Abstract: The tax policy of the Russian state in the 17th century has repeatedly attracted the attention of researchers. The main categories of receipts to the state treasury, tax reforms, emergency fees (mainly on the basis of all-Russian material) have been studied. The expenditures of local institutions of the Kama region are first investigated on the materials of the Cherdyn and Solikamsk districts in this article. The author, on the basis of the available data, examines what needs were met by the money entering the provincial huts. Funds were usually sent to central offices with several messengers throughout the year. In the estimated and counting lists, the amounts and types of taxes that were in the parcel were recorded. A separate accounting of expenses for all sorts of local needs was kept. Part of the funds were spent locally for the needs of the office (usually no more than 1-2%) and other local tasks: the construction of taverns, buildings, assistance in organizing the salt industry (here the amounts could be larger, the provision of the Zyryansk salt enterprises in certain periods amounted to several thousand annually). The main sums went to the central orders and were already spent there for specific needs (streltsy money). At the same time, the bulk of the funds received on the territory of the Cherdyn and Solikamsk districts in the form of taxes and fees were still sent to central institutions. The expenses of local institutions (clerk's salary, candles, firewood, office expenses) were carried out from unreported fees.
Abstract: Within the framework of this study, the history of the origin and evolution of the medical police in Russia in the period of the 18th – the first half of the 19th centuries is subjected to. The aim of the work is to assess the quality of the impact of the work of the medical police on the situation within the empire. The research methodology is built through a combination of elements of comparative, systemic and functional analysis. The source base of the work includes previously unpublished office documents from archival funds and a body of legislative acts. The author comes to the conclusion that for most of its existence in the pre-reform period, the military police system covered mainly cities, while its presence was most intensively felt in district and provincial centers. Direct and indirect methods of influencing the situation in rural areas, available to the medical police, were quite limited. The breadth of functionality, combined with a shortage of personnel and a general lack of resources, a priori leveled the effectiveness of the work of the medical police. Gaps in the legislation also played their role: while attributing certain functions to the police, the drafters of legal acts did not give it the appropriate powers. The situation was aggravated by the presence of an alternative “decision-making center” in the form of territorial communities of landowners, which had a significant impact on the political system and were capable of sabotaging many initiatives of the authorities. At the same time, it should be noted that for most of the period under study, a full-fledged state administration apparatus of the modern type was in a state of formation. It acquired a relatively complete form only during the reign of Nicholas I, when the system of executive power was finally saturated to an acceptable level with qualified personnel, and the management process itself began to be built on the basis of project and strategic approaches. Given these circumstances, it can be argued that during the period under study, the foundations were laid for the organization of a new type of medical police, corresponding to the realities of an agrarian-industrial society. Significant experience was gained in carrying out sanitary and epidemiological measures, and the mistakes and miscalculations made earlier in most cases were subjected to reflection and taken into account when developing new methods to counteract the spread of dangerous diseases. At the same time, there was a clear need to increase the funding and powers of the medical police, improve staffing, and create specialized structures to which the police apparatus could delegate redundant functions (for example, veterinary control).
Abstract: The article is devoted to the events that took place on the border between the Muscovy and the Zaporizhzhya Army in the autumn of 1660 – in the spring of 1661. In the autumn of 1660, an expeditionary corps under the command of the boyar Vasily Sheremetyev was surrounded and defeated on the Right-Bank Ukraine. At the same time, Hetman Yuri Khmelnitsky entered into an alliance with the Commonwealth against the Muscovy. This was the reason for the open action of several left-bank Cossack regiments. The most active anti-Moscow speeches were in the Poltava and Gadyach regiments. In the winter of 1660–1661, the Cossack detachments of these regiments undertook several campaigns in order to attack the Moscow border fortresses. The cities of Kamenny, Aleshnya and Volny were taken under siege. The Moscow garrisons were able to repulse these attacks, however, their fortifications were badly damaged and their supplies depleted. Heavy losses led to the fact that the garrisons of the border fortresses went on the defensive and could not actively oppose the Cossack detachments. In the autumn of 1660, on the orders of the tsar, the Belgorod governor sent several detachments to "pacify" the Cossack cities. Under the cities of Gadyach and Zinkov, Moscow troops entered into battle with the Cossacks, but they could not take these fortresses. In the winter of 1660, hetman Petr Doroshenko arrives in Zinkov. At the disposal of the Moscow governor was no more than 3,000 infantry and cavalry, and the Ukrainian hetman had 6,000 Cossacks. In the spring of 1661, a detachment of Cossacks near the town of Grun in a decisive battle were defeated and fled. Shortly thereafter, the Poltava and Gadyach regiments stopped the fight against the Muscovite kingdom and confirmed the oath to the tsar.
As a result of the analysis of published sources and their own research, the authors found that in the confrontation between the two armies – the Moscow and the Cossack at the first stage of the battle, the advantage was on the side of the latter. Flexible tactics and numerical superiority made the positions of the Cossacks stronger in defense and successful in attack. Subsequently, the change in command of the Cossack troops led to the fact that less numerous, but more organized detachments of the Moscow regular troops were able not only to repulse the attack, but also inflict a decisive defeat on the enemy.
Abstract: The article provides a brief overview of the historical and geographical data on the Caspian Sea and traces the change in the name of the sea at different stages of history. The study is based on the work of scientists from Russia, Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan. The purpose of the work was to reveal the reasons for the change of sea names and the history of the formation of the marine scientific map in connection with the expeditions organized by Peter the Great in the early 18th century. The authors analyzed historical research and made an attempt to systematize cartographic materials and data from antiquity, the Middle Ages and modern times. The history of the Caspian and its adjacent territories has been a subject of debate since the time of Greek logographers in the ancient world, and historical research of the Caspian Sea continues to the present day. Since ancient times, the Caspian coast has been inhabited by many peoples, becoming a crossroads for the interaction of various cultures; in the late Middle Ages, the Caspian Sea played an important role, being located along the world trade transit known as the Great Silk Road. In the new era, competition for control over the Caspian Sea between states intensified, but as a result of the military-political actions of Peter I, the sea became a de facto geographical object of the Russian Empire, and then the Soviet Union. However, after the collapse of the USSR at the end of the 20th century, the Caspian Sea, which has a geographically convenient location and rich resources, reappeared on the historical arena as one of the most important geopolitical issues.
Abstract: The study of the features of the hereditary legal status of women among the Perm Finno-Ugric peoples (Komi, Udmurts), as well as the mechanism of its consolidation in customary and positive law within the framework of historical events of the 18th - 19th centuries, is quite relevant today.
The purpose of this work is to study through the historical and legal analysis of the hereditary and legal status of women among the Permian peoples, enshrined in the norms of customary and positive law in the 18th – 19th centuries.
As a result of the analysis, the authors come to the conclusion that the hereditary legal status of women among the Permian peoples, enshrined not only in customary law, but also in the norms of positive law in the 18th – 19th centuries, had its own specifics. According to custom, when getting married, the daughter received a dowry, after which she was considered separated from the family, and was deprived of her inheritance rights to a part of the family-wide hereditary mass. However, in cases when a primak husband who married the daughter of the head of the family was accepted into the family, she continued to use the common family property, acquiring equal inheritance rights with the brothers.
