Abstract: Studies of the customary legal nature of relations and the traditional ethnic history of the peoples of the European North-East of Russia and the Trans-Urals in the XVII–XIX centuries, as part of the peoples living on the territory of the vast Russian state, are of particular relevance and importance today.
Customary law in the field of marriage and family relations was formed in stages and gradually, due to the fact that the Russian lawmaker could not always regulate in detail the various spheres of life of the peoples who inhabited the vast expanses of the Russian state, taking into account their lifestyle, ways of doing business and existing customs, providing an opportunity for these peoples to regulate marriage and family relations by norms emanating from the depths of people's legal consciousness. Customary law regulated the functioning of such important legal institutions as marriage and the family. It consolidated not only the requirements for marriage, property relations that arose at the time of marriage and in the process of family life, but also the patriarchal way of families, as well as the status of a family member in its hierarchical structure.
In the XVII–XIX centuries on the territory of settlement of the Komi, Nenets, Khanty, Mansi in a parallel mode, the regulation of legal relations carried out not only customary, but also positive law. The latter regulated the most important principles of the organization and functioning of the institutions of the family and marriage. Customary law sought to supplement the positive, to detail the emerging marriage and family relations, adapting them to the existing economic, climatic conditions, systematizing the norms into a kind of unwritten (oral) code of customary legal attitudes, objectified in legal traditions, rituals. All this made it possible to preserve the value of the institution of the traditional family, as well as the features of the functioning of ethno-local societies. Customary law among the peoples of the European North-East of Russia and the Trans-Urals in the XVII–XIX centuries did not exclude the norms of positive law, but supplemented it.
Abstract: This article makes an attempt to determine the historical and architectural heritage of the Eastern Caucasus, presented in the form of cordon sections of the Left Flank of the Caucasian Cordon Line. Historical and architectural structures include fortresses, fortifications, fortifications, posts, temples, churches, erected by the Russian administration for the purpose of military-political, cultural and everyday development of the region.
Having carried out an analytical analysis of the frontier zone in the geographical space of the Eastern Caucasus, we make an attempt to determine the historical and architectural heritage, which is an important component of the cultural heritage of the region.
Abstract: The article deals with the relationship of Kalmyks with neighboring peoples in the 18th century. At this time, they occupied the southern Russian steppes from the Don to Yaik with their nomads. In the southwest of their nomadic territory, the Kalmyks had relations with the Crimean Khanate and the Don Cossacks. In the south with the Kuban Tatars, the bulk of which were Nogais, ousted by the Kalmyks from the interfluve of the Volga and Yaik. Relations with the peoples of the North Caucasus were less intense, except for a number of Kabardian princes. Kazakhs were the main neighbors in the southeast. On the northern borders of their residence, the Kalmyks already interacted with the Russian population, mainly with Russians, as well as with the Bashkirs.
In the 17th century, busy mainly with the development of new habitats, Kalmyks contacted the Russian population most often sporadically, and contacts were not always, if not more so, peaceful. In the 18th century, the situation gradually, but now without interruption, changes for the better. Armed raids disappear; more and more relations are becoming peaceful, the first steps of acculturation of the Kalmyks are taking place. It goes implicitly: through the resettlement of the Russian population in the Lower Volga region, the North Caucasus and partly on the lands of the Kalmyk steppe; the departure of Kalmyks to neighboring cities to be hired for various jobs; engaging in non-cattle-breeding work; Christianization, etc.
Representatives of other peoples also got into Kalmyk society, most often through captivity: Kuban and Crimean Tatars, Nogais, Bashkirs, and the same Russians. They often created mixed families with the Kalmyks – in addition, this process had an impact on the anthropological type of a part of the Kalmyks.
Abstract: The authors of this article researched the situation of the Kazakhs after the entry of the Kazakh steppe into the Russian Empire. Having worked through archival sources, the Finished Collection of the Russian Empire's Laws, the testimonies of contemporaries and the research of scientists, the authors come to the inference that the social processes that took place from the end of the 18th – 19 th centuries, it little studied and have not lost their relevance.
Russian and Kazakh historians studied the accession of the Kazakh steppe in a political context, considered questions about relations and diplomatic connections, the reasons that led to the dependence of the latter, which often led to various disputes. This article does not consider political discussions and the reasons for the accession of Kazakhstan to the Russian Empire.
The key issue in the article is the including problems of conventional Kazakhs in the new management system, the social polarization of society, the change in the traditional way of life, the emergence of slavery, which is the novelty of the study of this article.
Abstract: To date, the explanation of the nature of the Bashkir uprisings of the XVII-XVIII centuries is reduced to four common concepts: the initial hostility of the nomadic civilization to the settled world, the desire of the Bashkirs to restore the structures of the Mongol empire or even create their own khanate, anti-colonial speech, feudal separatism of the Bashkir nomadic nobility. In our opinion, none of the presented concepts can give a consistent explanation of the phenomenon of Bashkir uprisings. In turn, we offer a look at this problem in the discourse of the method of political theology by K. Schmitt. He revealed an analogy between political ideas and theological concepts of this particular society. We claim that the political ideas of the Bashkirs of the XVII-XVIII centuries had an analogy with the myth of Genghis Khan, reflected in literary texts and the Bashkir shezhere. In this myth, the deeds of Genghis Khan are recognized as the cause of the existing world order, but further history takes place without his leadership role. The demiurgic role of Genghis Khan did not become the basis for the sacralization of his descendants, who were subject to displacement in case they violated the commandments of their ancestor. Such a political and legal system evokes an analogy with deism in theology, which expels a "miracle from the world", forbidding the sovereign to invade the existing legal order. The fundamental divergence of the yasa of Genghis Khan with the concept of the rule of law of Kant and Schmitt begins with the definition of the attitude towards the sovereign who decided to abolish the current law and order, i.e. introducing a state of emergency. In Genghisism, it is excluded and any violation of law and order must be stopped by the overthrow of the ruler. If at the imperial level this prerogative belonged to the Kurultai, then in Bashkiria of the XVII-XVIII centuries, due to the absence of an institutional elite, this role was performed by the "yyyyns". After the voluntary acceptance of Russian citizenship in the middle of the XVI century the myth of Genghis Khan was spread by the Bashkirs to the Russian monarchs. All Bashkir uprisings of the XVII-XVIII centuries were the result of unilateral violation by the Russian authorities of the terms of a voluntary agreement with the Bashkirs. Bashkirs believed that resistance to a ruler who violated his own laws was a manifestation of loyalty to the state. Passive resistance was excluded because Bashkirs could not be integrated into the social structures of neighboring nomadic peoples without losing their identity. In the Southern Urals, back in the period of the Mongol Empire, a special variant of political unification emerged, in which horizontal ties between tribal structures dominated over vertical ones. Such an egalitarian structure of Bashkir society did not have internal tools for resolving intergenerational conflicts. Bashkir polity was supposed to be part of the imperial structure, which would be interested in maintaining law and order and peace between the clans. For the same reasons, the Bashkirs avoided creating their own khanate.
