Abstract: The article is devoted to the history of the formation of monastic land ownership in the Putivl district in the 17th century. The authors analyzed written sources containing landmarks on the ground and a map of the Putivl district of the end of the 18th century with toponyms and hydronyms, which are now lost. In addition, some names are associated with archeological monuments, which made it possible to clarify and supplement the passage of the boundaries of land holdings. As a result, three significant areas were identified, which were located near the city of Putivl, around the Molchensky swamp and at the confluence of the Beryukh River into Kleven River. These sites were practically uninhabited – only three villages on an area of more than 80 square km. Some settlements were empty, and their fields were not cultivated. The main income of the monks here was quitrent and crafts. The greatest attention is paid to fishing because of private fasts, the monks could not eat meat food and fish dishes came to the fore. The extraction of honey was mainly carried out by the inhabitants of Putivl, who gave part of the honey to the monastery brethren. In addition, the huge Linevsky forest was a source of building and firewood material, as well as a place for hunting. There is no mention of a mill in the document. At a later time, it was an obligatory attribute of the monastic economy. The brethren received the place and the right to build it earlier, but it is not known whether it was built. There is only a mention of dues for the use of a pond on the Beryuh River. From another document of the same time, it is known about the location of a powder mill here, owned by the Selitrennikov family of industrialists. In general, the Molchensky Monastery at the beginning of the 17th century was a large landowner oriented towards subsistence farming, mainly crafts.
Abstract: The article presents the experience of the temples in the study of the local territory of the Central Chernozem region during the XVII-XVIII centuries. It was the territory of the Belgorod line – a complex of military installations on the southern frontier of Russia. The authors focus on the rural population of three large districts: Voronezh, Belgorod and Yelets. Census books, economic notes to the maps of the general land surveying of 1795 became the basis for scientific work. The article draws important conclusions about the features of the internal colonization of Russia, shows the specifics of this phenomenon on the example of the southern frontier territory. It is established that the construction of a complex of military defense structures in the 1650s played an important role in the economic development of a vast and fertile region. This event significantly changed the social structure of society and disrupted the traditional development of landownership, but this made it possible to begin intensive land development and ensure a military offensive to the south. As a result, by the end of the 17th century, the form of small land ownership without peasant households (single-yard) began to prevail in the region. Smallandowners became the main social element in the structure of local society. Despite reforms of Peter the Great and the advance of the border to the south, the situation has not changed. In 1795, the number of smallandowners exceeded the number of peasants. The formation of this specific social element created favorable conditions for internal colonization.
Abstract: The article is devoted to the role of the Mongolian military-political disease in the history of Buddhism in Tibet. Mongolian folk roles played an exceptional role in the history of Tibetan Buddhism, providing military patronage to one or another school, and influencing the role of military forces in intra-religious conflicts in Tibet. During the period of the Mongol Empire, the Mongols turned out to be a military-political cover of the Sakya school, which was carried out to establish its domination meetings in Tibet. From the end of the 16th century an alliance of the Mongols and Oirats with the Gelug school begins to form. Thanks to the military and political support of the Oirats in the middle of the 17th century. political power in Tibet was taken over by the Gelug, which set about establishing a theocracy here. At the same time, the data on infection among those affected by Tibetan schools pursued not so much religious as religious goals and in this sense cause conflicts between Catholic orders for political influence. In the following period, the Oirats continued to actively participate in the political life of Tibet. During the emergence of Galdan Boshoktu Khan, a plan arose for many states of the Oirats and Mongols under the spiritual patronage of the Dalai Lama, which, however, was not implemented in the power of influence. In general, it can be noted that the military-political factor had a significant impact on the religious history of Tibet.
Abstract: This article deals with economic crimes regulated by the norms of positive and customary law of the Ural peoples in the XVII – first half of the XVIII centuries. The authors came to the conclusion that the Russian legislator sought to include all national territories as much as possible in the economic development of the entire state. The official recognition by the state of the norms of customary law and its regulatory potential was based on a far-sighted state policy, since the legislator realized that the norms of customary law reflected centuries of experience in regulating traditional social relations.
Economic crimes were regulated not only by the norms of positive, but also by customary law among the Ural peoples in the XVII – first half of the XVIII centuries. An analysis of historical sources testifies to the frequent commission of crimes of an economic nature, among which the theft of hunting and fishing objects, deer, other livestock, as well as theft of state, merchant property and property of pioneers, foreigners-traders were especially prominent. In addition, non-payment of debt and misappropriation of other people's property were common. Thefts and robberies were often accompanied by violence, often ending in murder.
Positive and customary law contained various forms of punishment for the commission of such acts. As a punishment in positive law, the death penalty, mutilation punishments, etc. were used. The norms of customary law prescribed that such violators be punished by “expulsion from their own fishing grounds”, the use of disgraceful forms of punishment, public censure, etc. But, it is important to understand that customary law singled out circumstances that preclude guilt. Also, a number of acts were not qualified by customary law as unlawful at all, among which it is necessary to name the sale, donation of a woman, children, causing property damage to a foreigner.
Abstract: In this article we will focus on the discourses and narratives represented in board games of the French Revolution. These sources are important for understanding everyday cultural practices, because board games could depict the transformation of society and the state in France during the Revolutionary years. Based on the games that illustrated the transformation of society and the state in France during the Revolution, the discourse they created will be analyzed to determine the characteristics in the perception of power, state, and society during the French Revolution.
The methodology of the study is based on the approaches of new cultural history, history of mentalities, and new political history. The study will show that the games “in the goose” of the French Revolution served as an instrument of propaganda among society of revolutionary ideals, on the one hand, with the subversion of the former order, on the other, and also served as an instrument of propaganda of the idea of political progress, to which the French Revolution was leading.
Abstract: Watercraft such as rafts and boats were required to convey goods and people across the major rivers and lakes of Central Asia and vast Kazakh steppes. There was made “mes sal” using the skins of wholly slaughtered bulls, horses and camels. The skin of the cattle was blown and fastened tightly, several blown meses were tied together and a wooden platform was placed on its top. Four, six or eight blown skins of livestock were used to make one “mes sal”. The mes made of camel-skin was described in the memoirs of the X century traveler – Ibn Fadlan. There were reports that mes sal was used in Kazakhstan until the beginning of the XX century. In the beginning of the XVIII century, a simple swimming tool “raft” was used, which was made of logs, a bundle of reeds and willow branches. That is because in the second half of the ХІХ century, the Kazakhs living near the Syrdarya River compacted the reeds to each other growing along the river, tied and combined with long, then a series of reed bundles was assembled horizontally and made temporary raft to cross the river. It was mainly used in rivers with frequent channel changes, as the rafts could not withstand the current. The boat was one of the most widely used watercraft utilized in various sectors of the household for transporting people and goods, fishing. There were more than twenty types of boats in Kazakhstan, depending on the structure, size and design.
Abstract: The purpose of this article is a comparative analysis of the population of the villages of the main subregions of the Kuban: Chernomoriya, Staraya Liniya and Zakubanye. The main materials in the preparation of this work were a variety of sources, including documents from the funds of the State Archive of the Krasnodar Territory, the Archival Department of the administration of Armavir and the Archival Department of the administration of the municipality of Mostovsky district, most of which are being introduced into scientific circulation for the first time. Of the published sources, the most significant for us are the materials of the censuses of 1897 and 1917, descriptions of villages, as well as notes and correspondence in regional periodicals. The social composition of the inhabitants, the attitude of the Cossacks to the alien element is analyzed. The characteristic of the ethnic and religious affiliation of the inhabitants is given. It is concluded that in the second half of the XIX – early XX centuries, the development of such parts of the Kuban region as the Staraya Liniya, Chernomoriya and Zakubanye, despite subordination to general trends, had its own characteristic features. They were determined by the circumstances of the initial development of these territories, their natural, economic and geographical conditions, as well as the activities of regional and local authorities. Under the influence of these factors, in the villages founded in various parts of the Kuban, by 1917, a specific ethno-religious and social composition of the inhabitants was formed, which represents an interesting and important phenomenon of the "Russian-speaking population", which contributed to the strengthening of the central government on the outskirts. The appearance of the Old Believer population and other unorthodox movements in the Kuban villages indicated that the government wanted to remove these denominations from the center of Russia both to maintain ideological uniformity and to eliminate "passionaries" to the periphery.