A woman in widow status was not always deprived of her property rights. The custom allowed the widow to stay with her married son, to whom most of the family property was transferred. If the widow did not remarry, then she was the rightful heiress of all property jointly acquired with her spouse, especially in the case when the children were already separated from their parents.
The customary law of the Permian peoples, supplementing the positive law, protected the inherited common family property from transferring to non-blood relatives, therefore the widow lost her rights to the property of her deceased first spouse in the event of her remarriage. This was also facilitated by of sororate and levirate that existed and were widely used in the customary law of the Permian peoples.
The authors examined various historical and historical-legal sources, including archival documents, publications in periodicals, as well as legislative acts of the Russian state, consolidated in the PSZ.
Abstract: The study analyzes the representation of the place of the Kazakhs in the history of the Siberian Khanate in the Russian pre-revolutionary historical science. One of the most interesting and discussed problems of pre-colonial history of Western Siberia is the problem of the place of the Kazakhs in the history of the Siberian Khanate. Different, at times diametrically opposite points of view are expressed on this issue. The main concepts have developed in the Russian pre-revolutionary science.
In historiography of a problem it is possible to allocate two basic directions on a question of a place of Kazakhs in history of the Siberian khanate. The first, laid down by the works of G. Miller and his followers, refers to the Kazakhs as the autochthons of Western Siberia and active participants of the processes associated with the history of the Siberian Khanate. This point of view was based on the reports of the Siberian annals, and through them the historical memory of the Siberian Tatars. The similar point of view was held by the authors who studied the historical memory of the Kazakhs (N. Krasovsky, G. Spassky).
The second direction began to develop from the middle of the XIX century together with the development of Russian ethnographic and oriental studies. According to it, the Kazakhs appeared on the borders of Western Siberia only at the end of the 17th – beginning of the 18th century and did not play a significant role in the history of the Siberian Khanate (A. Oksenov, G. Katanaev, V. Ogorodnikov).
At the same time, under the influence of European scientific traditions, a national historiography, which combined the traditional historical memory of the Kazakh and Tatar people on the one hand, and the achievements of Russian Oriental science on the other hand (Sh. Kudaiberdyuly, K. Khalid, H. Atlasi).
Abstract: The article considers the main stages of formation and development of epidemiology in the Russian Empire, associated with the activity of its founder, a native of Ukraine - Danila Samoylovich Samoylovich. Life and creative way of the founder of national epidemiology as a science, his role in theory and practice of epidemics control is analyzed. The value and influence of scientific works of D. Samoilovich on the national and foreign medicine of the 18th c. for further development of epidemiology in the Russian empire are determined.
We analyze the main scientific publications of D. Samoilovich, in which he develops ideas on combating epidemics of infectious diseases and offers an original doctrine of plague and a system of measures to combat it.
D. Samoilovich's role in the fight against the Moscow plague as well as in the south of Ukraine is shown. Thanks to innovative solutions, such as disinfection of things and dwellings of plague patients, vaccination, etc., D. Samoilovich was able not only to extinguish plague outbreaks, but also to essentially reduce the risks of its occurrence in the future.
The conflict between D. Samoilovich and the official authorities, connected with the sympathies of the great scientist to the ideals of the French Revolution, membership in the Masonic order and anti-monarchic aspirations, is described.
The article claims about the significant influence of D. Samoilovich's ideas and discoveries on the development of European medicine. This was expressed in the fact that he was elected a member of 12 European Academies of Sciences, and his works were published in French and German, and later republished. The appearance of the first medical manuals in Russian is connected with the name of D. Samoilovich.
In addition to his medical and scientific activities, D. Samoilovich was active in social and educational activities, because he was convinced that an effective fight against epidemics is possible only with the use of systemic measures at the level of not only state control and management, but also with broad public representation.
The main scientific innovations of D. Samoilovich's innovations in the fight against epidemics are analyzed.
Abstract: In this article the authors explore the origins, reasons and determine the chronological framework of the emergence of private ownership of pastures among the nomadic Kazakhs. Having studied archival sources, the Complete Collection of Laws of the Russian Empire, testimonies of contemporaries and research of scientists, the authors conclude that these processes refer to the end of the 18th – beginning of the 19th centuries.
The issues of land use and land ownership among the Kazakhs who were engaged in nomadic cattle-breeding were and remain topical, since this problem is caused by the special role of land in nomadic society. Despite the polemics which have started in the 30's of the last century, up to the middle 50's of the XX century there was no unified opinion among scientists on the question of the nature, forms and the right of feudal property in Kazakhstan. The Soviet historiography was dominated by two opposite opinions: the first – since the times of the Karakhanid state (XI century) in Kazakhstan existed the right of feudal land ownership (S.V. Yushkov, S.Z. Zimanov, A.E. Erenov and others). The second point of view – in conditions of nomadic cattle breeding the basic means of manufacture was and remained the cattle, instead of land..., not possession of the land, but possession of cattle was a defining factor of exploitation (V.F. Shakhmatov, S.E. Tolybekov and others). One or the other position dominated at different periods in history, but scientists did not come to a consensus and the question remained unresolved in the historical literature.
Communal land use existed in Russia until the beginning of capitalism, but this does not mean that there was no private land ownership. In some Asian countries, communal land tenure coexisted in parallel with state ownership. There is no doubt that in the Steppe the main form of land use was communal land use (aul or clan), but the presence of communal land use does not negate the existence of private feudal property.
Abstract: The article is dedicated to the question of Justiznutzung or uses of justice at Russian provincial courts during the 1780-1790-ies. Catherine II`s judicial reform (1775–1785) introduced an estate-based court system. For the first time in Russian history, positive law was extended to part of the peasantry. In districts with a high percentage (at least 30 %) of personally free rural dwellers, courts of first instance, so called nizhnye raspravy were opened, thus giving this population group the possibility to seek justice in a crown court. In the Perm vicegerency (1781–97), however, this opportunity was seldom exploited: criminal and civil cases constituted less than a fifth of court business per year. This contribution will not focus the “classic” question of whether peasant courts were frequented or ignored. Its aim is to concentrate on those situations and constellations when customary law failed to satisfy the plaintiff´s needs, leading to them appealing to the norms positive law and its institutions to receive a just decision. Most of the time, proceedings at a crown court opened ex officio. But this was not exclusively the case: court records kept in the state archive of the Sverdlovsk region show that the peasant commune regarded a conflict within its social context and only then decided whether to turn to the norms of positive law to restore justice. Given this, the low court activity at the nizhnye raspravy cannot be explained by the dualism of law and legal nihilism among the peasantry. It is more appropriate to speak of legal pluralism, the juxtaposition of several valid legal forms to whose norms people were free to turn.