Abstract: The Kalmyk steppe of the Astrakhan province in the 19th – early 20th centuries was an administrative-territorial autonomy, the vast majority of the autochthonous population of which was engaged in pasture cattle breeding. One of the aspects of the integration policy of the Russian Empire in the region was the creation of a legislative framework that regulates the life of the nomadic people with the introduction of a sedentary lifestyle in the future. But to what extent the natural and climatic conditions of the steppe allowed the plowing of land, and what would be the expected efficiency of such activities in the region in the future, these factors were not taken into account either in the development of the long-term goal of the imperial policy in Kalmykia, or in the short term. The purpose of this article is to determine the influence of climatic conditions on the economic development of the steppe. Particular attention was paid to the analysis of quantitative indicators by year, which made it possible to identify favorable and crisis periods for the Kalmyk economy. In conclusion, the author comes to the conclusion that pastoral cattle breeding corresponded to the natural and climatic conditions and lifestyle of the local population, while attempts to spread arable farming in the steppe under arid climate conditions did not lead to a total improvement in the well-being of nomads, but caused the beginning of environmental problems of our time.
Abstract: The article is devoted to a rather important area of relations between the Russian Empire and the Kingdom of Poland over a rather long period – the end of the 18th – the beginning of the 19th centuries, filled with fateful events that determined the negative context of these relations for the next centuries. The authors set the goal of creating a scientific model of such a variant of historical development, in which the reality of the possible influence of Grand Duke Konstantin Pavlovich Romanov on changing the vector of coexistence between Russia and Poland is hypothetically assessed. The main milestones in the life and character traits of this historical figure are analyzed in the context of possible alternatives to his activities before and during his 15-year stay in Poland. Despite the underestimation and even denial of the role of the individual in history by some experts, the qualities inherent in rulers who make fateful decisions that determine the fate of their subjects are of considerable importance. This is clearly seen in the example of the fate and activities of the hero of the article. The author's vision of the person of Tsesarevich Konstantin Pavlovich as a bright and popular personality (it was not for nothing that several False Konstantins appeared after his death) shows that historical science underestimated the power of influence of his character traits on the fate of the Polish state. To substantiate the assumption, the methods of source study, historical and logical analysis and synthesis are used, which made it possible to consider the relationship between the Poland he ruled and the Russian Empire from the point of view of the individual qualities of the governor. The source base includes both classical studies of this issue (S. M. Solovyov), memoirs and memoirs, as well as modern research (Stegniy P. V. and others). The methods of historical retrospection, chronological and problem-analytical approaches make it possible to model the likelihood of an alternative history: smoothing out the contradictions between the two Slavic countries and returning independence to Poland.
Abstract: The article, which was based on archive materials, demonstrates a role of military chains and facilities, built on the south of Kazakhstan in the middle of the 19th century. Analysis of historical sources shows that the official policy of Russian Empire was directed to military conquest and occupation of southern Kazakhstan's territory and Central Asia. Military strategical plans of the empire were brought to life as a result of creating strong military chains in the south Kazakhstan, such as Syrdarian, Semirechian and New Kokand. Above listed chains gave an opportunity for Russian army not only to strengthen their positions in Elder Zhuz, but also to move further in the Central Asian region. It was followed by occupation of large Kokand cities. Reconnaissance works conducted by Russian officials from 1847 to 1863 were helpful in receiving actual materials concerning situation in Kazakh Steppe and in Central Asian states. Authors succeeded in analysis of the historical maps of Central State Archive of the Republic of Kazakhstan and Russian State Archive of Military history through the research. These maps made it possible to identify and systematize a list of main fortresses and settlements located along Syrdarian, Semirechian and New Kokand military chains. This research resulted in creation of cartographic material reflecting a system of military facilities and chains on the territory of the south Kazakhstan in the middle of the 19th century.
The article provides a characteristic of the main stages in a progress of Russian army and of tactical decisions, which led to uniting Orenburg's and Siberian military chains. Further, it led to fixation of the southern borders of Russia. Success of above–mentioned task helped Russian government to solve both, domestic and foreign political issues.
Abstract: The article, based on unknown and unstudied sources, outlines the position of zemstvo liberals of Chernihiv Governorate on the “Ukrainian question” in the Russian Empire in the 60-80s. The conducted content-analysis of unique historical documents shows that members of the zemstvo liberal opposition in the region had a well-established idea of this problem already at the beginning of their selfless activity. The accent is put on the fact that contemporaries of the liberal opposition in the region publicly supported the work of zemstvo progressives to promote and develop Ukrainism. Archival sources prove that liberal zemstvos of the region were engaged in purposeful activities to preserve the Ukrainian ethnos and its culture in the conditions of imperial reality. The authors conclude that the "Ukrainian question" occupied a worthy place in the system of values and reference points of the zemstvo liberal party of Chernihiv Governorate. Although economic and social problems were dominant in the programmatic imperatives of the opposition aristocratic nobility, still this issue was not outside the system of coordinates of ethno-confessional policy of the second half of the ХІХ century.
Abstract: The article is devoted to the analysis of the specifics of the Don pre-revolutionary historiography. This analysis is based on the concepts of N.A. Mininkov (who for the first time attributed the works of the Don pre-revolutionary authors to historiography, and not to historical science), S.I. Malovichko and M.F. Rumyantseva (who introduced the special term «local history» to define the works of amateur historians of the 19th century about their native land). The author chose as the object of analysis the work of the largest Don pre-revolutionary amateur historian A.A. Kirillov «Brief review of the history of the Don Cossacks». This text, written in 1909, largely systematizes and sums up the reflections of the Don pre-revolutionary authors on historical science.
