that in the “Kyrgyz” volosts of Semirechye, the volost governors were Kazakhs, and the clerks under them consisted mainly of Russians; the documentation was conducted in two languages – russian and “native”, i.e. Kazakh or Uigur on the Arabic chart; when checking the county and volost clerical work, the regional leadership relied on the Regulation on Public Administration of 1870 and circulars of the Military Governor of the Semirechensk Region and the Punishment Ataman of the Semirechensk Region. The region’s leadership not only carefully monitored the documentation, but also trained the not very competent heads of volosts in the management of paperwork, including and accounting. An analysis of the organization and conduct of office work on the example of the Semirechensk region fills the gap in the study of office work on the outskirts of the Russian Empire.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1599575254.pdf
Number of views: 252      Download in PDF

38. Petr V. Fedotov
The Galilee School District of the Imperial Orthodox Palestine Society in the 1892–1914: Russian Employees of Inspectorate

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 57. Is. 3: 1309-1316.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.3.1309CrossRef

The article examines the activities of Russian employees of the inspectorate of the Galilee School District of the Imperial Orthodox Palestine Society (IOPS) in the 1892-1914s. The inspectorate became the first structure to coordinate the activities of various schools of IOPS in the Middle East. To a large extent, this structure was created by the efforts of the teacher of the Nazareth male boarding school, Alexander Ivanovich Yakubovich, an intelligent and active person. IOPS Secretary Vasily Khitrovo fully supported this activity. As part of a private charity, a bunch of these enthusiasts was extremely effective at first. In 1898, Russian employees of IOPS inspectorates received civil service rights, which helped to attract ambitious and well-educated people. The enthusiasm that contributed to the development of the IOPS inspectorates at the initial stage was reinforced by favorable institutional foundations. The activities of the Russian employees of the IOPS inspectorate of the Galilee School District in 1898-1914 was relatively successful, however, not very simple. The study of the motivation of these people and their real achievements allow us to obtain abundant empirical material about activities of Russians in the Middle East for a long time and evaluate the human capital that was invested in this project. The article is based on unpublished materials from the Archive of Foreign Policy of the Russian Empire – in particular, documents from the personal files of employees of the IOPS Galilee Inspectorate. The research methodology has an interdisciplinary nature – historical and psychological. The history of certain structure (inspectorate of the Galilee School District) is described in terms of the psychological motivation of employees.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1599575323.pdf
Number of views: 263      Download in PDF

39. Arnabai A. Nurzhanov, Gaukhar A. Kaldybaeva, Igor V. Krupko
The Russian Empire’s Scientific Heritage: V.V. Bartold and Central Asia

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 57. Is. 3: 1317-1326.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.3.1317CrossRef

The stage of gaining the cultural heritage of the steppe civilization was the study of archaeological sites in Kazakhstan by scientists of the Russian Empire. Important for national historiographies of the post-imperial space is the placement of specific personalities in the pantheon of historical memory. Of lasting importance in the study of medieval history and archeology of the South-Southeast Kazakhstan was the trip to this region of V.V. Bartold in 1893−1894. Based on numerous written sources the researcher gave the localization of cities, identifying them with specific monitored sites. He noted the ancient origins of urban culture in the area of the city of Almaty. This work is adjoined by the proximity of the topic "Essay on the history of the Seven Rivers", which retains its scientific significance, remaining the most complete and systematic review of the political history of the Seven Rivers from ancient times to the late Middle Ages. His fundamental research became the basis of numerous subsequent studies in the field of studying the historical topography of cities, their localization, their role in the historical events of antiquity and the Middle Ages, the history of the emergence and development of the cities themselves in the light of Turkic-Sogdian interactions. The organization of the Turkestan circle of archeology lovers in Tashkent in 1895, uniting representatives of the local intelligentsia, military men, and officials interested in the past, its history, monuments of architecture and art, is associated with the name of V.V. Bartold. In addition, even now, in the 21st century, modern researchers, in their attempts to conceptually develop the scientific environment of archaeological science, rely on empirically fundamental foundations laid down by academician V.V. Bartold.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1599575349.pdf
Number of views: 261      Download in PDF