Abstract: The transition from the Middle Ages to modern times in the North Caucasus is one of the least developed topics in regional history. Started by archaeologists in the mid-1970s the discussion of the problem of the end of the local late Middle Ages and the beginning of a new history did not receive further continuation. The presented analysis allows us to outline the criteria of the new era in the North Caucasus region, including not only economic and political, but also socio-mental parameters. These include, respectively: taking into account the degree of dynamics of commodity-money relations, overcoming political disunity, inclusion in Russian state structures, subordination to the imperial state orders (or the creation of their own state structures and institutions), the dominance of patriarchal liberties, values and a religious view of the world, the emergence among the mountaineers of the intelligentsia of the European type, etc. The author suggests the following chronological framework of the late Middle Ages – modern times in the North Caucasus: late 18th – early 19th centuries. – the end of the medieval era in the North Caucasus; end of the first third of the 19th century – 1860-1870s – the transition period from the Middle Ages to modern times in the history of the North Caucasian peoples: the turn of the 1860-1870s. – 1917 – a period of actually new history among the mountain peoples of the North Caucasus.
Abstract: The article examines the activities of the British Minister of War, Sidney Herbert, as a representative of the Russian Vorontsov dynasty, as well as a member of the British Parliament, a reformer of the army health care during the Crimean War. His life and work were connected with the history of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the Russian Empire, China, Crimea, Turkey. A graduate of the University of Oxford, a member of the British Parliament opposed the slave trade, for solving the problems of crime and disease in Ireland, the need for friendly relations with China. During the Crimean War, he, as the Minister of War of the United Kingdom, promoted reforms aimed at reorganizing and health care of the army, offering to share the responsibilities of the minister responsible for managing the colonies of Great Britain and conducting the war. In parliament, he was blamed for the lack of supplies and organization of the British army in the Crimea, which led to the fall of the Aberdeen government. Supporting the alliance of France, England and Turkey, Herbert, as а Minister of War, believed that the British military expedition to the Crimea was undertaken using funds insufficient to carry out military operations.
Abstract: The article examines the travels of Alexander I in the Russian Empire, which had the character of working trips that were aimed at the implementation of a number of functions of power and were a way of its representation. One of the most important tasks of such trips was the unity of the government and the people, who was expressed in the visible presence of the sovereign among the subjects gathered along the roads, in the villages and cities through which the imperial motorcade passed. The symbolic image of the anointed of God was realized primarily in the fact that the first to meet the sovereign were representatives of the clergy and the first event at the entrance to the city was a solemn prayer service in the cathedral.
In the minds of his subjects, the emperor personified the image of a regulator of balanced coexistence of all classes. Therefore, a visit to each city that was on the way was accompanied by the reception of deputations from various estates and ranks. During the trips, the emperor carried out control functions, inspecting city institutions and censuring those officials and services where violations were detected. The grace of the sovereign was an integral part of the imperial travels and was expressed in the presentation of state awards, monetary and material gifts, and the personal participation of the autocrat in the destinies of specific people.
Imperial travels were accompanied by commemorative practices, which include the installation of commemorative plaques and monuments in honor of the visit of the sovereign, the issue of commemorative medals and badges. The notes accompanying this event, written in the literary and historical genre of travelogue, in which the monarch became not only the subject of description, but also reflection played an important role in the formation of the collective memory of the monarch's visit.
Abstract: The problems of the activity of Orthodox missionaries and ministers of the Church in the XIX century among Kazakhs have been insufficiently studied. The article highlights some aspects of the process of baptism of Kazakhs, based on the sources introduced into scientific circulation for the first time – archival documents and periodical materials.
The authors draw attention to the fact that the baptism of Kazakhs at the initial stage took place without the participation of missionaries and was sporadic, situational in nature. Since the first Orthodox Kazakh steppe were tsarist officials and Cossacks, the first baptized include children who were bought and workers, who served with Russian residents of the border territories.
The huge distances between settlements created objective difficulties in the spread of Orthodoxy. The activities of church servants at first focused on Russian immigrants. Attempts to attract Kazakhs to the bosom of the Church did not give the desired results, due to their nomadic lifestyle. It was more expedient to use mobile forces in the person of missionaries. Having founded their camp, they could carry out their work for a long time, moving together with nomads, moving from one village to another. The activity of the missionaries was organized, they used various methods of influencing the consciousness and feelings of the Kazakhs. The missionaries conducted propaganda among the most diverse categories of the indigenous population: men and women, adults and children, people in difficult life situations – prisoners, the sick – fell into their sphere of influence. Of particular interest is the work of Orthodox preachers among Kazakh women, who, even after Islamization, were characterized by a certain openness and freedom, unlike Muslim women in Central Asia.
Abstract: The article is devoted to the Russian pre-revolutionary historiography of the system of public education among the Kazakhs in the 19th – early 20th centuries, therefore, in this article, the authors mainly relied on the works of pre-revolutionary Russian researchers devoted to the issues of education in Kazakhstan as a historiographic source. The article applied the basic principles of historical science: historicism and objectivity, as well as research methods of the science of historiography, such as analysis, synthesis, historical-comparative, retrospective, problem-chronological, actualization. They served as a key in highlighting the significant aspects of the pre-revolutionary Russian historiography of the enlightenment of the Kazakhs.
Pre-revolutionary authors studied various aspects of the system of public education among the Kazakhs. The article deals with the Orenburg Neplyuev Cadet Corps, the Orenburg paramedical school, the School for Kazakh children under the Orenburg Border Commission, the Russian-Kazakh primary, second rural and Kazakh teachers' schools in the Orenburg, Ural and Troitsk steppe fortifications. The works cited in the article contain detailed information about the location of educational institutions, funding, number of students, age, social composition, classification, religious beliefs. Russian officials covered with particular interest the opening day of the Kazakh school at the Orenburg Border Commission, the funds allocated for it, the premises, children's clothing, food, etc. A significant part of the information about the education of Kazakh children in the Ural, Turgai and Orenburg regions was reflected in articles published in periodicals.
Officials and researchers who studied the system of education among the Kazakhs in Tsarist Russia left behind a lot of valuable materials. These works are now a valuable historical source for researchers of the Kazakh education of this period. From this point of view, the works of pre-revolutionary authors do not lose their relevance and significance.
Abstract: This article examines the relationships between the Russian Empire and Jigetiya, an attempt by Russia to establish peaceful relations with one of the Caucasian tribes, taking into account the requirements of the Russian government.
A whole complex of various sources was used as materials, such as published collections of documents, sources of personal origin (memoirs and diaries), as well as materials of the periodical press. Among the published collections of documents, the “Acts of the Caucasian Archeographic Commission”, as well as a collection of documents on the history of Jigetiya and other collections of documents stand out. From sources of personal origin, the notes and diaries of travelers, scouts and emissaries were used.
The methodological basis of the research is the principle of historicism, which made it possible to make a comprehensive analysis of collections of archival documents and materials, sources of personal origin and historiography related to the history of relations between Russia and Jigetiya.
In conclusion, the authors state that the dialogue between Russia and Jigetiya in 1829–1837 was established immediately after the signing of the Treaty of Adrianople, namely in 1830 when Russian troops built three fortifications in western Abkhazia. Russian-Jigetiya relations were continued in the future until the landing of the Russian troops at Cape Adler and during the construction of the fortification of the Holy Spirit.