The author shows that an unattainable goal for A.A. Kirillov and a number of his predecessors (A.A. Leonov, A.A. Karaseva, M.Kh. Senyutkina, etc.) was a book that would systematically and consistently describe the history of the Don Cossacks. The Don authors described this book clearly enough so that we could say that it could not be unambiguously attributed to local history (the history of the Don Cossacks had to be considered as an independent phenomenon, the scientific level of the book had to correspond to the practices of modern historians, and the competencies of Russian historians were considered insufficient to write a study about the Don Cossacks). However, the idea of interpreting the history of the Cossacks as a separate national history was categorically rejected, even cases of likening the early Don Army to an independent republic by professional Russian historians were condemned. As a result, the Don historiography occupied an intermediate position between the local history and the national history of the nation.
Abstract: The transition to nomadic animal husbandry, associated with the development of horse riding, began in Eurasia in the 1st millennium B.C. This led not only to economic, cultural and socio-political ties between the nomads of Eurasia and the peoples of the Ancient East, Eastern Mediterranean, Near and Middle Asia, but also to the need to protect cattle as “easily alienated wealth” (F. Engels). As a result, a complex technology of nomadic economy was developed, the value of which was represented by the art of the “animal style” — a special sign system expressing the ideology of the nomads. The sign system is most fully preserved in the barrows of the Pazyryk culture: the “royal” barrows of Tuekta, Bashadar and Pazyryk, the elite barrows of the Ukok and the barrows of ordinary nomads of Sailugem, Ulandryk and Yustyd. Since the funerary ritual on a symbolic level ensures subsequent rebirth, it is relevant to investigate the archaeological sources of the Altai Mountains as a text embodying socially significant information. The ensemble of signifying means located on the surface of the artefacts, connected with the whole sphere of nomadic activity, is represented by such concepts as “mound”, “sarcophagus deck”, “weapon”, “costume”, “body tattoo”, “horse harness”. In accordance with the accumulated experience of social interaction in the axiosphere of the Pazyryk culture two basic semantic systems were formed: “life” and “death”, on the basis of which a man understood the possibilities of his activity in the system of nomadic society. The theme of life and death emerged from observations of natural and climatic conditions, where destruction, extinction is a benign state after which the cycle of life is renewed. In the course of semiotic analysis of the system of status marking of a rider, his weapons and horse, referred to as the Scythian “animal style”, a relationship with the key concept in all Indo-European and Indo-Iranian ritualism “farn” was determined. This notion symbolises military fortune, share, destiny and is the value-motivational core of the Pazyryk culture.
Abstract: For almost two hundred years of the existence of the Russian Empire, its judicial system has been reformed repeatedly. However, it was the reform of Alexander II that had the greatest impact, including on the administration of justice in modern Russia. As a result of fundamental changes in the criminal procedure legislation, the reformed Russian judicial system has never lagged behind the judicial systems of the most advanced Western European countries of that time. This work is devoted to the comparative characteristics of the judicial system of the Russian Empire before and after the Judicial reform of Alexander II, carried out in 1864. The study consists of two parts. This article presents the first part of the study, in which the author describes the state of the judicial system of the Russian Empire before the reform of 1864. The author analyzes the key problems and the main reasons that served as prerequisites for Alexander II's decision on the need for a complete reform of the judicial system of the state. The author investigated such pre-reform principles of justice of the Russian Empire as the estate principle, the principle of presumption of guilt, the principle of the rule of law, the principle of evidence, as well as the principle of secrecy of the trial. In this study, the author describes in detail the form and nature of the application of the above-mentioned principles of judicial proceedings. The article examines the main shortcomings of the pre-reform period of judicial proceedings, such as corruption, low qualifications of judges, lack of independence, as well as the inefficiency of the judicial system as a whole. The author also considers earlier attempts to reform the justice system, namely the projects of M.M. Speransky during the reign of emperors Alexander I, as well as the ideas of D.N. Bludov during the reign of Emperor Nicholas I.
Abstract: This article is devoted to the page of the history of Russian archeology, which, in our opinion, is undeservedly forgotten – the compilation of the first archaeological dictionary in Russia. It was initiated by the Chairman of the Moscow Archaeological Society, Count A.S. Uvarov. The analysis of his contribution to the compilation of the dictionary makes it possible to highlight the features of this unique personality from a new side, which usually escapes the attention of researchers: to show Count A.S. Uvarov as a lexicographer. This is the novelty of this work. Analysis of the participation of Count A.S. Uvarov in the preparation of the dictionary and a detailed review of the articles that he wrote, allow us to reveal the features of the scientist's talent as a historian. His dictionary entries are characterized by extensive use of historical sources, quoting them in the original, knowledge of modern Russian and foreign literature, and the ability to work with a bibliographic apparatus. Count A.S. Uvarov, as an archaeologist, carefully works with pictorial sources, applies statistical methods, combines various groups of sources – written, ethnographic, archaeological. Special mention should be made of the high linguistic competence of A.S. Uvarov, which manifested itself in the competent organization of dictionary entries with an indication of etymology, including in ancient and foreign languages, conducting real etymological research, bringing synonyms, analyzing the writing of ancient fonts. As a result, we see the personality of a unique scientist who understood the need for terminological work and competently conducts it. This experience is also useful for modern archaeologists.
Abstract: The article is devoted to a historiographical review of the periodicals on pedagogy published in the Caucasian educational district of the Russian Empire in 1867–1916: these are the “Tsirkulyar po Upravleniyu glavnogo inspektora uchebnykh zavedenii na Kavkaze i Zakavkaz'e” (Tiflis), “Circular on the Administration of the Caucasian Educational District” (Tiflis), “Shkola i zhizn'” (Tiflis), “Nuzhdy vospitaniya” (Vladikavkaz), “Kavkazskaya shkola” (Tiflis), “Razumnaya kinematografiya i naglyadnye posobiya” (Ekaterinodar), etc. However, they were published for a very short time and often were focused on commercialization. Given the short circulation period, we can assume that the publication did not achieve commercial success. Some of them had a pronounced political component (for example, “Zapiski Tsentral'nogo soveta roditel'skikh kruzhkov”, Baku), which predetermined their short life. At the same time, there were also semi-official publications: for example, “Kubanskaya shkola” (Ekaterinodar), which was published by the Kuban Directorate of Public Schools and distributed in the network of relevant institutions.
As the main research methods there were used the historical-systemic, historical-genetic, as well as the method of historiographical analysis.
The authors come to the conclusion that nine pedagogical periodicals were published in the Caucasian educational district at different times. Some of them were focused on commercialization (for example, “Razumnaya kinematografiya i naglyadnye posobiya”, “Kavkazskaya shkola”, etc.), the other was semi-official, that is, it was published by state bodies (the educational directorate of the region) and distributed among subordinate institutions free of charge, for example “Tsirkulyar po Upravleniyu glavnogo inspektora uchebnykh zavedenii na Kavkaze i Zakavkaz'e”, “Tsirkulyar po Upravleniyu Kavkazskim uchebnym okrugom”, the journal “Kubanskaya shkola”.