Abstract: The article analyses some institutional aspects of the Kyiv Theological Academy as one of the most important institutions of spiritual education, research activities, as well as cultural and educational centre of Ukraine and the Russian Empire as a whole. It has been shown that the Kyiv theological academy had been a kind of “personnel smithy” for the needs of both spiritual and secular educational institutions, bodies of state power and local authorities.
It is noted that in the process of reforming the system of education in the Russian Empire was formed a vertical of spiritual educational institutions in which theological academies have the status of specialized higher theological institutions, headed by the corresponding spiritual-educational districts. There were four such districts in the Russian Empire: Kiev, Kazan, Moscow and St. Petersburg.
There was a determining influence on institutional activity and features of organizational structure of Kyiv Theological Academy of charters of orthodox theological academies. Charters of 1814, 1869, 1884, 1910 determined staffing of the academy, number of students, order of holding vacant posts, order of conferring of degrees and ranks etc.
Authorities of Kyiv Theological Academy collegiate bodies were determined – Conference of the Academy, internal and external (district) Board of the Academy which exercised direct administration of Kyiv Theological Academy. The higher management system of Kyiv Theological Academy (rector, inspector) in their interrelation with other subjects of management in the system of higher education of the Russian empire was described.
Abstract: This article is devoted to the study and general characteristics of the first completed Constitutional Project of the Russian Empire, created on the instructions of Emperor Alexander I in 1820. The authors examined the key events of the late XVIII – early XIX centuries, which became the primary prerequisites for the decision of Emperor Alexander I on the need to work on the creation of the draft constitution of the Russian Empire, namely: the influence of the Enlightenment era on the development of foreign states, the adoption of the constitutions of a number of states, the increased role of the Russian Empire in the political arena of Europe after the victory over Napoleon in the War of 1812, as well as the personal views of Emperor Alexander I on the path of successful development of the Russian Empire. The authors studied the main works on the draft constitutions of such statesmen as: Baron G.A. Rosenkampf, M.M. Speransky, and N.N. Novosiltsev. The project of N.N. Novosiltsev, as the most complete work, was studied and described by the authors of this study in the most detail. In this article, the authors present a detailed analysis of the structure of this draft Constitution, emphasizing its main provisions and highlighting key constitutional principles such as the unity of the state, separation of powers, inviolability of private property, freedom of information dissemination, etc. In addition, the authors conducted a comparative analysis, in which the draft of N.N. Novosiltsev was compared with the draft of M.M. Speransky, as well as with the Constitutions of other states. In addition, the main reasons why the draft constitution of N.N. Novosiltsev was never implemented were formulated: insufficient elaboration of constitutional reforms, the growth of the liberation movement in Western European countries, as well as the early death of the emperor and the subsequent ascension to the throne of his younger brother, the conservative emperor Nicholas I.
Abstract: In modern humanitarian knowledge, which also includes archaeological knowledge, the most important role is played by the civil position of the researcher, the understanding of the humanistic orientation of science. This article is devoted to the consideration of the views of the outstanding Russian historian I.E. Zabelin on the role of the concept of “nationality” and “folk life” in relation to archaeology. The task of reconstructing the scientist's ideas related to determining the place of archeology in the life of society and the nature of science is solved on the basis of unpublished archival materials. In the course of the study, new accents were placed in his assessment as an archaeologist, teacher, citizen, what is the novelty of this work. The materials of this study were handwritten lecture notes compiled by E.I. Zabelin in the 1860s, for reading in front of an audience consisting of artists, as well as diaries and autobiography of the scientist. In historiography, the work of I.E. Zabelin was not considered in the perspective chosen in this article. In his lectures, I.E. Zabelin argues that modern ideas can be realized only by referring to the heroic past of the people. By “nationality” in archaeology, a scientist understands the study of both the material and spiritual culture of the past. Based on the history of archeology, the researcher points out the need to study not only classical antiquities, but also monuments of other peoples. Innovative are his reflections on the «living» and “dead” ways of developing archaeology as a science. The development of archaeological knowledge in Russia, for reasons not always of an academic nature, followed a “dead” path, which led to small-scale, regional-chronological isolation, and emphasized the empirical nature of research. The thesis of the unity of historical and archaeological knowledge has entered into the tradition of Russian science. I.E. Zabelin in his lectures was repeatedly ahead of his time, justifying the use of the term “type” of archeology, advocating a combination of archaeological practice and theory, defending the need to study all aspects of folk life. In Russian science, this was talked about more than a century after the lectures of I.E. Zabelin.
Abstract: The article is dedicated to a source study analysis of the testimonies of former Russian slaves in Central Asia of the 19th century, taken by the officials of Orenburg Governorate. The author shows that such testimonies are quiet numerous and carry important value for the study of Central Asia slavery in general. At the same time the officials who were gathering them proceeded from a rather specific position: subjects of the Russian Empire who had been in slavery in Central Asia were viewed as “Russian captives”/”captured Russians”. Firstly, this led to a situation when, while taking the testimonies, the most attention would usually be dedicated not to the period a person had spent in slavery, but to their capture itself. Therefore, often in the testimonies the detailed descriptions of capturing are followed by descriptions of long years in slavery, but they come down to one or two sentences and do not at all reveal the features of a person’s time in slavery. Secondly, such inattention to the realities of a person’s time in slavery, in turn, led the fact that under the designation of “Russian captives”/”captured Russians” most diverse categories of people were united: both slaves and persons long granted their freedom, and even children of these people who were never enslaved. The author comes to a conclusion that, for this reason, the stories of “Russian captives” should be studied on microlevel, treating contemporaries’ generalizations about “Russian captives” with a certain amount of caution, since in practice the social status of these people could differ significantly.
Abstract: The study opens a series of publications about the formation and development of the oil industry in the Caspian-Black Sea region of Russia. The article analyzes the formation and development of the oil production and refining industry in the Transcaucasian region of Russia at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries. The authors consider the historical and economic prerequisites and factors of the formation of the Caspian-Black Sea oil region before the start of industrial development of oil fields. The actions of the Russian state on the annexation of the Baku field to the Russian possessions and the beginning of oil production are emphasized. The role of domestic entrepreneurs, engineers and scientists in the development of the oil wealth of the south of Russia is emphasized. The inventions of engineers that were developed and used for the first time during the development of the oil industry in Azerbaijan, Armenia and Georgia are considered. The article reveals the chronological order of the development of the oil industry – from the first mentions of Absheron in history to the formation of the world's strongest oil industry in terms of oil production rates in the Baku area. For the first time in the study of the industry at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries, the authors studied the historical, legal, scientific and technical, economic, logistical, economic and political aspects of the creation and development of the Russian oil industry.