Abstract: The presented article examines a significant problem associated with the consistent formation of a special model of Cossack education, which was carried out in the Oblast of the Don Army in the 19th – early 20th centuries. The authors show the inextricable connection of family and social education with the real effectiveness of the educational process, focused on the comprehensive training of the younger generation, loyal to local traditions and at the same time loyal to the imperial authorities. The source base used makes it possible to adequately reconstruct the various views on Cossack education that developed in the period under review, and the practical implementation of the chosen concept of specialized education. A systematic analysis of the historiographic tradition made it possible to identify and adequately assess controversial and debatable issues related to the imperial stage in the development of Cossack educational practices. Special attention is paid to the complex institutional interaction of family social and administrative everyday life, the organic connection of which determined the objective prospects of regional education. A significant section is devoted to the methodological support of educational practices, the main element of which, in relation to the chosen period, is specialized publications that cover in a popular form the cultural traditions and the historical past of the Don Cossacks. The consistent formation of individual and group perceptions of Cossack history and culture is considered as a significant factor in the natural evolution of the regional mentality, which was determined not only by zealous service to the Motherland, but also by the purposeful conservation of ideological stereotypes of a religious, social and intellectual nature. The author's interest is also directed to the authentic connection of the previous model of Cossack education with modern practices that do not fully take into account the accumulated experience.
Abstract: This article is devoted to the study of Scythian archeology by the Odessa Society of History and Antiquities, one of the oldest archaeological societies in Russia. The Society paid the main attention to the study of ancient archeology, as well as the history of the development of the Novorossiysk Territory. The historiography of the Society's activities includes an analysis of various aspects of the Society's activities, biographies of its members and works on the history of antiquity. The study of the Society's activities in the field of scythology is considered for the first time, which is the novelty of this article. The Scythians made a significant contribution to world culture, therefore, the opening of each new page in the study of the history of this people seems relevant. On the example of the Odessa Society of History and Antiquities, the state policy of the House of Romanovs in the field of protection of archaeological monuments can be traced, which manifested itself in the august patronage of the Society and annual subsidies for its needs. Scientists of the Odessa Society of History and Antiquities were the pioneers of the historical and geographical research of the Northern Black Sea region. They looked for analogies in the geographical objects of Novorossiya with the reports of ancient authors about the Scythians, made attempts at a historical interpretation of archaeological monuments, and used chemical methods for analyzing finds. Historiographic reviews of works on Scythology carried out by members of the Society acquainted the Russian public with the latest achievements in this field. Epigraphic and numismatic research, publications of the epistolary heritage of Russian archaeologists were carried out at a high level for their time. It is no coincidence that the members of the Society were prominent domestic and foreign scythologists and scholars of antiquity, such as M.I. Rostovtsev, N.P. Kondakov, V.V. Latyshev, N.I. Veselovsky.
Abstract: The article examines the system of public education in the Caucasus (the territory of the Caucasian Educational District) on the basis of extensive statistical material. This part analyzes the development of the system of public education in the period of 1900–1917.
The source base for the study was the annual “The Reports of the trustee of the Caucasian educational district on the state of educational institutions of the Caucasian educational district”. These reports were published in the period of 1884–1914. They reflected data on the system of public education subordinate to the Ministry of Public Education.
In conclusion, the authors state that the system of public education on the territory of the Caucasian educational district at the beginning of the 20th century continued to develop dynamically. For 14 years from 1900 to 1914 the number of educational institutions and the number of students increased by 2.5 times. The greatest successes were in the field of secondary and primary education, where the number of educational institutions increased by 3 times, lower education developed less dynamically.
As for the gender balance among students, the female education during this period made a significant breakthrough in primary school, where the proportion of girls increased from 25 to 33 %. At the same time, in secondary school by 1914, almost parity was already observed between boys and girls. All this testified, in the authors' view, that public education has firmly entered the way of life of the population in the Caucasus.
Abstract: The article is devoted to the study of certain aspects of the history of the Russian national opera in the context of the historical and cultural features of the XIX century. The authors, understanding the complexity of performing the task within the framework of one study, limited by the scope of a scientific article, to reflect the most significant features of this problem, focused on its historical component: the role of theatres in the public life of Russia, interference of the imperial family in the theatrical sphere, activities of Catterino Cavos in the Russian theatre, the historical significance of opera art by A.N. Verstovsky, M.I. Glinka, A.S. Dargomyzhsky, “The Mighty Bunch” and P.I. Tchaikovsky, propaganda of Russian opera art on the stage of the Private Opera and personality of S.I. Mamontov. The article reflects the main theatrical reforms of the period under review, carried out by Alexander I, Nicholas I and Alexander III, which were aimed at including the Russian Empire in the pan-European theatre process and raising the prestige of the Russian theatre. Facts about the birth of the Russian national opera based on the synthesis of folk melodies and European musical experience are given. An attempt is made to clarify the issue of the disparaging attitude of the public and the theatre management to the Russian opera based on the materials of the Russian musical newspaper. The authors come to the conclusion about the influence of Russian opera classics of the XIX century on the subsequent development of this genre, its enduring significance and relevance in the modern theatre.
Abstract: The article attempts to consider publications devoted to military propaganda during the First World War, published in the “Propaganda in the World and Local Conflicts” journal.
As materials, 12 articles from the “Propaganda in the World and Local Conflicts” journal were used, which are devoted to various aspects of the First World War. The journal “Propaganda in the World and Local Conflicts” is the only English-language scientific journal in the world that specializes in the history of military propaganda and covers the period from the middle of the XIX to the beginning of the XXI centuries. The journal's the columns are “Articles and messages”, “Weapons of propagandists”, as well as “Letters to the editor”.
In methodological terms, the methods of content analysis and historical and chronological were applied in the work. The content analysis method allowed us to analyze all the articles from the journal “Propaganda in the World and Local Conflicts” and select those that corresponded to the topic of our study. In turn, thanks to the historical-chronological method, we examined the problem under study in its chronological sequence.
In conclusion, the authors state that the topic of military propaganda of the period of the First World War is presented on the pages of the “Propaganda in the World and Local Conflicts” journal by twelve articles, which thematically can be divided into three groups: visualization as a source of propaganda, military propaganda as a problem and the weapon of propagandists. Each of them has a pronounced specificity. To the first group we attributed the publication of cartoons and documentary photographs in the materials of the periodical press of the period of the First World War, to the second – publications on the formation of the image of the enemy and the creation of their own patriotic image, and to the third – publications of a technical nature about the use of technical means by propagandists.
Abstract: The article deals with infant mortality in the age group from birth to 5 years in the Russian Empire in the period 1850–1910. The attention is paid to the minimum and maximum values, as well as the causes of child mortality.
As the main materials of the study, we used the reports of the Chief Prosecutor of the Holy Synod on the spiritual department of the Orthodox faith for 1850–1910. Besides this, the documents of the National Archive of the Republic of Karelia (Petrozavodsk, Russian Federation) were involved.