Abstract: The article discusses the history of the study of sacred places in relation to Kazakhs of the Turkestan region in the works of Russian researchers in the second half of the XIX – early XX centuries. The Turkestan region under the government of Tsarist Russia includes the southern regions of Kazakhstan, the territories of Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan. The contribution of the Turkestan circle of archaeology amateurs to the study of the history, culture, archaeological and architectural monuments of the Turkestan region was great. Members of the circle were I.V. Anichkov, E.T. Smirnov, A. Divaev, V.A. Kallaur, V.V. Barthold and others. Architectural features, history and legends of the sacred places of the Turkestan region were considered in their works. Moreover, from special research and daily reports of this period, it is possible to determine the role of sacred places in the region among the population, the cultural image of Kazakhs in the consciousness of Kazakhs. Russia took over the management of the Turkestan region, special research activities increased since the second half of the XIX century. Another reason for this is the policy of special resettlement from the inner regions of Russia to the lands of Central Asia and Kazakhstan. Such studies do not leave unnoticed, from the history of the region to the everyday life of local peoples. Of course, scientists and travelers, in turn, also considered sacred places as objects of study. Memoirs, articles, reports of these researchers were published in newspapers and magazines and special collections “Turkestan Vedomosti”. In the works of Russian scientists and travelers in the half of the XIX – early XX centuries, the irrigation systems of the Turkestan region were described and specially studied. After all, the Tsarist government had the task of providing special settlers with irrigated land for sowing. This article uses articles from newspapers and journals and individual works of Russian researchers, travelers and officials before the October Revolution.
Abstract: The paper presents a characteristic of the dynamics of the development of the network of rural settlements of the Tobolsk district/county in the second half of the XIX – first third of the XX centuries. Based on the calculation of the data contained in a mass statistical source (“Lists of populated places”), the number of rural settlements, their typical structure and size for several time slices, as well as infrastructure are determined. The influence of changing political and socio-economic conditions on the scale of the settlement network, its typology, indicators of the yard and population is analyzed. Changes in qualitative and quantitative indicators of the development of the rural settlement network of the district in the period under review are traced. New types of settlements are coming to replace the settlements, repairs, outposts disappearing by the beginning of the XX century – resettlement settlements, farms. In the first decades of Soviet power, villages with a new status appeared – agricultural communes. The variability of the quantitative growth of settlements was noted: in the period from 1868/1869 to 1893, the number of villages in the district increased, from 1893 to 1926, on the contrary, decreased. The conclusion is made about the predominance of small settlements in the settlement network of up to 25 households, changes in the size of Tobolsk households that were outlined by 1926. The transformation of the social infrastructure of the settlement network of the district/county in the period under review is traced. It manifested itself in the reduction of the number of private trading establishments, the emergence of cooperative organizations in rural areas, the development of the school network and an increase in the number of medical centers, the disappearance in the 1920s of religious institutions (churches, chapels, mosques, prayer houses), the expansion of the network of communication institutions.
Abstract: The relevance of this study is associated with the formation and spread of the "Russian style" in the architecture of the Russian Empire at the end of the 19th - beginning of the 20th century – a significant trend in the culture of the era under consideration. The professional journal on architecture and construction “Zodchiy” (1872–1924) played an important role in this process, since it was on its pages that the studies of architects and art historians of ancient Russian antiquity were published, justified the need to form a national version of Modern, based on local traditions, projects of temple and secular buildings in the "Russian style" were published. The publications of this historical source were reviewed using qualitative and quantitative content analysis methods. The study recorded the dynamics of publications about the "Russian style" in architecture, in which there is a rise and fall of interest in original projects, made it possible to identify the traditions that architects relied on when designing modern buildings, and the characteristic features of national Modern in architecture, such as: interest in arts and crafts and folk ornamentation, the processing of elements of ancient Russian temple architecture in secular architecture, fabulous facades, etc.
Abstract: In the article, based on the materials of the epistolary and scientific-journalistic heritage of the leaders of the Siberian regionalism, the scenarios of intercultural communication of the Russian and indigenous population of Siberia in the second half of the 19th – early 20th centuries, constructed by the authors, are revealed. The methodological basis of the study was the approaches of a new cultural and intellectual history, and the representativeness of the conclusions is due to the involvement of an array of texts devoted to the reflection by the community of Siberian regionalists of "foreign" and Russian issues as part of the socio-political discourse of the post-reform era. In the course of the study, the authors revealed the main positions of the leaders of the regionalism in constructing scenarios for intercultural communication of the indicated groups. It has been established that the perceptions of the regionalists about Siberia as a colony within Russia actualized in their correspondence, journalism and scientific works the topic of limiting the rights and economic potential of both the indigenous and the Russian population in the implementation of the imperial colonization project. In the opinion of Siberian liberals, overcoming this state of affairs was possible not only by means of spreading agricultural practices, but, mainly, under the condition of extensive enlightenment and educational work among indigenous peoples and Russian settlers. One of the landmark scenarios for the cultural cooperation of the autochthons with the Russian population, the regionalists considered the active inclusion of representatives of the steppe aristocracy in the system of higher education and state activities, which, in their opinion, opened up good chances for the influence of local elites on their fellow tribesmen and contributed to their socialization outside the repressive models of Russification offered national-conservative forces of the Russian Empire.
Abstract: The article examines the common and particular features of slavery in Central Asia and the Caucasus. The attention is paid to the number of slaves, the nature of their appearance, their legal status, etc.
The article by A.P. Khoroshkhin “Persian slaves in the Khanate of Khiva” and the collection of published documents “The Circassian Slave Narratives”were used as materials. Despite the fact that the volumes of these works are not comparable, the authors made an attempt to compare slavery in Asia and the Caucasus.
In work, the authors widely used the historical-comparative method, which allowed them to compare different aspects of slave-owning relations both in the Caucasus and in Central Asia. Due to this method, it was possible to establish a clear correlation between the content characteristics of the narratives studied and the real situation developing in the Caucasian-Central Asian space in the XIX century.
In conclusion, the authors note that slavery in the Caucasus and Central Asia in the XIX century was similar in many ways. On the one hand, the reason for this was the relatively small distance between these slave-owning centers. And on the other hand, the Caucasian and Central Asian slave trade was equally profitable, with which no production could compare in terms of efficiency. This predetermined the main occupations of the majority of the population of the Caucasian and Central Asian regions – slave grabbing, slave trade and slavery.