Abstract: I.E. Zabelin (1820−1908) is known as an outstanding historian and archaeologist, but as a teacher of the Russian higher school he is much less known. In this work, the program of the course "Russian history in connection with archaeology", stored in the archive of the scientist, is introduced into scientific circulation. Ivan Egorovich gave lectures on historical disciplines to students of the Konstantinovsky Boundary Institute from 1853 to 1865. Turning to the experience of teaching archaeology accumulated by Russian pedagogy opens up a way for modern archaeological education to get out of the state of crisis in which it is located. The identification of I.E. Zabelin's civic position through the prism of his reflections on teaching history and archeology to young people, the clarification of the scientist's contribution to the methodology and didactics of historical disciplines is fundamentally new. The concept of teaching archaeology, which was developed and applied by I.E. Zabelin, has not been considered in detail in the literature. I.E. Zabelin introduces into his course a new study of folk folklore as a source for that time, introduces students to an innovative approach to the study of Slavic settlements, developed by Z. Khodakovsky. The example of the course program shows that I.E. Zabelin was ahead of his time more than once. He grouped ancient artifacts by material and purpose, introduced listeners to the technology of antiquities production. An undoubted contribution to the theory of archaeology is the presentation of archaeology as a historical discipline, which has firmly entered the Russian scientific tradition. I.E. Zabelin was a talented teacher, turned to historical and material sources to create his course, used the principle of clarity in teaching. He saw the task of archeology in studying the life of the people, instilled in students a love of reading scientific literature, working with ancient artifacts, attention to the destinies and ideals of his people. The pupils appreciated and loved their teacher. Awareness of the humanistic orientation of archaeology, reliance in teaching on the whole range of sources, a high civic position are important for the archaeological education of the XXI century.
Abstract: The article deals with Russian medicine in the Kazakh steppe in the context of the interaction of traditions and cultures. It attempts to more fully reveal the role of Russian medicine in the development of new territories in the 19th century. In particular, in addition to the actual medical practices introduced among the nomadic Kazakh population and the administrative measures of medical control, attention is also paid to the “accompanying” functions of Russian doctors, as ethnographers, collecting the most detailed information about the new territories of the empire and their inhabitants. Accordingly, their medical practice is considered in the context of a dialogue of cultures and the development of newly annexed lands. In addition to highlighting the main stages of Russian medicine’s penetration into the Kazakh steppe, the work attempts to trace changes in cultural narratives, highlighting their main features: the romanticization of the nomadic population due to their proximity to nature, the formation of Russian orientalism and, over time – from the middle of the 19th century – increasing attention to the intellectual and moral abilities of the nomadic population, which distinguished them from all neighboring peoples and which were considered by the Russian administration and doctors in the formation of cultural policy in the newly annexed lands. The mention of such abilities from the middle of the 19th century occurs in the narratives of Russian doctors already in a more functional context, with the inclusion of local culture in the general socio-cultural space and its corresponding transformation and cultural transfer.
Abstract: This article discusses the causes and creation of the Gagra fortification on the Black Sea coast in 1830, the daily combat activities of the Gagra garrison, as well as the final stage associated with the abandonment of the fortification and its destruction.
As materials of the study there were used a variety of sources, such as acts of the Caucasian Archeographic Commission, memoirs of participants in the events under study and, first of all, S.T. Zvanba, N.N. Rayevsky, A.A. Bestuzhev, A.D. Nordman, F.F. Tornau, G.I. Philipson, etc.
The methodological basis was based on content analysis, historical-systemic and historical-genetic methods. Semiotic and mathematical/quantitative methods were applied from non-traditional historical methods.
In conclusion, the authors state that the Gagra fortification, created in the Gagra Gorge in 1830, secured the coastal road from Jigetiya to Abkhazia, the flow of robber raids into Abkhazia significantly decreased, and after the adoption of Russian citizenship by the jigets, the raids practically stopped. Due to the outbreak of the Crimean War in March 1854, all the fortifications of the Black Sea coastline were liquidated, except Gagrin, which served as a cover for Abkhazia from the north from the penetration of Caucasian tribes. Thanks to the Greek skipper Saranto Photios and his crew of the ship “Sv. Ioann” the Gagrin garrison of 606 people was safely evacuated to Kerch.
Abstract: The article considers the influence of merchants on the development of female education in the Russian province during the second third of the 19th century (based on the materials of Vologda province). Women’s education started being differentiated from the common school system in 1800-1820. It became possible due to the adoption of such educational documents as “Statute of educational institutions subordinated to universities” and “Statute of gymnasiums and schools of district and parish” that were released in 1804 and 1828 respectively. In 1830−1850 women’s parochial schools started appearing in Vologda Province thanks to the big support of local merchants. The examples of such schools were Kadnikovskoe (1838), Gryazovetskoe (1840), Yarenskoe (1843), Veliko-Ustyugskoe (1844). Another important educational document devoted to female education was implemented in 1858. It was “Regulations on women's schools” that contributed to the establishment of women’s schools in Vologda, Totma, Ust-Sysolsk and Yarensk. All of this happened thanks to the huge support of local merchants, who became the initiators of the opening of women’s schools in Totma and Ust-Sysolsk. At the same time the merchants’ wives became the trustees of such schools (however, there was an exceptional case in Ust-Sysolsk where the merchant of the 1st guild Latkin V.N. got to be the trustee according to the particular rule of law). Among the significant sources of women’s schools support were means of local merchants who bought a lot of books, schools supplies and furniture. Besides, they were really involved into the charity and donated money during such holidays as Easter and Christmas. The buildings – where the women’s schools were situated – also were taken care of by merchants. For instance, in 1858-1859 in Ust-Sysolsk the merchant Zaboev I.N. built a wooden building for the women’s school using his own money. Thus, the local merchants gave wide and complex support to the development of female education in Vologda province.
Abstract: The article is devoted to the projects of the collection device from drinking, developed by the famous tax collector V.A. Kokorev in the 1840s and 1860s. The relevance of the work is due to the significance of the historical experience of drinking transformations for understanding the orientation of the alcohol policy of the Russian state, as well as the need for a scientific assessment of the reformist views of individuals. Kokorev is presented in the article as a leader of public opinion. The projects developed by him were aimed at giving a new impetus to the organization of the drinking collection. The project of the excise commission was implemented, the excise project was left without consequences, as well as the project of the establishment of the “Agency for the drinking part” and “Partnership for the construction of Railways”. The development of all three projects was carried out in accordance with the ideological and theoretical canon of the tax collector, according to which Russia should have a special way of organizing collection from drinking. The first and second projects provided for the "repair" of the off-site building, the changes concerned only the process of purchasing wine from producers, pricing, and the system of control over the turnover of drinks. The third project was to prevent the introduction of the Western excise system. All of Kokorev's projects line up in one succession-related "line" and have similarities with each other, mainly in that they transferred the controlling functions to a certain corporation, but not to the state. At the same time, the projects differed, in some places the differences were cardinal. The third project looked the most profitable for the state, but even in it, under the cover of concern for the people's welfare and state revenues, the attempts of the “big tax collector” are seen to keep an exceptionally profitable business in their own hands.
Abstract: The article analyzes the works of the Russian scientist-historian of the late imperial period, the General G.E. Katanaev devoted to the study of history of the Chingizids states of Siberia and Central Asia.
The source base for the study were articles published by G.E. Katanaev on the history of Siberia and the Russian state, as well as his unpublished work, kept in the personal fund of the general in the Historical Archive of the Omsk Region.
There were shown noted in the works of G.E. Katanaev the medieval states ruled by representatives of the Chingizids dynasty, the circle of his scientific interests in the history of relations between the Chingizids of Siberia, Central Asia with the Russian state and neighboring peoples is outlined. The most significant historical persons who played an important role in the history of the region under study are identified. The data collected by G.E. Katanaev on the history of individual states of the Chingizids is systematized, their assessments and characteristics given by the author are shown, and an understanding of his works is carried out.