The work is based on the basic principles of historicism, consistency and objectivity. The statistical method is of great importance in it, which made it possible to fully analyze the available statistical data on infant mortality in the territory of the Russian Empire in the period 1850–1910, as well as to detect important characteristic features.
In conclusion, the authors state that in 1850–1910, the mortality rate of children among the age group from birth to 5 years ranged from 34.6 to 51.1 %. Thus, the annual average percentage of child mortality in 1850-1910 was 41.5 %. The minimum value was achieved in 1907, most likely due to the notable successes of Russian medicine, and the maximum value was in 1892 (the year of crop failure and the epidemics of typhus and cholera that broke out as a result).
To determine the average (not excessive) number of cases of child deaths, we excluded 1892 from the accounting. As a result, it turned out that in the period of 1850–1891 the average percentage of mortality among this age group was 42.2 %, and in 1893–1910 it was already 39 % (while in 1900–1910 this percentage was even lower – 38.5 %).
Abstract: The article analyzes the content of a little-known plan of the city of Turkestan in 1854 from the archive of the Russian Geographical Society in St. Petersburg. Russian Geographical Society in St. Petersburg in 2006–2008, two Kazakh researchers Dr. Abdibek Bimendiev and Dr. Kanat Uskenbay, during the identification and collection of photo-illustrative and cartographic material on the history and culture of Kazakhstan in museums, archives and libraries of Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation, discovered in the archive of the Russian Geographical Society in St. Petersburg an unknown plan of the city of Turkestan and its districts, compiled in Russian ten years before the arrival of Russians in Turkestan in 1854. The analysis of the content of the plan, sources and historiography of that period, as well as the modern study of the archeology of Turkestan, conducted by the authors of the study, testifies to the originality of the data of the discovered source. The authors conclude that the Turkestan plan of 1854 is of great historical value as a primary source for studying the historical topography of Turkestan from the late Middle Ages to the first half of the nineteenth century. The fortifications of the city and citadels, gates, bazaars, mosques, sacred places, gardens, irrigation canals, mills, bridges, roads are marked on it. The original names of individual historical objects are recorded in the plan. The document under consideration in the issue of the gates of Turkestan provides unique information.
Abstract: In the 21st century, the problem of the creation of a Russian Palestine attracts the attention of an increasing circle of researchers. In the Russian State Historical Archives (RGIA), documents were found on the first stage of the construction of Russian Palestine. They make it possible to clarify the role of B.P. Mansurov in this process. First of all, this is the second report of Mansurov written after a business trip to the East in 1858. It was first introduced into scientific circulation. The report describes everything that has been done in Palestine and proposes a broad plan for the further construction of infrastructure for the pilgrims. After Mansurov's report, Alexander II ordered the start of state funding for the construction of Russian Palestine and created the Palestinian Committee to manage this process.
Another block of documents stored in the fund of the Russian Society of Shipping and Trade (ROPiT) allows us to trace the history of the preparation of Mansurov's business trip. This initiative was addressed to ROPiT by the Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolaevich, supported by the emperor. The materials show that in the first years of construction, ROPiT allocated money and financed business trips of officials to Palestine, paid for the transportation of goods. The minutes of the second meeting of the Palestinian Committee are being introduced into scientific circulation. According to the document, it can be judged that, although economic issues prevailed in the activities of the Committee, it has not yet completely abandoned its political tasks. Separate political and religious points were also in the second report of Mansurov. At the same time, it is obvious that the Committee did not plan to carry out the broad program of Russia's penetration into the Turkish East, proposed in the first report of Mansurov.
Abstract: The impoverishment of the nobility and the transformations of the social structure of Russian society in the 1860s–1870s led to need for young women to seek well-paid job and participate in a struggle for higher education. In addition, a significant shortage of educated midwives created a social demand for a wide range of qualified medical care provided by women. The foundation of the Women's Medical Courses (1872), and the Women's Medical Institute (1897) was the result of the united efforts of the Russian intelligentsia, first of all, the scientific and medical community of St. Petersburg. The article systematizes the facts reflecting the activities of the first female doctors N.P. Suslova, M.A. Obrucheva, V.A. Kashevarova-Rudneva, A.N. Shabanova, T.N. Tarnovskaya and others, as well as a representative of the scientific and medical community I.M. Sechenov, V.M. Tarnovsky, N.I. Kozlov, M.M. Rudnev, S.P. Botkin and others in the development of higher medical education for women in Russia. The main areas of public initiatives included fundraising, participation in scientific and state commissions, the creation of petitions and requests, the organization and conduct of studying process at courses for women. It is concluded that the successful implementation of projects in the field of higher medical education demonstrated a high level of self-organization among Russian medical community in the second half of the 19th century, which ultimately became a serious social force capable of solving urgent and complex problems of healthcare and medical education.
Abstract: The article studies the history of palatial estates and hotels of the Southern coast of the Crimea, describes their roles in the formation of experience economy and the emerging of the hospitality industry in the South of Russia (XIX – beginning of the XX centuries) as a component of the social dynamics of the period of radical transformation. On the basis of analysis of historical documents and memoirs of scientists-travelers who visited the Crimea during the XIX century, the palatial estates and the first hotels of the peninsula are represented.
The ccommodation of royal family in 1861 in Livadia played a huge role in popularizing the resort, which provoked its active advertising, not only in Russia but also well beyond its borders. Development of infrastructure of the peninsula, expanding transport links, improving roads, improving travel conditions and increasing the level of service for travelers had a positive impact on the development of the experience economy of the peninsula. The development of the palatial estates and hotels in the Crimea, particularly on its southern coast, played a significant role in shaping domestic tourism and the experience economy of the Russian Empire, which actively influenced the choice of rest and recreational visits to southern Russia.
Abstract: The article is devoted to one of the topics in the history of the banking and credit system of Russia in the 19th – early 20th centuries – bankruptcy of financial institutions. This issue is important, since both the own bankruptcy of credit institutions and their participation in the bankruptcy of other persons is transformed into changes in the commodity market, ultimately affecting the entire economic system of the country. The angle of the undertaken research is shifted to the poorly studied segment of private banks – mutual credit societies (1864–1917), focused on the small and middle bourgeoisie, urban and rural entrepreneurs. By the nature of their financial operations, they approached joint-stock commercial banks, served the same sphere of the economy (trade and industry). The main attention is paid to the analysis of the normative definition of the rights and obligations of mutual credit societies as a necessary condition for their effectiveness. Based on the achievements of modern historiography and a set of diverse sources, the authors of the article illustrate external (specific socio-economic conditions, a gap in the legal regulation of the banking and credit system) and internal (the propensity for adventures and speculative transactions of the heads of mutual credit societies, ignorance in the financial transactions of depositors) factors that, directly or indirectly, created a field for arbitrariness and abuse, resulted in the liquidation or bankruptcy of mutual credit societies.