Abstract: The article analyzes the publications of the children's journal “Zadushevnoe slovo” dedicated to the First World War.
The material for the work was the issues of the journal “Zadushevnoe slovo”, which specialized on older children. In total, the authors had 36 issues at their disposal, starting in November 1914 and ending in December 1916.
The main research methods used were historical-systemic, historical-genetic and the method of content analysis.
The journal “Zadushevnoe slovo” became a specialized children's publication in the Russian Empire, was published weekly since 1877 and included informative articles and notes, national and foreign children's stories, short stories and novels, poems, as well as comics.
During the First World War, the journal was also used as a platform for propaganda and charity activities. The issues of 1914 mainly contained articles on military subjects, called for patriotism. With the passage of time and the transformation of the war into a positional military theme disappears from the pages of the publication, the content becomes a “peaceful format”. Thus, in 1916 the journal was practically not used in propaganda and agitation work.
Abstract: The issues of the development of the derivatives market continue to be relevant in the modern world, the discussion about the possible limits of its further development does not lose its relevance, especially in light of the assessment of the degree of influence of large-scale urgent operations on the development of crisis phenomena in the global financial market. The current regulatory and legal regulation of the derivatives market in Russia, despite the unconditional presence of positive dynamics in this process, nevertheless, still remains fragmented and fragmented, since the current legal acts mainly allow solving narrow applied tasks – preparing reports, determining the tax base, etc. Historically, the domestic stock market gravitated towards the continental system and in many respects its development was based on following the relevant norms, and for a number of reasons it took in a certain sense a “catching up” position in terms of following the trends that were characteristic of the development of the markets of Western European countries.
The purpose of this work is to study the views of contemporaries on the use of term transactions with commodity and stock values during the heyday of stock trading at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries.
As a result of the analysis, the authors come to the conclusion that urgent trading in Russia, even during the heyday of domestic exchanges, was characterized by the absence of a single set of rules for transactions. The judicial protection of fixed–term transactions was not always based on the current rules that do not contain a complete ban on fixed-term transactions, which forced trade participants to treat transactions for a certain period of time and their most unprotected variety - transactions for a difference with some caution. In this regard, urgent transactions did not receive such a wide development in Russia as in the USA and Western European countries, which already at the end of the XIX century legally recognized them as legitimate.
Abstract: The study clarifies the social features of the bureaucracy of the Russian Empire in the XIX century by the example of novels and stories by Anton Pavlovich Chekhov. At the same time, the authors conducted a comparative analysis of the image of a "Chekhov`s" official and civil servant of the lower and middle levels, constructed on the basis of research by historians of the 20th – early 21st centuries. Actualization of A.P. Chekhov's writings as a fact of objective reality, a historical source in studying the history of bureaucracy, was the study's goal. This goal led to using historical-chronological, historical-typological, and structural-systemic research methods. The source base of the exploration is the literary heritage of the Russian writer and studies of historians of the XX – early XXI centuries. The authors made conclusions about the everyday lower rank officials, their social origin, qualitative composition, mental attitudes, the features of professional activity, the role of social ties in the official promotion, subordination within the hierarchy of officials, the value of the system of awards and insignia. The specific subculture of the class officialdom is illustrated by the images of Chekhov's literary heroes, written out by the author from his own life experience, acquaintances, and professional activities. The multifaceted nature of the storylines allows for a diverse perception of the bureaucrat image and the historically conditioned background of his life and work.
In general, historians have reconstructed a lower and middle-level official of the late 19th century, which is quite correlated with the collective literary image of an employee created by the classic of literature A.P. Chekhov.
Abstract: The article examines the relations between the professors of the Imperial Tomsk University and the bureaucracy in late Imperial Russia. These relations are interpreted ambiguously. On the one hand, the professorship of Imperial Universities is characterized as a trans-estate professional and corporate group with its own subculture, and on the other – as a corporation in many ways similar to the bureaucratic elite. It is emphasized that the modern bureaucracy of the late Imperial Russia really had qualities that brought it closer to the professorship. This is, first of all, a high level of education and awareness of their cultural mission to transform Russia based on the experience of European development. At the same time, the patronizing rhetoric and personalized control that the trustees and officials of the Ministry of National Education (MNE) used in their relations with the professorship indicate the patrimonial tradition. During the validity period of the University Charter of 1884 these elements have become a means for the restriction the academic autonomy. It is proved that professors mostly preferred non-conflict dealing with this restriction. Evasion of control and fencing of the space of direct self-expression, in particular in lecture halls, from fixation by sources having "evidentiary force", however, led to the fact that the trustee and officials of the MNE lose confidence in the professor to the professors. Under these circumstances the collective image of the professorship built up in the narratives of officials turned out to be loaded with often unverified conspiracy features of a force threatening the "legal order of things" in the Russian Empire.
Abstract: For the first time in the article, a document is introduced into scientific circulation, containing the considerations of the trustee of the Vilna educational district N.A. Sergievsky dated December 14, 1884, prepared in response to the proposals expressed in the note of the Vilna Governor-General I.S. Kakhanov «On the composition of employees in the North-Western Territory», presented to the emperor in August of the same year. The published document is currently stored in the Russian State Historical Archives (RGIA), fund 733 (Department of Public Education), in a file called «On measures to attract Russian natives to serve in the North-Western Territory».
Considerations of the trustee of the Vilna educational district N.A. Sergievsky are devoted to one of the key problems of the national policy towards the North-Western Territory of the second half of the 19th century – to attract officials of Russian origin to the region in order to integrate the region into the imperial space and oust Polish influence. They represent an understanding of the difficulties of personnel policy in the northwestern provinces, carried out in the 1860–1870s, and contain an assessment of the degree of effectiveness of the measures taken to provide financial incentives for officials of Russian origin in the outlying region. The published document is of considerable interest in the context of the analysis of communication channels between central and local governments, allowing a better understanding of the mechanism for developing management decisions in relation to the North-Western Territory.
In the views of N.A. Sergievsky on the task of attracting Russian officials to the region, expressed in his program document, showed a change in the placement of accents in the conduct of personnel policy in the region in the 1880s. Along with the previous task of replacing the Polish «element» in the region with Russian principles, special attention was given to creating a positive image of imperial power among the local population as part of the emerging «soft power» strategy and preparing a personnel basis for its practical implementation.