Being a historian of the Siberian Cossacks, General G.E. Katanaev paid more attention to the history of the region and specifically the history of the Siberian Khanate, in which the Chingizids ruled along the line of Shiban, one of the sons of Jochi. Among the main plots in his works, in terms of volume and main attention, the struggle of the Siberian Khan Kuchum and his descendants with Russian governors and Cossacks stands out.
However, in addition to the Siberian Khanate, G.E. Katanaev in his writings paid attention to other states of the Chingizid, among which the Kazakh Khanate occupies a prominent place, in which the Tukatimurids, representatives of another line of Chingizids, ruled.
The authors concluded that the works of G.E. Katanaev as a historiographical source reflecting the development of scientific knowledge in the late imperial period on the history of the Chingizids states in Siberia and Central Asia.
Abstract: The authors consider the creation and activity of the Krasnoyarsk Volunteer Fire Society in the second half of the XIX – early XX centuries. The circumstances of its establishment, the nature of interaction with the city and provincial authorities, fire-fighting measures have been investigated. The Society played an important role and made a significant contribution to the fight against fires. However, in general, the Krasnoyarsk City Duma did not seek to increase spending on firefighting, despite the fact that the number of citizens was growing. The improvements that took place depended on the initiative and energy of individuals and were rather random, rather than systemic. It was important not only to extinguish fires, but also to prevent them, which required large material investments, but due to the financial weakness of the self-government, landscaping was at a low level. The Krasnoyarsk Volunteer Fire Society actually received the functions of fire supervision in rural areas on the territory of the counties of the Yenisei province: carried out educational work on fire fighting and monitoring compliance with legislation, was engaged in supplying settlements with fire equipment, promoted the creation of voluntary squads, etc. Nevertheless, the condition of rural fire wagons remained primitive throughout the pre-revolutionary period. The outbreak of the First World War caused a significant weakening of the fire society, since a significant part of its members and horses were mobilized to the front. It is concluded that, in general, the development of firefighting was associated with the need to implement complex socio-economic transformations in the country.
Abstract: The article analyzes the contribution of the Kazakh historian A.L. Zakharenko to the study of the history of Siberia in the second half of the 19th century and the socio-historical connections between Kazakhstan, Siberia, the Volga region, and the Urals through the use of the method of intellectual biography. Siberia in the second half of the 19th – early 20th centuries underwent socio-political changes in which a new category of people – “raznochintsy” – played a noticeable role. They united in organizations such as “Siberian community” and formed the socio-political movement of «oblastnichesvo». Kazakhstan in this period, due to its geographical and historical circumstances, was closely linked to Siberia. In the second half of the 19th century, the formation of the national Kazakh intelligentsia was taking place, which had close cultural and educational ties with the Siberian oblastnichesvo, especially with its outstanding representatives such as G.N. Potanin and N.M. Yadrintsev. The study of Siberian oblastnichesvo, the life and activities of individual oblastniki, and the cultural and socio-political interconnection between Siberia, Kazakhstan, the Urals, and the Volga region is particularly significant for the historical science of Kazakhstan. Zakharenko is one of the first Kazakh scientists who has achieved significant results in the field of Siberian studies.
Abstract: The problem of religious extremism constantly attracts the attention of various researchers. Religion has an important role in maintaining social stability and legitimizing State power. The separation of religious organizations in the Russian Empire was carried out according to the principle of their relationship to the state power and the Russian Orthodox Church. Actions that could provoke the destabilization of the current socio-religious situation were also noted. The object of study of this article is Russian religious sectarianism. It is considered by the authors as a historical form of religious extremism containing deviant and delinquent components. The legal and religious characteristics, the author's classification of religious sectarian organizations operating at the turn of the century on the territory of the Yenisei province, in accordance with the criteria of religious extremism are given: interreligious hatred and enmity, radical change in the existing socio-political structure on a religious basis, a statement of exclusivity, the use of violence against opponents. The content of the concepts of “sectarianis” and “schism” used by the political institutions of the Yenisei province in relation to Old Believers, international movements, ancestral faith and philosophical and theological movements is differentiated. The authors note that the concept of «sectarianism» was mainly used in relation to religious organizations that separated from Orthodox Christianity, offering their own interpretation of the doctrine and opposing the performance of state duties. A pronounced negative attitude towards them was observed precisely from the state, which perceived this behavior as an encroachment on the authority of the authorities, with a rather restrained position of the Russian Orthodox Church.
Abstract: The article examines the activities of the Orthodox clergy of the Penza diocese in countering alcoholization of the population in the second half of the XIX – early XX centuries. The fight against drunkenness was one of the directions of pastoral care. In the second half of the XIX – early XX centuries, temperance societies, including parochial ones, played an important role in distracting the population from drunkenness. During the period under study, special attention was paid to the issue of the sober movement and the activities of the Orthodox clergy in the struggle for the piety of the flock. The main measures to combat the national disease were preaching, home visits, private conversations, sobriety holidays, distribution of special brochures. The study focuses on the regulatory framework regarding the direction of the activities of the Orthodox clergy, measures and recommendations from the diocesan authorities on the issue of combating the spread of alcohol addiction.
The article provides information on the functioning of the Guardianship of People's Sobriety on the territory of the Penza province since 1901, as well as their activities.
Abstract: The article deals with the problem of Russian merchant shipping along the Manchurian Sungari River in the late 19th – early 20th centuries. Initially, private entrepreneurs-ship owners, Amur steamship companies and steamships of the CER Society took part in it, after the Russo-Japanese War in Manchuria, only ships of the CER Society remained to operate. The Russian railway in Manchuria became the most important factor in supporting Russian merchant shipping along the Songhua, since in the absence of access to the South Manchurian market, the river acted as a natural supply route to the CER. River trade in Manchuria allowed Russia to solve several strategic issues. Firstly, navigation along the Songhua River has always been considered by the Russian authorities to maintain their own influence in Northeast China. Secondly, the delivery of grain and livestock from the Manchurian cities made it possible to provide the Far Eastern periphery of Russia with provisions. The article studies in detail the listed features and stages of Russian navigation along the Songhua River, analyses the statistical data on cargo transportation on Russian steamships, and examines the main problems faced by river navigation in Manchuria. The study is based on little-studied materials from the Russian State Historical Archive.
Abstract: The article deals with the problems of autonomy in the context of the historical development of the Russian Empire. The autonomy of the territorial units of a large state, which Russia has always been, is a complex and multifaceted process that depends on many factors. An analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the process of autonomization in the Russian Empire is given – an issue that is also relevant for modern Russia. For this reason, the issue of autonomy is still a subject of discussion for both scientists and practitioners, just as it has been for centuries in Russian society. The article describes the political and administrative measures taken by the government of the Russian Empire to provide varying degrees of autonomy to various regions and ethnic groups of the country. These measures, although they had some success in relation to the promotion of local self-government and the preservation of cultural diversity, but faced significant problems and restrictions for various reasons, especially in the context of increased control and centralization by the monarchical power. The tension between the desire of the central government for control and the desire of the local population for more self-government is noted. The authors emphasize that the difficulties of the autonomization process of the empire were associated with regional differences, the unique history and culture of different regions, and linguistic differentiation. To support his arguments, the authors use a number of academic sources, including legal acts and materials of scientific discussions. An attempt to consider the problem of autonomization of the territorial units of the Russian Empire is correlated in the article with the historical realities characteristic of Russia with a projection on the present.
Abstract: The paper considers the pedagogical periodical press of the Kharkiv educational district in the period from 1860 to 1917.