Abstract: The work explores the social policy in the field of charity for minors, due to the reform of the public administration system of the second half of the XIX – early XX centuries, and the role of zemstvos in organizing child charity. The debate on the organization of orphanages in the post-reform period is due to the scale and multifaceted nature of the changes carried out, which affected various spheres of social reality. The implementation of the Zemstvo reform raised issues of maintaining children's godly institutions by the Zemstvos, determining the procedure for receiving children in them and ensuring further improvement of the conditions for their upbringing and education in shelters. One of the key elements of the study is the scientific justification for the decision to decentralize the system of children's institutions with the transfer of authority in this area to the zemstvos.
The article is devoted to the consideration of the regional specifics of the organization and financing of children's zemstvo charitable institutions on the example of the provinces of Central Russia – Kursk, Oryol, Tula, Orel and others. Consolidated data are presented on the number of abused persons, funds allocated for their maintenance and the share of expenses for charitable children's institutions in the budgets of individual zemstvos of the provinces under consideration. Special attention is paid to the effective and low-cost forms of organizing the care of children, developed in practice by zemstvos in practice in conditions of insufficient funding.
On the basis of a comparative analysis, the authors concluded that the zemstvos, after the transfer of charitable children's institutions to their jurisdiction, encountered organizational and financial difficulties. Zemstvos' policy was aimed at cutting costs and was not systemic. The issues of participation of zemstvo institutions in the organization of public charity could not be resolved without large-scale state measures.
The authors proved the influence of the regional aspect on the organization and financing of zemstvo orphanages, and this relationship reveals the achievements and results of the reform.
Abstract: Russian scientists, travelers and officials of the 19th – early 20th centuries made a great contribution to the study of the history and ethnography of Kazakhstan. In a wide range of their studies, a special place is occupied by information about the traditional hunting of Kazakhs. However, their works, which are the main sources for the traditional hunting of the Kazakh nation, have not yet received due recognition, analysis and evaluation.
This article attempts to analyze the works of Russian researchers of the 19th and early 20th centuries, introduce the information contained in them into scientific circulation and reveal their scientific significance as sources for the traditional hunting of Kazakhs. The scientific source base of the work was also made up of previously unpublished archival documents of the Central State Archive of the Republic of Kazakhstan. During the studying works of Russian researchers and archival data, the source study method was used, which made it possible to analyze the available materials in more detail and qualitatively.
As a result of studying the works of Russian researchers of the 19th-early 20th centuries, the authors identified the features of the traditional hunting of Kazakhs, as well as the evolution and transformation and its methods at the turn of the century.
Abstract: Spiritual and religious aspects played an active role in all spheres of public life of the Turkestan region, which was part of the Russian Empire in 1865. This includes the issue of performing the pilgrimage duty to Mecca and Medina, the holy cities in the minds of Muslims. In solving the mechanisms of the spiritual and religious sphere of the region, the Russian administration had to face this phenomenon. The whole point was in the unauthorized implementation of the pilgrimage of those who wished to establish Russian power in Central Asia. As a result, episodes of epidemics occurred more than once in the Middle Ages, which caused major negative consequences to the Turkestan region. In order to prevent this, the tsarist authorities had to approve legislative pilgrimage projects. But it should be noted that the legislative projects were implemented taking into account the mentality and customs of the local population. Based on historical research, it can be argued that a number of disagreements arose between the departments of the tsarist administration in this direction. Without a doubt, all this was aimed at ensuring that the Hajj mission meets the interests of the state and believers. The bodies of Russian foreign diplomacy abroad contributed to the solution of legal, economic, transport and medical issues of Muslim pilgrims. Thanks to the effective regulatory and medical regulations adopted by the tsarist government, we were convinced that the number of Muslim pilgrims departing from the Turkestan region increased from year to year. That is, the pilgrimage process had a development phenomenon.
In this article, on the basis of archival and research materials, the general state of the development of a large Muslim pilgrimage in the Turkestan region and the elements of the attitude of the authorities to it are analyzed.
Abstract: For the first time in the scientific literature, the article specifically examines the first project of creating cities on the territory of the Don Host. This project was proposed in 1867 by the ataman A.L. Potapov and the committee established to draw up regulations on zemstvo institutions in the Don Host Oblast. The article is based on archival sources from the State Archives of the Rostov Region (GARO). The article shows that within the framework of this project, it was supposed to found 10 cities, which were to be evenly distributed over the territory of the Don Host Oblast (at least one city in each district). The first cities to be founded were Novocherkassk, Uryupin and Tanais (in the Gnilovskaya stanitsa). The implementation of this project would lead to a completely different model of urbanization in the Don Host Oblast and would affect the social structure of the Cossacks. Cities evenly distributed over the territory of the Don Host Oblast would inevitably influence the surrounding stanitsas, introducing a new, urban element into the traditionally rural Cossack society.
A.L. Potapov attached great importance to this project, and ordered to begin work on its implementation before the approval of the imperial authorities. By the beginning of 1868, the preliminary work of land surveyors had been completed. However, soon after that A.L. Potapov was appointed governor-general of Vilna. The new Don chieftain, M.I. Chertkov, did not show interest in the project of creating cities, and this allowed in 1871 a special commission chaired by the conservative official G.I. Bokov, to prohibit the creation of cities in the Don Host, thereby curtailing the project of A.L. Potapov.
Abstract: The article is devoted to the study of such publications of the Kharkоv Agricultural Society as descriptions of estates, analysis of their impact on the local society, manifestations of modernization in the activities of voluntary associations.Creation of elements of civil society led to the emergence of public organizations. The ideas of the Enlightenment spread through periodicals. Description of the estates of the Kharkov province of the Russian Empire at the end of the 19th – the beginning of the 20th centuries became a new genre.
Description of estates was carried out by landowners themselves or specialists of the Kharkov Agricultural Society. Financing came from different sources: at the expense of subsidies from the Department of Agriculture of the Ministry of Agriculture, the Kharkov Agricultural Society, Zemstvos or private individuals.
This type of publications was necessary in the Kharkov province, since large landed estates played a decisive role in the development of agriculture in the region in the period under study. There were few exemplary farms in the Kharkov province, but it was owing to them that progressive changes were associated not only with the agrarian sector, but also with the economy and society as a whole.
Descriptions of estates covered different types of farms. According to the standards of that period, they were called agricultural, factory-technical, mixed, and in size they could be both small and large according to all-Russian standards. The author analyzed the descriptions of exemplary farms owned by L.E. Kenig, A. D. Golitsyn, I. K. Grishchenko and other landowners. In general, their activities were not only entrepreneurial, but also educational in nature. It is concluded that the local society considered such landowners to be advanced and progressive personalities. The results of their work have become public property.
The author analyzed various types of descriptions of estates, characterized the problems and difficulties in carrying out these activities, as well as public outcry from publications on the basis of archival and print sources. It was also an advertisement for new ways of managing. The specificity of the Kharkov province, which was substantiated in the forms of cultural farming, has been studied; the peculiarities of farming in the region are also determined in the article. The author shows how the landowners of the region were ready for changes and became part of the modernization process.