Abstract: The reports drawn up by the members of the Russian Legation to Bucharest analysed several aspects of the Romanian state with King Carol I being a major topic thereof. Given that the Romanian sovereign belonged to the Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen dynasty, he was often perceived by the Russian diplomats accredited in the kingdom to the north of the Danube as making a strong contribution to the intensification of German and Austro-Hungarian influence in Romania, especially between 1888 and 1893 when Russian-Romanian relations were particularly tense. Although not unanimously, most reports depicted the Romanian king as a ruler who could not adapt to his new country, often describing him as a “foreigner” or a “German” with some even predicting his abdication. Since the king was a decisive factor in the promotion of Romania’s foreign policy, he was often described as a worthy representative of Germanophilia and hostile to Russia. As a Catholic in a country whose population was overwhelmingly Orthodox, the Romanian sovereign was often shown as an “agent of Catholicism” in Romania although there were also cases when the reports emphasised the balance that he was able to strike between Catholicism and Orthodoxy.
Abstract: The formation of Kazakh-Russian contacts in the 19th – early 20th centuries is one of the most important issues in the history of international relations as part of the geopolitical system of interests of Russia in Central Asia and the territories adjacent to this region.
The Soviet historical science often characterized this historical stage as “the time of Kazakhstan's voluntary entry into Russia”, sometimes changing the focus to “Kazakhstan being part of the Russian Empire” (Suleimenov, Basin, 1981; Shoinbaev, 1982).
In this article, the main focus is on the study of the works of the Orenburg Scientific Archival Commission (hereinafter referred to as OUAK) identified by the author in the Russian National Library of St. Petersburg. For the most part, the works of the commission's employees were compiled on the basis of reporting documents and diaries of the expedition members. They contained valuable information about the steppe regions of the Kazakh lands and local residents. At the same time, the main attention of the commission members was paid to the study of Kazakh history, elements of ethnography, economic structure, geography, trade and economic prospects, geopolitical situation, and the potential of available natural resources.
The article attempts to examine in detail and study some aspects of the formation of Kazakh-Russian relations in the context of studying and analyzing the works of Russian scientists, military and officials of the 19th – early 20th centuries. Including for the analysis, the works of A. Anikhovsky, I. Anichkov, V. Vodopyanov, G. Volkonsky, Y. Gaverdovsky, G. Gens, V. Zotov, V. Illeretsky, I. Castagne, S. Sevastyanov, L. Slovokhotov, D. Sokolov, I. Shukshintsev.
Abstract: The problem of navigation in the Arctic region is constantly in the focus of attention of researchers. At the turn of the XX–XXI centuries, the issue of Arctic shipping began to be raised more often, which was due both to global warming, freeing this region from ice and making it more accessible for navigation and scientific research, and the development of technology and transport, allowing to explore this region. In maintaining interest in the issue of northern shipping, the importance of the Arctic region for world transport links also plays an important role. The object of study of this article is the history of the study of the Northern Sea Route, namely the Yenisei. In the field of view of the authors are expeditions made by both compatriots and European navigators. The authors note that at the initial stage of the study of the Northern Sea Route, researchers from Europe were the most active, while the tsarist government saw a threat to its monopoly in Siberia in the existence of sea communication with Europe. The situation changed only in the second half of the 19th century, when, thanks to the initiative of private individuals and the changed position of the government, the Northern Sea Route was reopened. At the end of the 19th century, the government took an active role in the study of the Northern Sea Route, establishing expeditions to explore the mouths of the Yenisei, the Ob and part of the Kara Sea. On the example of the descriptions of the Yenisei navigation conditions, the types of vessels used, the authors raised the issue of the difficulties faced by the participants of the research expeditions, as well as the local population living in the lower reaches of the Yenisei.
Abstract: In 1867, after the accession of the Turkestan region to the Russian Empire, along with the trend of socio-economic development of the region, the way was opened to the process of its entry into the world scientific integration. Modern cultural and educational institutions have appeared in the cities of the region. Museums were organized in Tashkent and Ashgabat. Medieval historical manuscripts were concentrated in museums. The history, culture and geography of Turkestan aroused the interest of Russian researchers. The local tsarist administration in every possible way demonstrated its material and financial support for the research work of scientists. V.V. Bartold's scientific trips carried out during this period put an end to a number of myths and distortions about the history and culture of Turkestan. The scientist demonstrated not only a high command of Oriental languages, but also an outstanding example of close work with representatives of the local intelligentsia. V. V. Bartold is known for his historical and geographical research concerning any corner of the Turkestan Governor-General, which occupies a large territory. The history of the city of Merv in the far west of Turkestan and the Semirechye region in the northeast has not gone unnoticed. The theoretical provisions laid down by V. Bartold constitute a fundamental tool for studying the history of the Turkic peoples. Of great importance in the problematic context are the orientalist's expressed scientific views on the formation and prosperity of the Mongol Empire. V. Bartold conducted a comparative analysis of the modern nature of geographical names and locations reflected in ancient Greek and Arabic sources. He also explained the reasons for the deviation of geographical points in ancient manuscripts. Summing up the general results, we will make sure of the high contribution of Academician V.V. Bartold to the formation and development of Russian Oriental studies.
Abstract: The article provides a source analysis of the publication, which is part of the series “Notes of the Krasnoyarsk sub-department of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society on Ethnography” – “Materials on the anthropology of Siberia” (Issue 1, Volume 2, 1905). The author is a representative of the provincial branch of the IRGO Konstantin Ivanovich Goroshchenko. The purpose of this article is to identify the features of the image of the foreigners of the Yenisei province (Soyots, Beltirov, Koibals, Kachin, Sagaev, Kiziltsev and Meletsky (Chulym) foreigners) presented on the pages of the publication, as well as to determine the information potential of the “Materials on the Anthropology of Siberia” as a historical source. The basis of the content of the publication is seven tables of a wide range of anthropological features of different nationalities. The tables include anthropometric material about the nationalities living in the remote Achinsk and Minusinsk counties of the Yenisei province, as well as a nominal list of subjects indicating the names, places of observation and some features of subjects not included in the tables. The significance of the studied publication as a historical source lies in the uniqueness of the collected data on the foreigners of the province; as well as not only in the collection of ethnoanthropological information about them, but also in the primary processing, an attempt to systematize.
Abstract: The article examines the construction of the Orenburg– Tashkent railway at the beginning of the XX century, as well as how it influenced on the polyethnic picture of the Aktyubinsk city (now Aktobe), its industry, trade and the development of the entire urban infrastructure. In addition, the influence of this fact on the creation of streets and districts of the city, the relationship with representatives of other nationalities, on the change of Aktobe as a multiethnic city is taken into account.