There were used as sources various reference and encyclopedic literature, as well as materials of the pre-revolutionary periodical press. Among the first there are encyclopedic and reference works related to the research topic, and among the second are materials of the pre–revolutionary periodical press (for example, “Zhurnal uchitelya” and “Vestnik vneshkol'nogo obrazovaniya”). In the research methodology, the historical-chronological method and the method of content analysis are of great importance. The use of these methods made it possible to identify publications related to the research topic from a significant array of periodicals and to consider the process of development of pedagogical periodicals on the territory of the Kharkiv Educational District in historical retrospect.
In conclusion, the authors state that in the period from 1860 to 1917, 11 pedagogical journals were published at different times on the territory of the Kharkiv Educational District. The experience of opening pedagogical journals was available in almost all provinces and regions of the Kharkiv educational District, with the exception of only the Kursk province. At the same time, the experience of opening a professional periodical press was different. Thus, all three journals created in Novocherkassk during the First Russian Revolution were, in fact, anti-government in nature and could not exist for any length of time. With a short period of publication, there was also a “Tambovskii narodnyi uchitel'” (2 issues were released). All other journals either existed for a long period of time, for example, “Filologicheskie zapiski” (1860–1917), “Tsirkulyar po Khar'kovskomu uchebnomu okrugu” (1861–1916), or were closed already in the conditions of the First World War (“Nauka i shkola”, “Izvestiya po narodnomu obrazovaniyu Voronezhskoi gubernii” and “Vestnik vneshkol'nogo obrazovaniya”).
Abstract: The problems of multiple representations of provinciality, as well as the formation of the identity of the region, are considered in the article. Based on the analysis of an array of sources published and introduced into scientific circulation for the first time (office materials, epistolary heritage documents, fiction literature), as well as the results of research practice, the factors, content and specifics of the development of self-awareness of the Penza community are determined in the abolition of serfdom and liberal reforms of 1860th context. The unique experience of reception and exploration of innovative characteristics was studied on the example of M.E. Saltykov-Shchedrin as Chairman of the Penza State Chamber.
A comparative analysis of documentary evidences and the grotesque of Penza representations in the works of the great writer makes it possible to identify the most significant subjects of social perception and the contradictions of the initial stage of sociocultural transformation. The status of a “noble nest”, an outpost of noble land expansion, the complex nature of ethnopolitical evolution, the incompleteness of social integration processes predetermined the crisis-cyclical logic of the Russian hinterland identity development in the first decades of post-reform development. At the same time, it should be noted that there are opportunities in the social environment for the perception of innovative ideas and behavioral strategies that correspond to the initial stage of the assertion of modern consciousness.
Abstract: The paper considers the system of public education on the territory of the Tambov province in the period 1861–1917. This part of the article analyzes the period from 1861–1900.
The commemorative books of the Tambov province from 1861 to 1900 are used as sources. The statistical data in this source on the education system are very fragmentary, which causes significant difficulties in the analysis. “The most comprehensive reports of the Chief Prosecutor of the Holy Synod” cover only educational institutions of the church department.
The research methodology includes a set of historical methods, such as historical-system, historical-comparative, historical-typological, historical-genetic and historical-statistical methods, as well as a number of general scientific research methods, such as synthetic analysis, content analysis, system analysis.
In the course of the work, the authors came to the conclusion that the system of public education of the province developed unevenly, the special growth of ministerial educational institutions occurred in the 70-90s of the XIX century, during which the number of educational institutions increased three times; secondary education also significantly increased.
A strong increase in the primary educational institutions of the spiritual department was observed in the period from 1884 to 1900 (the number of parochial schools and literacy schools increased from 29 to 1186). The number of students has also grown (from 931 people to more than 45 thousand).
In general, in terms of the pace of education development and literacy coverage of the province's population, the Tambov province in the second half of the XIX century showed very good results, significantly overtaking other territories of the Russian Empire (in particular, most of the regions and provinces of the Caucasian Educational District, as well as Astrakhan, Penza, Vologda and other provinces).
Abstract: The article from the standpoint of the history of the state and law reveals the causes and conditions, characteristic features and statistics of riots among the contingent of Russian places of detention at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries. The author analyzes the actions of the prison administration, supervision, police and military formations to neutralize riots and unrest among prisoners. The influence on the level of riots in places of deprivation of liberty of the state of discipline and the regime of serving sentences in penitentiary institutions of the Russian Empire is shown. The author conducts a direct dependence of the riots and unrest on the development of the socio-political conditions that have developed in the Russian Empire, and comes to the conclusion that a characteristic feature of the revolutionary period was the active participation in the mass riots aimed at the release of prisoners by their accomplices and associates who remained at large.
The article is prepared on the basis of various sources, archival materials first of all. Many of them are being introduced into scientific circulation for the first time. The article uses both general scientific (historical, logical, dialectical, system-functional synthesis and analysis), and special-historical (statistical and historical-comparative) methods of cognition. The paper shows statistical data obtained from various sources on incidents that took place in places of detention, which served as elements of riots. The author comes to the conclusion about the significant scale and great public danger of riots among the prisoners of Russian penitentiary institutions. Their development was associated with the formation of a revolutionary situation, negative changes in the composition of prisoners, as well as the state of the regime of serving sentences and places of deprivation of liberty.
Abstract: After the end of the Caucasian War, an active socio-cultural integration of the mountain peoples into the Russian Empire began. In the second half of the 19th century, the main principles and characteristic features of the state structure of the North Caucasus were formed as part of the Russian Empire. A system of administrative and state administration took shape, taking into account the religious and cultural specifics of the mountain peoples. This article is based on an interdisciplinary approach that combines historical-archival and socio-cultural analysis, a systematic view of various factors of Russification and socio-cultural integration of mountain peoples. Such mechanisms of socio-cultural integration of the highlanders as the spread of the Russian language, the formation of Russian education, the incorporation of highland elites through military and public service are considered. Despite the state course to strengthen the role of the Russian language by expanding its use in public administration and education, elements of the administrative and cultural autonomy of the mountain peoples, respect for their culture, language and traditions were preserved. In most cases, integration did not cause active protest from the mountain population, many mountaineers considered Russification as an expansion of opportunities for raising their social status and career growth. In the process of interaction between the Russian and mountain peoples, a mutual socio-cultural transformation and partial assimilation took place.
Abstract: During the modernization of Russian society in the second half of the XIX - early XX centuries, the principles of family assistance to disabled people were being transformed in the direction of public charity for the elderly and disabled in specialized institutions - almshouses. In accordance with the rules of charitable institutions, they admitted disabled people who were unable to work and earn a livelihood, as well as those who did not have relatives. The last requirement was the main one, however, in the post-reform period, among the inhabitants of the almshouses there were many who had relatives, but for various reasons they refused the obligation to support their elderly parents or disabled, referring them to social care in a charitable institution. This indicates that the processes of destruction of the family model of charity have begun in the society. Based on the methodological principles of modernization theory, family history and the microhistorical approach, in the article various reasons are examined why able-bodied people ceased to be a source of help and support for their sick and aged relatives. In the course of studying the petitions for admission and expulsion of T.I. Shchegoleva from the almshouse in the city of Krasnoyarsk, the boundaries and abilities of family and marital responsibilities in relation to disabled people in the period from the mid-1870s to the 1910s are analyzed. Based on the results of the analysis, it was concluded how natural was the process of moving away from family care towards charity in a specialized institution.
Abstract: Brazil in the second half of the 19th century, with large areas of unpopulated land and experiencing a shortage of workers, began to actively attract the population of European countries to settle its territory. At the end of the 19th century, a significant number of immigrants came from the Russian Empire, represented by various ethnic and religious groups. The aim of the article is to analyze the scale, ethnic and socio-demographic structure of the migration flow from the Russian Empire to Brazil in the late 19th – early 20th centuries.