Abstract: The article provides a comparative analysis of the ecological and economic aspects of the rationalization of large farms in the Tambov province at the end of the 19th century. Based on the materials of a comparative historical analysis of the agrarian complexes of the Tambov region, the following questions are posed and resolved: along what lines did the transfer of new economic and environmental practices take place in the structure of large types of land tenure, what are the results of the formation of a rational culture of landowners, what are the features of land management in conditions of an increase in negative anthropogenic impact on local ecosystems. The relevance of the study is due to the need to study the socio-economic development of large estates undergoing the stage of accelerated modernization. Zemstvo surveys of the Tambov estates presented in the "Collection of statistical information on the Tambov province", the patrimonial archives of the largest landowners in the region – the Novo-Pokovsky estate of the Orlov-Davydovs and the Zemetchinsky economy of the Dolgorukys were selected as the main source. The study of the conditions for the successful management of Russian landowners made it possible to more fully reveal previously unknown aspects of the economic development of large estates, to characterize the specifics of the implementation of a rational function in the agricultural sector. Based on a wide layer of historical documents, the study summarizes the origins of landowners' rationalization, assesses the contribution of owners to the development of new forms of resource exploitation in the Russian province, analyzes the economic characteristics of such processes as technical and technological modernization, intensification of production, and an increase in yields. The article shows that the use of new tools and inverse crop rotations in private farms at all stages of agricultural production contributed to the formation of ecologically significant fertility, contributed to the rational use of the entire complex of land resources.
Abstract: The study is devoted to the application of the principles of network organization by the Russian revolutionary movement in the second half of the 19th - early 20th centuries. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the practical experience of using the network structure in organizing the movement of Russian revolutionaries. The research methodology is based on descriptive, comparative, and structural analysis. The research sources were formed based on archival materials, including unpublished documents from the funds of the Special Section of the Police Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the Central Committee of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party, and the Main Military Court Directorate, as well as an extensive corpus of memoirs of contemporaries, participants, and opponents of the revolutionary movement. The analysis of sources showed that the network structure of the organization is formed based on the autonomous activity of the elements. Network structures for organizing underground activities were created by various revolutionary movements, including Narodnaya Volya, anarchists, social democrats, maximalists, socialist-revolutionaries, and Bolsheviks. The network organization corresponded to the needs, methods of struggle and the illegal position of the Russian revolutionary movement in the conditions of the suppression of political radicals by the authorities. The formation of "spider networks" allowed the revolutionaries to effectively ensure the "survival" of cells, solve problems associated with the risks of liquidation and the need for conspiracy, minimizing internal splits and social expansion. The network principle of organizing a revolutionary movement is recognized as optimal in the conditions of underground activity in the absence of a stable connection with the governing center and the use of repressive state measures. However, the organization of revolutionaries, built on the network principle, turned out to be unsuitable for seizing power, both because of the low degree of controllability of regional and local divisions, and the lack of effective mechanisms for coordinating their actions and consolidating resources.
Abstract: The article, based on the materials of N.M. Yadrintseva and N.M. Potanin reveals the content of the epistolary discourse of Asiatic Russia as a colony. The basis of the research procedures are the methodological principles of the new cultural and intellectual history, and the reliability of the conclusions is due to the involvement in the work of an array of letters of 1872–1874, written by the leaders of the Siberian regionalism in the traumatic circumstances of political exile. The team of authors found that the actors of the discourse represented elements of the political program for the colonization of the Asian spaces of Russia, in which there were no declarations of a separatist nature. It is determined that the ideas of the regionalists about the nature of the incorporation of asian territories into the general imperial space differed markedly from the understanding of this situation by the authorities, parties and movements of the national-conservative spectrum of the socio-political thought of the Russian Empire. It has been argued that the appeals in the epistolary discourse to Western European colonization theories provided an opportunity for the leaders of the Siberian regionalism to position Asian Russia not as a continuation of the territory of the empire, but as a colony that needed support and paternalistic guardianship from the metropolis until the their cultural, social, economic alignment, which will ensure the subsequent political emancipation of the region.
Abstract: The article analyzes the specifics, background and limitations of the state policy towards ethno-confessional minorities during the reign of Alexander III and Nicholas II. The choice of this chronological framework of the study is due to the fact that it was at the end of the 19th – beginning of the 20th centuries the authorities of the empire began to implement a consistent policy of formation an all-Russian imperial identity. The work methodology is based on a combination of elements of structural and comparative analysis. The source base of the study includes unpublished materials from the funds of the structural divisions of the Ministry of Internal Affairs (stored in the State Archive of the Russian Federation and the Russian State Historical Archive) and a corpus of sources of personal origin.
It is possible to conclude that the state policy towards the largest ethno-confessional minorities, pursued by the leadership of the Russian Empire in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, was, as a rule, rational and aimed at minimizing political risks and conserving the existing architecture of ethnic and inter-confessional relations. At the same time, the logic of the actions of the authorities was not due to systemic xenophobia. The authorities of the empire built own strategy based on considerations of ensuring socio-political stability and external security, at least in the short term. The implementation of major projects related to the full integration of internal - ethnic and religious – «significant others» into the socio-cultural space of the emerging all-Russian imperial identity required significant resources and involved the use of mechanisms that would inevitably lead to sharp conflicts within the ruling elites.
It is important to notice that the policy of the authorities towards a number of ethno-confessional minorities was determined and limited by a foreign policy factor – the desire to contain the growth of the destructive influence of foreign powers on the ethno-political situation inside Russia. At the same time, the conflicting experience of interaction with the bearers of specific ethnic and religious identities in the past, the presence of traumatic stories in their collective memory, negative ideas about Russians or imperial power were also taken into account.
Abstract: The article is devoted to the activities of the second department of the Senate as the highest judicial institution for peasant affairs, which was carried out by a civil court and partly the management of the peasantry from the moment of its creation in 1884 until 1917. It was revealed that it included cases of different categories. In particular, the most important and numerous of them were land-based cases; the second largest and most important – with disputes over ownership; the third – volost and rural administration; the fourth - complaints against local peasant institutions; the fifth, the smallest – complaints about the decisions of the provincial presences to remove "harmful and vicious members of the community and provide them to the government".
In addition to solving purely judicial tasks, this institution performed the function of interpreting laws, explaining the "true meaning of legalization" in line with the peasant topic. Such explanations by him, unlike the first department, were given exclusively on the initiative of ministers and provincial peasant affairs institutions. The authors concluded that such interpretations in the decrees and decisions of the second department had great socio-political influence throughout the Russian Empire, since they touched upon significant issues of the economic life of the majority of the peasant population, since they were aimed at preserving and strengthening the institution of the community, the interdependence of its members, and limiting the civil rights of the latter.