As materials there were used the documents of the State Archive of the Orenburg region (Orenburg, Russian Federation). A significant part of them was introduced into scientific circulation for the first time. Besided this, we used materials from the pre-revolutionary regional periodical press, namely the “Turgaiskaya gazeta” (“Turgay Newspaper”).
In conclusion, the author states that the Orenburg–Tashkent railway turned Aktyubinsk into a major railway junction, and transformed Aktobe County into a regional trade center. From Aktyubinsk county, several railway stations and commercial and industrial settlements began to be built. Fair trade played an important role in the development of economic ties of nomadic Kazakhs with the border region and the settled population of the region. At the same time, merchants created a wide network of trading posts in the Kazakh steppe.
Abstract: The article is devoted to the analysis of the image of the Siberian territories of the Russian Empire in the XIX – early XX centuries through consideration of the management system, industry, agriculture, education and population of Siberia. These are the areas that received the most extensive coverage on the pages of the Tomsk historical edition “Sibirskii nablyudatel'” published in the 1901–1906. The analyze results of the content of the magazine articles show that the image of the Siberian territories in the field of their management and education is characterized by significant transformations, and their role is defined as the leading one. Thanks to well-established office work, regular reporting, redistribution of financial income and expenses, a management system arises that functions in cities and still remains unchanged. Significant transformations that took place in the field of education in Siberia by the end of the 19th-beginning of the 20th centuries made it possible to determine the leading role of Siberian cities, headed by Tomsk, in the all-Russian education system of that time. The ethnic image of the Siberian territories is defined as multinational and multicultural, characterized by a tendency for the synthesis of cultures, manifested in some customs and in linguistic borrowing.
Abstract: As part of the study, an assessment is made of the potential of the power apparatus available to the authorities of Moscow in 1905, in terms of combating the revolutionary movement. The work methodology includes systemic, structural and comparative analysis. The source base of the article includes sources of personal origin and previously unpublished office materials from the fund of the Department for the Protection of Public Security and Order in Moscow under the mayor. Based on the study of empirical material, it was concluded that by the beginning of the acute phase of the revolution of 1905–1907 the power apparatus of the old capital did not have sufficient resources for the prompt and full-scale suppression of unrest. Insufficient funding and limited staffing of police units were combined with a lack of weapons, a relatively low degree of development of the undercover apparatus, the absence of specialized riot control units, as well as a well-developed methodology for their actions. In a number of cases, police units did not have sufficient rights to carry out full-fledged search activities. The low level of wages and the practice of abuse of power by the local middle management had a negative impact on the level of motivation of the police personnel. Since 1903, the number of troops stationed in Moscow has been decreasing on a regular basis, primarily due to the transfer of soldiers and officers to the Far East. The loss of personnel was compensated only partially, mainly by calling up reserve soldiers who were not very suitable for solving the problems of fighting the revolution. At the same time, a significant part of the available military resources was spent on secondary functions, due to which the workload on the units designed to help the police in the fight against riots increased significantly. Logistical problems prevented the timely return to Moscow of units released after the conclusion of peace with Japan. Decisions to increase the material base and expand the staff of the Moscow security forces were taken by the central leadership of the Ministry of Internal Affairs with a great delay - at the very end of 1905. Accordingly, the relatively low effectiveness of the Moscow security forces in countering the revolutionary movement in the old capital was primarily due to their lack of sufficient material base and prolonged disregard for their needs by the central administration.
Abstract: The study reveals the question of the factors that prevented effective opposition to the revolutionary movement in Moscow in 1905 before the start of the armed uprising. The methodological set of tools used in the survey includes structural, diachronic and synchronous analysis. The source base of the work was formed by attracting unpublished archival documents from the funds of the Department for the Protection of Public Security and Order in Moscow under the Moscow mayor and the Police Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Empire, as well as a wide range of sources of personal origin. The results of the conducted research allow us to conclude that the Moscow authorities failed to fully realize the potential of the methods of combating the revolution available to them due to the presence of a number of circumstances, both objective and subjective. The police apparatus of Moscow and the military units stationed in the city and its environs were too few in number to solve the tasks assigned to them. Effective communication was not established between law enforcement and other law enforcement agencies, as a result of which their actions were poorly coordinated and often had an uncoordinated character. The Moscow leadership, represented by the governor-general and the mayor, was disoriented by the lack of clear and unambiguous instructions regarding the implementation of domestic policy after the publication of the manifesto on October 17. As a result, officials tried to delegate responsibility whenever possible and refrained from decisive action, showing high passivity. The importance of the exchange of information between departments and within them was leveled by the low speed of processing even the most important messages: the latter often reached the addressee with a colossal delay. Attempts to interact with loyalists also did not bring the expected result. The authorities cooperated with public organizations that did not have real support among the broad masses, and at the same time they did not take measures to prevent representatives of criminals and marginalized elements from being involved in the street activity of the monarchists. The consequence of this was an increase in the number of episodes of violence, which stimulated both the radicalization of the revolutionary movement and an increase in public fears about the outbreak of pogroms and riots. At the same time, some of the leaders of monarchist structures often poorly coordinated their actions with the Moscow authorities, and grassroots activists even spread various destructive rumors. A natural consequence of a combination of various factors that reduced the effectiveness of opposition to the revolutionary movement on the part of the authorities was the escalation of revolutionary violence, which resulted in the events of the armed uprising in December 1905.
Abstract: The article analyzes the historical experience and features of the origin and development of shipbuilding as a branch of national industry in the late XIX – early XX centuries, shows the objective necessity, possibility and conditionality of the development of shipbuilding in Russia. The paper characterizes the growth of the use of ships, primarily cargo and passenger, sea, river and mixed types, as well as military, shows the influence of shipbuilding as a catalyst for the development of national industry and market relations in the early XX century. On the basis of archival documents, national statistical collections and scientific works of Russian pre-revolutionary researchers, the problems of Russian shipbuilding and the peculiarities of its development are analyzed. The relevance of the research is determined by the need to study the development of shipbuilding in Russia, taking into account the innovation saturation as the most important feature of the industry.
The scientific novelty lies in the comprehensive study of shipbuilding in Russia at the stage of its formation (late XIX – early XX centuries).
In work, statistical, graphical, historical-system and retrospective methods were used from the traditional methods of historical and economic research; methods of system analysis and historiographic analysis were also applied.
During the work, the main features and directions of shipbuilding development are identified, the conclusions are drawn about the high importance of Russian shipbuilding, based on the introduction of new technologies, as a catalyst for national socio-economic development.