Materials of the pre-revolutionary sources of the end 19th – beginning 20th centuries, first, periodicals served as the base of the study.
Emigration was caused by external and internal reasons. External causes included: Brazil's immigration policy of attracting labor with the provision of free travel, incentive payments to steamship companies, and the work of emigration agents. Internal causes: unfavorable economic situation, famine caused by crop failures in 1889 and 1891; presence of many landless and land-poor peasants; low wages. Emigration from the Russian Empire began in 1870–1880, reaching its peak in 1891 with 109,000 people.
The migration flow from Russia to Brazil was represented mainly by Poles, Jews, and Germans (mostly Mennonites). It was mainly the population of the Prislinna and southern provinces who left. Ethnic Russians and Orthodox until the early 20th century predominantly participated in the processes of internal migration, moving to the east of the country. The absence of Russian and Orthodox populations in the migration flows was due to a lack of information about the opportunities open to migrants in the New World.
Abstract: The topicality of this study is associated with the formation and dissemination of the theory of urban planning, and the aesthetic and functional features of the architecture of that period in the Russian Empire in the second half of the 19th century. A significant role in this process was played by the beginning of the publication of the architectural and artistic and technical journal “Zodchij” in 1872, since it was on its pages that the studies of architects and historians of ancient Russian architecture were published, the need for a stylistic definition of the “Russkii stil'” (“Russian style”) in architecture was substantiated, and projects of urban and private structures, as well as a monthly review of the work of the St. Petersburg Society of Architects. The publications of this historical source were examined using the methods of qualitative and quantitative content analysis. The study made it possible to establish the influence of the activities of the Society of Architects on the formation of the theory of urban planning in the Russian Empire, to identify trends in the application of functional and aesthetic solutions based on domestic and foreign architectural traditions, and to consider the trend in the development and formation of stylistic solutions aimed at developing the national idea of urban planning and formulating “Russian style” in architecture.
Abstract: The article is devoted to one of the most interesting publications of a scientific and educational nature “Nauka i zhizn'” which was published from 1890 to 1900 at the initiative of the journalist and inventor M.N. Glubokovsky, then published again in 1904–1906 under the editorship of the agronomist F.S. Gruzdev, revived in Soviet times and relevant at the moment. The materials for the article were the issues of the journal for 1892, in its initial period, when the mission and concept of the journal were defined and the publication was published weekly. The authors identified significant thematic areas of publications posted in the journal, among them: the historical and philosophical direction of science and the technical direction of science – inventions of national scientists and engineers. Analysis of publications in the journal “Nauka i zhizn'” shows a high level of development of the reflection of the scientific method and knowledge in the Russian Empire, as well as the activity of developing the technical side of scientific activity in Russia at the end of the 19th century.
Abstract: The purpose of the research of this topic was to determine a specific synthesis of Russian-European and Eastern Muslim traditions, at a crucial stage of self-identification. In the course of the study of archival written, memoir sources and pre-revolutionary periodicals, historical facts of the diverse manifestation of the socio-cultural transformation of the turn of the XIXth and XXth centuries were revealed, using the example of the Kazakh ummah of the northern regions of the republic. On the basis of archival and memoir sources, for the first time in a generalized form, an attempt is made to structure innovations in the social behavior of Muslims (Kazakhs, Tatars, etc.) under the influence of external circumstances, in particular, introduction to bank lending. The article presents the facts of the Kazakhs using the Hajj to Mecca for educational tours in Europe and the Middle East. The artifacts (monuments of architecture, architecture) of the city of Petropavlovsk, the initiative of the construction of which belonged to local wealthy Muslims, have been studied. The facts of patronage in terms of organizing libraries and paying for the education of children and adolescents in aul schools and colleges, seminaries outside the region are summarized. A comparative analysis of the curricula of Muslim schools of the “old” and “new” method is carried out. When working with the sources, the historical and geographical factor, the peculiarities of ethnic identification and regional urbanism were taken into account.
Abstract: Since the foundation of the first institution of higher education – the Academic University of St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences opened in 1725, twelve universities have been established in the Russian Empire. One of the objectives of the opening of universities was the development of Russian science, the achievement of inclusion in the world scientific space. The turn of XIX-XX centuries was a time of scientific discoveries and great accomplishments. Imperial University of Juriev was one of the leading scientific and educational institutions of Russian Empire. Folklorist V.I. Dal, linguist and Slavist N.K. Grunsky, surgeon and teacher N.M. Pirogov, chemist V.F. Ostvald, historian I.I. Lappo and many others worked here as teachers and made discoveries. The purpose of this study is to reconstruct the image of the scientist, through the analysis of publications from the pages of the “Uchenye zapiski Imperatorskogo Yur'evskogo universiteta”, which depict the stories of the life and work of scientists.
Abstract: The article is devoted to the study of such specific category of urban population as the owners of houses of tolerance and prostitutes. Urbanization processes in Siberia at the end of the XIX century were reflected in both internal and external migrations of the population. At the same time, the adaptation of “new citizens” took place with varying degrees of success, and the development of cities also led to the expansion of infrastructure, including entertainments and the field of pleasure. Therefore, the prostitution in cities was, although condemned, but still common phenomenon. In this context, it is relevant to study the sphere of intimate services' users to form an idea of the social appearance of the Siberian city's marginal strata at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries.
The statistical and nominative sources were the basis of the study. The statistical materials presented by the data of a the 1889 special survey of prostitution and the published results of the 1897 Census made it possible to trace in time and in space the dynamics of the development of prostitution in Siberia at the end of the XIX century. Nominative sources, such as 1897 the census forms, containing personal information about prostitutes and brothels' managers in the Tobolsk province's towns, significantly supplemented and adjusted the statistical data.
The article pays attention to the socio-demographic “portrait” of prostitutes and owners of houses of tolerance, the specifics of their placement and residence in towns, the number and composition of such organizations.
It is concluded about the active development of prostitution in the Tobolsk province's towns. Tyumen was the leader in the number of brothels and prostitutes. Despite the general trends in the development of the industry such as the involvement of young nonresident Russian girls in the “debauchery”, Tobolsk towns also had some specific features such as a noticeable number of male owners of brothels and the nationality of brothel holders.
Abstract: The article discusses the features of the interaction between Christianity and Islam among the Turkic peoples in the Russian Empire at the turn of the 19th–20th centuries. in the works of domestic and foreign researchers. One of the multinational territories of Russia is the Volga-Priural region, in which both Finno-Ugric and Turkic peoples live in the neighborhood and in stripes. Based on the analysis of a number of works of historians, it can be concluded that in European Russia for the Turkic peoples there was competition between Orthodoxy and Islam, when the processes of churching and Islamization of the Chuvash and Kryashens were going on at the same time. At the same time, the latter were formally considered Christians, but the degree of their Orthodox religiosity was low, due to which many of them “falled away into Mohammedanism” under the influence of the Muslim Tatars. It was partially possible to stop this process through an active Orthodox mission, which was facilitated by the innovative religious and pedagogical system of Nikolai Ilminsky. Both processes – churching and Islamization – increased the growth of the national identity of the Turkic ethnic groups, which became a distinctive feature of the era of capitalism in the late imperial period of Russian history.