40. Dimitri A. Bratkin, Dmitriy I. Weber, Valentin A. Perestoronin
Evolution of Robert Vipper’s Opinion of Early Christian History during his First Professorship in Moscow (1897−1922)

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 57. Is. 3: 1327-1339.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.3.1327CrossRef

The article discusses the development of the opinion of R.Yu. Vipper (1854−1954) on early Christianity. The historian Robert Vipper was an eminent member of the scholarly community of pre-revolutionary Russia and the professor of universal history in Moscow university. He spent the years from 1924 till 1940 in the emigration in Riga, and upon his return to Moscow in 1940 he published a few books and articles on Early Christianity. These would show the clear adherence to the Soviet views on the subject and sometimes this is taken as a manifestation of Vipper’s change of opinion. Whatever may be the case in any other subject of his diverse field of his scholarly interests, Vipper’s views on early Christian history show little, if any, change from the opinions he had professed before his exile. However, if one looks at his previous works that had been published in 1906–1918, it becomes perfectly obvious that key points of Vipper’s view of early Christianity were already present in this earlier stage of his scholarly career. The essence of these views is highly polemical. It presents a rather awkward construction, loosely based upon the concept of ‘Panbabylonism’, that makes Vipper a public anticlerical critic of religion, rather than a scholar of it that would use conventional historical-critical approaches.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1599575380.pdf
Number of views: 246      Download in PDF

41. Pavel N. Dudin
Russian Concessions on the Yalu River, 1897−1903: Who and How Formed the Opinion of Nicholas II about the "Korean Vector" of Imperial Politics in the Far East on the Eve of the Russo-Japanese War

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 57. Is. 3: 1340-1358.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.3.1340CrossRef

The article explores the process of changing the emperor’s opinion regarding Russian policy on the Korean Peninsula, which led to the war with Japan in 1904, based on previously unpublished documents of the Russian State Historical Archive addressed to Nicholas II. The main goal of the article is the historical and political characterization of the reasoning for securing Russian strategic interests on the Korean Peninsula and East Asia, presented to Nicholas II by representatives of "Bezobazov Circle" between the time of N.G. Matyunin was the first charge d'affaires with Korea and the creation of viceroyalty in the Far East. A related goal was the introduction into the scientific circulation of new documents containing the reflection of events that were turning points for Russia and entailed irreversible social and political processes that led to the disaster of 1917. Having regard the poor amount of scientific material and research positions on this issue, and a number of cliches formed in the Soviet period in relation to the events and personalities studied, the scientific novelty of the work presented are an attempt to rethink the arguments and actions of the participants of the "Korean project" is not from the perspective of court intrigues and struggle for influence and in the light of the imperial ideology and the natural needs of the process of expansion of the Russian empire in the Far East. For the first time in Russian historiography, not extracts from documents are presented, but parts of them that allow the reader to independently conclude the validity of the author's judgment. Particular attention is paid to arguments calling for the strengthening of Russia's position in the region and the mechanisms for their support, since, after a century, this task has not lost its relevance. In the end, conclusions are drawn that differ from the position established in science about the reasons for the failure of the investigated project and the role of each of its participants. The main conclusion is that Nicholas II often received “refined” information during active attempts to manipulate his consciousness and beliefs, which led to a change in his opinion about Russia's foreign policy in this direction but did not ensure the success of the project.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1599575402.pdf
Number of views: 200      Download in PDF

42. Nicholas W. Mitiukov, Svetlana L. Bautina
The Steamers of the Merchant I.I. Bodalev: the Arguments for the Shipbuilding And His Shipping Company on the Izhevsk Pond

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 57. Is. 3: 1359-1366.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.3.1359CrossRef