Abstract: This article is devoted to the legal regulation of old faith and sectarianism in the Russian Empire at the beginning of the XX century. The main source was the Decrees, Manifestos and Resolutions of Emperor Nicholas II, orders of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Ministry of Public Education of the Russian Empire, as well as the definitions of the Holy Synod; the work also uses the norms of the Criminal Code and the General Regulations on Peasants.
Based on the study of sources, it was concluded that the basis for the regulatory regulation of the institute of religious tolerance in general, and old faith and sectarianism in particular, were the Manifesto of Nicholas II of February 26, 1903, the Decrees of the Emperor of December 12, 1904 and April 17, 1905, as well as the Regulations of the Committee of Ministers of April 17, 1905.
According to these regulations, old believers and sectarians were completely legalized (only the so-called “fanatical” teachings, that is, movements that preached religious fanaticism, were prohibited) and had equal legal status with representatives of other faiths. Their communities operated on the basis of a charter agreed with the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Committee of Ministers, could own movable and immovable property, create their own primary-level schools (subject to the availability of certified teaching staff and educational programs agreed with the Ministry of Public Education).
Abstract: The article is devoted to the place of labor migrants from East Asian countries in the public space of the Russian Far East on the eve of the First World War. The source base for this study was the materials of the regional periodicals – the newspapers Priamurskiye Vedomosti (Khabarovsk), Priamurye (Khabarovsk), Priamurskaya Zhizn (Khabarovsk), Dalniy Vostok (Vladivostok). In addition, documents stored in the funds of the Russian State Historical Archive of the Far East (RGIADV) and the State Archive of the Khabarovsk Territory (GAHK) were used. The methodological basis of the study was the theoretical developments of domestic and foreign migration scientists. Using these conceptual constructions, the author comes to the conclusion that the specific of the Far East region was the special attention of the media and public organizations that existed in the region to the problem of labor migrants. It is proved that the peculiarity of the Far East was closer than in most other regions of Russia, the connection between the power structures (represented primarily by the administration of the Amur Governor-General) and a small local intelligentsia. In contrast to the central regions of the empire, the intelligentsia here was largely united in expert communities that worked to meet the needs of the authorities. It was these structures (the Amur departments of the Russian Geographical Society and the Society of Oriental Studies, the newspaper Priamurskiye Vedomosti) that were characterized by the most in-depth analysis of the problem of labor migrants, which they considered, first of all, in the context of the needs of the development of the regional economy. The author proves that the analysis of this problem, which was presented on the pages of Priamurye, Priamurskie Vedomosti and other opposition publications, was much less profound. These publications only sought to use the sensitive issue of migrants for political purposes.
Abstract: Forced migration during the First World War has become a powerful factor affecting both international relations and the situation within involved countries. In the Russian Empire this phenomenon appeared to be a new factor in the political space. Researchers believe that in the European part, the refugee component of this migration flow has had a noticeable impact on the collapse of state power in provinces. At the same time, there is a common opinion that the deported part of the immigrants, once in the Siberian provinces, joined the composition of organizations and movements dissatisfied with the authorities and, accordingly, contributed to the further shattering of state structures in these regions. The purpose of this article is to analyze the mentioned influence on the materials of the main recipient territory of all types of forced migrants – Siberia. The work is based on the historical-genetic method, the application of which made it possible to reconstruct the features of the interaction of various political actors within the region. The orientation of their political activity, its degree was determined on the basis of the historical-psychological method. As a result of the study, there was formulated the statement about the vector of the impact of forced migrants on the political forces of Siberian society, from the perspective of the actor-network theory of Bruno Latour, John Law and Michel Callon. This methodological approach refuted the classical historiographic position that there was no political influence on the part of the group of forced migrants, with the exception of the active position of the deported ones. Also, during the analysis, it was confirmed that the left political powers were not interested in migrants.
Abstract: The article is a continuation of the study devoted to the problems of the formation of social assistance to war invalids in 1914–1917, considered in modern Russian historiography. As the analysis of most publications shows, their authors claim that during the First World War in Russia, a full-fledged state social policy was developed in relation to disabled soldiers who were injured at the front. Meanwhile, individual charitable actions of the imperial family, private individuals, self-government bodies, public organizations in the regions are issued for "state" actions. However, theoretical ideas about social policy and social protection allow us to conclude that the state in 1914-1917 was not yet ready to become a full-fledged subject of social assistance to the disabled population, since there was no working social legislation in the country, social guarantees were not established for military personnel from the lower ranks, the interaction of state bodies with zemstvo and city organizations, charitable societies and institutions did not imply the existence of real mechanisms for cooperation foremost from the government. Therefore, speaking about the state social policy during the First World War, one can state absence of such, but at the same time find an attempt to create a new, more effective system of social assistance, in which both state and non-state subjects of social assistance would take part. This new practice of assistance was already distinguished by the gradual professionalism increase of humanitarian activities, by the assistance to the disabled person in his adaptation instead of traditional material assistance. However, its ideological and value orientations were not formed during this period, the state still did not play a key role, and the system of social assistance itself was unable to overcome the framework of public relief and private charity.
Abstract: The objective circumstances associated with the outbreak of the First World War (including Turkey's intervention on the side of Germany) and the uprising of 1916 in the Kazakh steppe and Turkestan determined the steady distrust of the state bodies of the Russian Empire in the social activities of the Kazakh Intelligence, especially in the position of the newspaper “Kazak” (which was called only “Muslim”), which was accompanied by increased attention to it from the gendarme department. Corresponding was the reaction of local authorities and employees of the Orenburg provincial gendarmerie to the articles published in the newspaper “Kazak”, to its wide material support by the Kazakh population, including from abroad (Turkey, China). An analysis of archival documents about an organized campaign of denunciations to the editorial office of the Kazakh-language press, in order to discredit the activities of employees, which showed an increase in contradictions in the enlightened part of Kazakh society, leads the authors to the conclusion that the tsarist authorities did not fail to take advantage of this. Despite the fact that as a result of a thorough study by the police department of the content of denunciations against the Kazak newspaper, the biased, unjustified nature of the accusations by the steppe aristocracy against the editors of the press organ was revealed, state interests demanded the strengthening of protective measures. The use of previously unstudied source materials in the archives of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation (correspondence of the police department and the Orenburg governor, reports of the gendarmerie and police departments) made it possible to show the results of a political investigation of the editors of the Kazak newspaper, to highlight the details of the confrontation among the Kazakh political elite.