Abstract: This article focuses on social activities, the specifics of Zinaida Gippius' world view, and her influence on the formation of consciousness of the Russian intelligentsia at the turn of the 20th century. The study is based on the use of primary sources: diaries, memoirs, letters, articles, both by Gippius and her contemporaries. These sources have been analyzed in a comparative manner to provide the greatest degree of objective insight into the social and political processes that were taking place in Russia and the role of Gippius in them. The reasons for the failure of religious and philosophical activities of Z. Gippius and her closest companions D. Merezhkovsky and D. Filosofov are justified in the article. The idea of implementing the Main, which was to create a modernized church on the basis of the formation of a new religious consciousness, did not resonate with her contemporaries. Gippius' personal qualities, her exaggerated self-esteem, her fanatical conviction in the truth of her own ideas, which in fact turned out to be false, her belief that the need to spread these ideas gave her the right to control people's fates by bending them to her will, alienated from her even her supporters. Her numerous contacts with representatives of different social groups helped Gippius to correctly assess the social and political situation in the country and develop her attitude to it. Taking into account Gippius' authority and influence among the Russian intelligentsia, without exaggerating the results of her social activities, we can definitely say that she contributed quite a lot to the formation of public consciousness, which makes her personality interesting for our contemporaries as well.
Abstract: The article is an analysis of satirical journals published by Vyatka seminarians during the years of the First Russian Revolution; they are a historical source that reflects the social mood of the student youth of those years. The basis for the study of sources was handwritten journals of Vyatka seminarians distributed on a hectograph, materials from all-Russian and regional periodicals, documents characterizing the learning process at the Vyatka Theological Seminary. The analysis of the studied materials that arose in the seminarian environment during the period of censorship restriction and ideological pluralism turned out to be quite promising in identifying the features of the formation of the worldview of young people. The studied illustrative material (first of all, cartoons) made it possible to identify the specifics of reflection and self-reflection of Russian youth (on the example of seminarian students) of the revolutionary era. The authors come to the conclusion that the socio-political protest of Vyatka seminarians, vividly presented on the pages of their satirical publications, was the result of objective social processes. In addition to the revolutionary events, factors such as the outdated system of training and education of seminarians, the predominance of spiritual literature in the educational process, the edifying tone of teaching, disregard for the views and personal position of the seminarian also played a role. Texts and caricatures in hectographic publications testify to the influence of the Social democratic press on seminarians, as well as well-known satirical publications in Russia. The materials involved allow us to state that the protest moods of the students were strong in the Vyatka Theological Seminary, expressed both in the spread of nihilism and unbelief, and in the involvement of some of the pupils in the revolutionary movement.
Abstract: This work is devoted to the study of key problems in the interaction between the civil and military authorities of Moscow during the suppression of the December uprising of 1905. security and order under the Moscow mayor, stored in the State Archive of the Russian Federation and the Russian State Military Historical Archive.
The methodological basis of the work includes elements of structural, synchronic and diachronic analysis. The authors come to the conclusion that the strategies for responding to the threat of an armed uprising of both the civil administration and the military command contained a number of significant miscalculations, and in the relationship between them there was a lack of trust in many significant moments. Under these conditions, the direct subordination of parts of the Moscow garrison to the governor-general would hardly have led to an optimization of the actions of government forces to suppress the armed uprising. This measure would bring the expected effect only with a concomitant increase in the number of military units, as well as the establishment of undercover police work at the proper level and ensuring the effective operation of communication systems. At the same time, responsibility for the indicated shortcomings cannot be assigned primarily to F.V. Dubasov. The latter was appointed to the post of Governor-General of Moscow only at the end of November 1905 and objectively had neither the resources nor the authority to eliminate the indicated shortcomings, at least within the framework of his competence.
Abstract: This study is devoted to the study of the issue of problems and prospects for building a heroic image of a member of the Cadet Party in the minds of broad sections of Russian society. The purpose of the work is to identify the factors that impeded this process, with the accompanying alignment of their hierarchy. The work methodology is based on a combination of comparative and structural analysis. The source base of the work was formed by attracting unpublished office materials from the fund of the constitutional democratic party, stored in the State Archive of the Russian Federation. Based on the conducted research, it was concluded that the social image of this party, which weakly correlated with the structure of Russian society for the period under review, only partially prevented the formation of the heroized image of the cadet in the mass consciousness. The emphatically moderate position of the Cadets in relation to the agrarian question, which directly affected the interests of the bulk of the population of the empire, that is, the peasantry, acted as the main blocking factor. The internal conflict over the very permissibility and scope of the possible alienation of privately owned lands could provoke a split within the party and alienate landowners and part of the moderate liberals from it. For the sake of achieving stability within the party, the leadership of the Cadets abandoned the full development of the “agrarian” points of their program, which, as expected, led to a drop in interest in the Cadets on the part of the peasants. The latter have ceased to see the party as a potential spokesman for their interests. Given the inability of the Cadets to force the authorities to fulfill their demands and the subsequent fall in the party’s influence due to the establishment of the “June 3 Monarchy” regime, this trend has developed, which completely minimized the potential for building a “heroic image” around constitutional democrats.
Abstract: This article presents an analysis of the system of military training and patriotic education of the younger generation, which was developed by Nazimov Semyon Ivanovich and Yatsko Ivan Vasilyevich, for “poteshnye” (funny) squads. “Poteshnye” were created in 1908 with the aim of providing military training and patriotic education of young men of the lower classes. After the organization of the first “poteshnye” squads, there was no uniformity, both in the form and in the method of training young warriors. Such children's organization required the presence of a whole educational and methodological system. The system could have appeared and existed only in conditions of combining pedagogical talent, patriotic enthusiasm of the founders of the “poteshnye” (funny) squads, sovereign support, as well as the approval of Russian society. The purpose of the study: to model the system of military-patriotic training and patriotic education of young people in “poteshnye” (funny) squads. In the course of the conducted research, we were able to determine the levels of support for the organization of funny squads (state and zemstvo); methods and means of this support (regulatory, logistical, financial, etc.) were identified; the results of the first years of the funny activity are analyzed. The system of training the “poteshnye” (funny) assumed the presence of several important areas: the study of the foundations of Russian monarchical statehood, religious education, military training and physical education. The paper presents a list of classes and examples of teaching materials used by educators and non-commissioned officers in the educational process. There is a great bias towards military training in the absence of a holistic pedagogical concept. And we also identified factors and causes that negatively affected the future fate of the movement and led to the termination of the activities of the “poteshnye” (funny).
Abstract: In the second half of the XIX – early XX centuries, national regions, in particular the Kalmyk Steppe (Kalmykia), as part of a multiethnic state, were included in the process of modernization of Russian statehood. Taking into account the peculiarities of their development, social reforms, reforms of public administration, self-government, administrative-territorial structure and other spheres were separated into separate, sequential stages in the implementation of the general modernization policy of the Russian state.
This part of the article examines the processes of modernization of the state administration of the Kalmyk steppe, its introduction into the unified system of the state mechanism of Russia in accordance with the reform of 1902, carried out on the basis of the application of the Provisions of the peasant reform of 1861. The special attention is paid to the acquisition of the rights of free rural inhabitants, the expansion of the legal personality of the Kalmyks-commoners, freed from serfdom in 1892. The complex of reforms included the administrative and territorial reorganization of the Kalmyk steppe, changes in the legal status of social structures of the population, rural communities in accordance with the basic principles of the peasant reform of 1861 and Stolypin agrarian policy.