Available in the registers and ship lists of the early XX century, the indication of the place of construction of some of the steamers “Izhevsk’s Plant”, although noted by some authors, but so far remained without proper comments. Based on the analysis of the office documentation of Izhevsk’s Plants, it was concluded that it is impossible at this enterprise to shipbuilding not reflected in the documentation. In this regard, it was concluded that the existing indications of the construction site of the “Izhevsk’s Plant” do not refer to the “Izhevsk’s Arms and Steel Plants”, but to the settlement – the village of Izhevsk’s Plant. The most likely candidate for the Izhevsk private steamer is the merchant I.I. Bodalev (senior). Earlier, analyzing his activities at the brewery, N.P. Ligenko concluded that Bodalev gradually began to take control of all technological chains, from the production of raw materials to the transportation of finished products. And since at the end of the 19th century, Bodalev also began to actively take contracts for the supply of firewood, other raw materials and components to the Izhevsk’s plants, his failed attempt to monopolize water transport and shipbuilding on the Izhevsk pond seems logical. Izhevsk’s plants entered into a competitive struggle with Bodalev and as a result, by the beginning of the 20th century, ousted him to the Kama. Based on the analysis of photographs, archival documentation and information from periodicals, it was concluded that it is possible to build at least three steamers by Bodalev on the Izhevsk pond: “Izhevsk”, “Maria” and “Pchelka”. A comparative analysis of the ship architecture of the available photographs showed that all the steamers were built according to a standard design, although, judging by the office documentation, they differed in dimensions. All ships had a rather dubious innovation in the form of removable machines and boilers that could be used outside of navigation ashore. Shortly before, or soon after, the death of I.I. Bodalev (senior), two steamers were transported to the Kama and sold. "Pchelka" was owned by the “Izhevsk trade and industrial partnership”, which belonged to the son of I.I. Bodalev – I.I. Bodalev (junior), and in 1915 it was sold to the Izhevsk’s plants. Thus, Izhevsk’s plants became a monopoly of river transportation on the Izhevsk Pond.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1599575435.pdf
Number of views: 214      Download in PDF

43. Olga L. Protasova
Russian Neo-Populists the First Quarter of the XXth century in Inter-Party Relation and Interpersonal Relationships

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 57. Is. 3: 1367-1377.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.3.1367CrossRef

The article is devoted to the political and «human» relations between the two neo-national parties of Russia in the first quarter of the XX century – socialists-revolutionaries and people's socialists. The relevance of its subject is due to the usefulness of studying the experience of civilized, although not always quite constructive, political cooperation of democratic forces in the conditions of socio-economic and political-cultural modernization of the country in the early XX century and the epoch of the Great Russian revolution (1917). The novelty of the problem posed in this paper consists in applying not only a purely historical, but also a socio-psychological approach to the analysis of inter-party and interpersonal relations, which in fact turn out to be much more complex and unpredictable than the gradation on formal party grounds. The subject of the research is attempts at political cooperation of parties that are similar in ideological spirit, but different in political temperament. Analyzes the approaches of both organizations to major – moderate and radical methods of political struggle, the attitude to the possibilities for illegal activities, to find potential allies in the political arena; identified underlying contradictions between the parties on these issues. Considerable attention is paid to the socio-psychological characteristics of the leaders and leading ideologists of the parties – V. Chernov and A. Peshekhonov. It is shown how and why, with similar views on socialism – in their opinion, the progressive system of the future, a common adherence to the ideas of democracy, almost equally strict observance of moral principles in politics, and orientation to a common social platform («working people»), these organizations missed the opportunity to create a single party that would implement the ideals of democratic socialism.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1599575447.pdf
Number of views: 196      Download in PDF

44. Olga A. Arshintseva, Vyacheslav N. Kozulin, Pavel V. Ulyanov, Yury G. Chernyshov
The German Soldier in the “Enemy Image” in Russian Propaganda during the First World War (on the Proclamation Materials)

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 57. Is. 3: 1378-1386.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.3.1378CrossRef

This article analyzes the factors of the formation and development of the image of a soldier of the German Empire in Russian propaganda during the First World War (1914−1917). The study is based on material from Russian leaflets and proclamations, both in archives and published. The author's approach to the study of texts from original, published and unpublished sources is based on the method of analysis and is associated with imagology and sociocultural history. The authors of the article highlight the key features of the development of the image of German soldiers loyal to the Kaiser in the official propaganda aimed at shaping the fighting spirit and hatred of the "enemy" in the mass consciousness of Russian soldiers. They underline the massive and targeted nature of Russian propaganda. In the patriotic discourse of war leaflets and proclamations, negative characteristics and stereotypes were used to “dehumanize” the image of a soldier of the Second Reich. In conclusion, the authors emphasize that as the war continued, anti-German propaganda gave way to general war weariness. This, in turn, neutralized efforts to promote the "enemy image" in relation to the German soldier in the mass consciousness of Russian troops, freeing it from the stereotypes formed by official propaganda.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1599575461.pdf
Number of views: 205      Download in PDF