Abstract: This article is devoted to the study of the impact of the crisis of the June 3rd system on the transformation of state policy in relation to the agrarian issue. The purpose of the presented work is to assess the impact of the crisis of the June 3rd monarchy on the implementation of the agrarian policy of the authorities and related projects. The source base of the study was formed by involving previously unpublished archival materials into scientific circulation. The methodology of the work includes comparative, structural and historical-genetic analysis. The crisis of the June 3 system in 1911 led to the destruction of its organizational foundations. First, the Prime Minister has come into conflict with the parties dominating the State Duma. At the same time, the Prime Minister's willingness to make ambiguous political decisions in the agricultural sector, ignoring the opinions of most deputies, was publicly demonstrated. Secondly, the inability of the Octobrists to counteract the political course of P.A. Stolypin created favorable conditions for a split within the party and a decline in its popularity. During the same period, there was an internal crisis among the nationalists. These circumstances leveled the possibility of relatively successful use of the mechanism of the “Octobrist pendulum” in the future. Thirdly, P.A. Stolypin's attempt to use members of the reigning house to influence the emperor most likely negatively affected the attitude of Nicholas II to the head of government and his course. At the same time, the state of health of the head of government also significantly complicated the situation. In the current conditions, the further implementation of the agrarian reform was significantly hampered. However, other negative factors also influenced the process. Thus, many conservatives viewed peasants who had separated from the community as a social stratum that was not interested in maintaining political stability. In their opinion, this group, which united small and medium-sized landowners, represented the driving force of the probable bourgeois revolution. As a result, the agrarian reform itself was perceived by many right-wingers as a dangerous experiment contributing to the destruction of the traditionalist community and the spread of capitalism in Russia. On the other hand, many representatives of the highest bureaucracy did not share the Prime Minister's point of view regarding the need for broad material support for peasants who had separated from the community through the modernization of zemstvo institutions. As a result, the crisis of the Third June system paralyzed the activities of the government and the entire system of state power to consolidate and develop the achievements of agrarian reform, or significantly slowed down their implementation.
Abstract: The present study is devoted to assessing the impact of the circumstances of the formation of the State Duma of the IV convocation on the development of the political process in the Russian Empire. The source base for the research was formed by attracting sources of personal origin and unpublished materials stored in the funds of the State Archive of the Russian Federation and the Russian State Historical Archive. The research methodology includes elements of comparative, structural and genetic analysis. The authors come to the conclusion that by the time the elections to the IV State Duma were being prepared, the parliamentary system was already in a state of crisis. The authorities proceeded from the fact that the system of the “October pendulum” had already exhausted its potential and no longer met the current needs of the state. The latter was explained, among other things, by the attempts of the leaders of the Octobrists to go beyond the limit of political subjectivity, designated by the top political leadership. The level of popularity of the Octobrists among their base electorate has also noticeably decreased, primarily due to the abuse of the practice of compromise with the right. At the same time, fellow party members A.I. Guchkov failed to adequately assess the accumulated political risks and abandoned the idea of an alliance with the Cadets and Progressives. The response of the authorities to the indicated crisis was an attempt to form a more manageable Duma, within which it was planned to minimize the presence of the Octobrists. Also, the political leadership of the empire planned to prevent the presence of conditionally "foreign" parties in the parliament. Most likely, it was supposed to manage the process of lawmaking by balancing between the most numerous right and left wings, as well as a high level of fragmentation of the former. However, as a result of the elections, a fairly large number of reform-oriented centrists appeared in the Duma, who over time showed their readiness to block with the left. At the same time, the right-wing parties in the Duma did not acquire a dominant role due to the high degree of disunity, which was superimposed on the government's desire to severely limit their subjectivity. As a result, the government failed to secure a reliable mechanism for governing the Duma, while the forces of the active opposition were left with rather limited opportunities to influence the authorities.
Abstract: The article is devoted to the analysis of the materials of the pre-revolutionary weekly journal “Studencheskii Byulleten' Kievskogo Kommercheskogo Instituta”, the issues of which became the source of our research. The publication was founded in 1913, the first issue was published on November 3. A weekly circulation was declared, but the “Byulleten'” was published irregularly, sometimes with breaks of many months. It was published by the “Society for Mutual Assistance of Students of the Kiev Commercial Institute”; the material was articles by teachers and students of the university, as well as attracted specialists. The journal pursued mainly educational and educational goals, informed about the scientific and educational activities of the Kiev Commercial Institute, and also served as a platform for scientific creativity of students.
Based on the results of the work, it was concluded that when covering the events of the First World War, the journal took a pronounced patriotic position. The articles of its issues contain many principles of military propaganda, such as “demonization of the enemy”, “unity of the Russian nation”, “everything for the front, everything for victory!”, support of the war by the highly educated part of Russian society, etc.
However, starting from the second issue, the military theme fades into the background. The last issue pays very little attention to military events at all, which is explained by the fact that martial law is becoming commonplace. There are also difficulties in finding material, as the editorial board requests to send such materials, which it has not done before. Whether this trend is related to the patriotic position of the journal (in particular, a boycott by collaborationist and/or revolutionary-minded students and teachers) or it is purely organizational difficulties, we could not find out.
Abstract: The paper makes the first attempt to restore the combat path of corporal Andrei Timofeevich Kemov of the 333rd Infantry Glazovsky Regiment, who served in the regiment in 1914–1915. Andrei Timofeevich Kemov was the father of Anastasia Andreevna, the wife of Ivan Ivanovich Cherkasov from the village of Keret.
The source base of the research is represented by the materials of the Russian State Military Historical Archive (Moscow, Russian Federation), in which the fund No. 2942 (333rd Infantry Glazovsky Regiment) was deposited. The most valuable sources of research were the journals of military operations, as well as award documents and documents on the accounting of the personnel of the regiment.
In conclusion, the author states that the combat path of the corporal-orderly of the 333rd Infantry Glazovsky Regiment Andrei Timofeevich Kemov was only a little more than 6 months (July 30, 1914 – February 2, 1915). The regiment operated on the most difficult sector of the front – against Germany. Realizing the plan of the Russian command, the regiment as part of a group of troops crossed the border of the German Empire on October 22, 1914 and operated on enemy territory. Here, on November 23, 1914, the 13th company, in which Corporal Kemov served, distinguished itself in the case against the Germans. As a result, Andrei Timofeevich was presented to the St. George Medal of the 4th degree. After the mission of the Russian group in Germany was completed (to pull the German reserves from the Western to the Eastern Front), the retreat from German territory began. On February 1, 1915, the regiment crossed the border with the Russian Empire, and on February 2, the regiment participated in the battle near the village of Kur'yanka. During this battle with superior enemy forces, the regiment suffered heavy losses in killed, wounded and prisoners, among the latter was corporal Andrei Timofeevich Kemov.
Abstract: The study of the periodic source “Vestnik Obshhestva sibirskih inzhenerov” for 1916 takes place on the historiographical method basis. The basic component of the publication messages from the meetings of the Society of Siberian Engineers, whose main task was to promote the industry development, the technical education dissemination and knowledge in Siberia. The article highlights the main directions and topics of this periodical, printed publication. There is noted the closest connection of scientific and technological progress with the peculiarities of specific regions industrial development of the Russian Empire. The periodical especially highlights the Siberian industry, and sometimes the Far Eastern territories. The journal contains quite extensive information about various technical and advanced inventions, but in close connection with the Russian regions different peculiarities and the possibility of developing a particular area. Since the selected issue of the magazine dates back to 1916, statistical data considered comparing pre-war and military indicators of industrial development. The main problems of industrial development in the regions of Siberia and the Far East, and the possibilities of their solution, highlighted. Mining, metallurgical, gold mining and related chemical industries singled out as one of the most relevant industries, and then – the peculiarities of agriculture. The choice of the most progressive fields of science and technology and their disclosure through the prism of state, political, economic and social problems, as well as orientation to a wide audience of readers speaks of the possibility of a competitive entry of the Russian Empire into the world economic and political arena, despite the martial law.