45. Lyudmila I. Rozhkova, Svetlana A. Shestakova, Inna I. Kharchenko, Natalia N. Kuzmenko
Charitable Activity in the Left Bank Ukrainian Provinces during the First World War

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 57. Is. 3: 1387-1399.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.3.1387CrossRef

The article highlights the main aspects of charitable activities in the Left-bank Ukrainian provinces during the First World War. The features of the activity and the interaction of local governments, public organizations, individual benefactors during the war are analyzed. Based on the study, the authors came to the conclusion that, compared to peacetime during the war years, charity took a variety of forms. The main manifestations of help were material and moral support for soldiers, custody of their families, the arrangement of hospitals, support for refugees and prisoners of war. The social, ethnic, and gender composition of benefactors has expanded significantly. For the first time, women took an active part in charity work. This activity brought together representatives of various ethnic communities, took the form of mutual assistance, contributed to the strengthening of national identity and the development of social activity. The authors focus on the historical lessons of the First World War, the values of charity, mutual assistance and self-organization of society in modern conditions. A significant number of archival sources and newspaper materials, which were published during the First World War, were put into scientific circulation.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1599575483.pdf
Number of views: 218      Download in PDF

46. Viktor N. Razgon, Kseniya A. Pozharskaya, Anton V. Razgon
Peasantry of the Altai Province and Cooperation (Based on the Materials of the All-Russian Agricultural Census of 1917)

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 57. Is. 3: 1400-1408.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.3.1400CrossRef

Based on the analysis of materials from the agricultural census of 1917, the article determines the level of participation in various types of cooperation of peasants of the Altai province, belonging to different settlement groups, and inside them – depending on the level of prosperity. The greatest level of involvement in butter-making cooperation was characteristic of old-time peasants, in the economy of which livestock farming has traditionally been the most profitable business. Less often than peasants of other settlement groups, Stolypin migrants participated in this type of cooperation, as they were at the initial stage of adaptation to new natural and sociocultural conditions. At the same time, migrants who were in dire need of credit for the purchase of agricultural implements and household items more often than old-timers became members of credit and consumer societies. In all the settlement groups of the Altai peasantry, the participation of peasants in butter-making cooperatives expanded as the number of dairy cattle on their farms increased. Membership in consumer cooperatives was most widespread among the wealthy groups of the Altai peasantry who had more financial opportunities to satisfy their consumer needs. Peasants belonging to the group with an average level of prosperity were most actively registered in credit cooperatives. The aspirations to participate in this type of cooperation between the prosperous and entrepreneurial groups of the peasantry were constrained by the restrictive policies of the tsarist government, which reflected the position of Siberia as an economic colony and the cessation of agricultural exports since the First World War.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1599575503.pdf
Number of views: 211      Download in PDF

47. Olga V. Natolochnaya, Yurii N. Makarov, Ruslan M. Allalyev, Vladimir A. Svechnikov
East European Historical Society (2015–2020): Foundation and Development

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 57. Is. 3: 1409-1412.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.3.1409CrossRef

This paper examines the diverse activity of the East European Historical Society, in conjunction with the institution’s fifth anniversary. A special focus is given to the Society’s life in the period from 2015 to 2020. The work’s materials are grounded in some specialized literature and a body of research literature, as well as certain resources available on the Center’s website. In working on this paper, the authors made wide use of the descriptive, statistical, and problem-historical methods, which helped put together a comprehensive picture of the relevant events in their historical sequence. Drawing a conclusion, the authors point out that over the first five years of the Society’s existence, its founders formulated regulatory documents, designed symbols, developed the organizational structure and identified key items on the agenda. The agenda primarily covers the following areas: supporting research projects on relevant topics (including organization of funded research competitions); ensuring wide publicity for the findings brought by studies in the history of Eastern Europe (engaging an information agency) and facilitating member publication activities (which is reflected in the Web of Science scientometric database).

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1599575525.pdf
Number of views: 240      Download in PDF

full number
URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1612271527.pdf
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URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1599053520.pdf
Number of views: 203      Download in PDF

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