Abstract: The purpose of the article is to analyze the specifics of education in the Russian Empire in the second half of the 19th century. Archival materials covering various activities of the Ust-Medveditskaya women's gymnasium in the last quarter of the 19th century are used as documentary grounds of the study. Researches particularly focus on the content of educational process examining the curricula of Russian literature, geography, history, and foreign languages. They also outlined scientific discussions on content of educational process in Russian province of the 19th century and the relations of the process with the general trends of education development in the country. According to studied materials education in the Russian Empire was not solely limited to the purpose of transferring knowledge and skills, but aimed to develop values in students’ worldview be means of teaching certain subjects. The main sources of the paper are examination sheets, pedagogical council and general annual reports of Ust-Medveditskaya women's gymnasium. After reviewing archival documents and scientific sources, the authors concluded that the learning process included a significant number of positions whose purpose was educational impact on students, the formation of the system of values and proper behavior, which follows them. In addition, the test assignments allow us to judge that the pedagogical concepts assumed an interest in the personality of pupils and the support of their cognitive activity. The authors also put forward a hypothesis according to which the development of female education could become the reason for a change in the value-targeted foundations of educational activities in the future – the transition from the exclusively educational orientation of teachers to an educational and organizational one.
Abstract: This article is the second part in a series of works devoted to the analysis of the development of the education system in 1849–1917 in the Erivan province of the Russian Empire, and explores the period of 1885–1907. On the example of statistical data, the activity of secondary (gymnasium, progymnasium, teacher's seminary), lower (city schools) and primary (primary schools) educational institutions is considered; on the basis of these data, the conclusions are drawn about the peculiarities of the development of the education system in the Erivan province in the period from 1885 to 1907.
The main source of this article is the reports of the trustees of the Caucasian Educational District, which contain detailed the statistical material on the work of all types of educational institutions.
As the analysis of these materials showed, in general, the education system at the turn of the century in the Erivan province was developing very actively. This applies in particular to women's education: in secondary educational institutions, the number of female students exceeded the number of male students by almost one and a half times, which is unusual for the Caucasian regions; in the field of lower education during the study period (1885–1907) increased more than twice, in the field of primary education – ten and a half times. The growth of educational institutions was also relevant.
Unlike other regions, the unprivileged classes – peasants and workers – were widely represented in education.
Also, the development of the education system in the Erivan province in the specified chronological period was distinguished by a very strong volatility in the number of students, which practically did not correlate with the population of the region.
Abstract: This article tested the facts of the territorial origin of officials. They served in the provincial and district government bodies of the eastern part of Siberia from the late 19th to early 20th centuries. We have established the facts and regularities of the process of replenishment of personnel on a territorial basis on the basis of statistical methods, analysis of the biographies of officials. The subject of our study is the territorial origin of officials of the VII-XIV classes. We studied officials in the Treasury Chamber, the Provincial Board (from 1895 – the Provincial Administration), until 1895 – the Medical Board, the Order of Public Charity, the Expedition for Exiles, the Provincial Drawing Office, until 1897 – the Provincial Court and District Courts, with 1897 – State Property Administration, since 1902 – Provincial Excise Administration and District Excise Administrations, District Treasuries. We examined the biographies of the heads of departments, assistants to managing institutions and government offices of the provincial and district administrations, treasurers, accountants, assessors, senior and junior secretaries, clerks, accountants, auditors, officials for special assignments, inspectors, clerks, clerks. Historical sources are official lists and personal files of 160 officials who were in office in 1887, 1993, 1905 and 1915. We picked up historical sources from the funds of the State Archives of the Krasnoyarsk Territory (F. 595 "Yenisei Provincial Administration") and the State Archives of the Irkutsk Region (F. 32 "Irkutsk Provincial Administration", F. 38 "Irkutsk Provincial Drawing". For each specified year was taken 20 officials each from the provincial and district/district levels of government. The study established the dynamics of the reduction of officials. They came from behind the Urals in the late 19th - early 20th centuries: from 65% to 30% among officials of the provincial administration and from 60% to 25 % - among the district (from 1898 – county) administration. Officials came from beyond the Urals arrived mainly from the provinces of Central Russia, less often from the northwestern and Ukrainian lands. Among the employees of Siberian origin, the main share was local officials who lived earlier in the same province and transferred to a new position by rotating personnel within the departments of the same provincial administration or from the bodies of the district (district) or ram of power. The staff of Siberian officials included a greater number of those transferred to the Yenisei province from the Irkutsk province than to Irkutsk from the Yenisei, which was explained by the leading position of Irkutsk as the administrative center of Eastern Siberia.
Abstract: The article reviews the Russian peasant and military-Cossack colonization of the North Caucasus in the 19th century, its importance for the region. The authors focused greater attention on various aspects of the sociocultural interaction between Russian settlers and Caucasian mountain peoples. The methodology is based on a combination of historical and anthropological studies, analysis of ethnomigration, colonization – resettlement and sociocultural processes, frontier theory. Active Russian colonization changed the socio-cultural and ethnic landscape of the North Caucasus, contributed to the development of agriculture, industry and urban growth. Institutional and sociocultural exchange, the accession of the cultures of the Caucasian mountain peoples to the sociocultural matrix of the Russian state were being intensified. A unique frontier culture of the Caucasian borderlands was being formed. The natural sociocultural integration that took place between the Cossacks, Russian settlers and the Caucasian mountain peoples in the 19th century did not become a priority of state policy at that time. The majority of the mountain population remained outside the influence of Russian culture, was not included in the modernization and urbanization processes. This became a socio-cultural factor in the preservation of conflict in the region in the 20th century.
Abstract: The article discusses the research potential of periodicals as a historical source along with economic, office work and other types of documents. Due to the content of the headings and the regularity of replication of their issues, periodicals can serve as a kind of diary that forms the socio-cultural context of the era. Significant characteristics characteristic of the northern and Siberian territories of the Russian Empire at the turn of the 19th–20th centuries are recorded. As a basis for determining the informational image of cities, communities and localities of this part of the empire, the regional journal «Dorozhnik po Sibiri i Aziatskoj Rossii (Road worker in Siberia and Asian Russia)» was chosen – the first private journal in Tomsk. The editor-in-chief and ideologist of the publication was Prince V.A. Dolgorukov, who was active in publishing and journalism. In "Dorozhnik" there was periodically a column dedicated to the cities of Omsk, Tomsk, Irkutsk, Turukhansk, etc., as well as the territories adjacent to them. As a result of the qualitative content analysis and system analysis, the characteristic features of the Siberian territories of the Russian Empire were identified: positivity, ambiguity, inconsistency, prospects, resource wealth, the desire to overcome territorial remoteness due to the merits of the Siberian and northern lands. The image of Siberian cities, communities and territories was consolidated with the help of the Siberian regional press not only at the local level, but also at the all-Russian and international level, since journal the Dorozhnik had publications in French and was published in France.
Abstract: The article provides an analysis of some subjects considering the role of financial groups with vertical line of command directing to members of one clan (zaibatsu) in process of preparing Japan to Russo-Japanese war 1904–1905 as a key part of setting up the whole vector of development of Russian Empire’ politics in Far East. Authors distinguishes factors, which caused zaibatsu’s participation in preparing Japan to Russo-Japanese war, highlights main vectors of its activity during the pre-war period, and also distinguishes some consequences of the beginning of Russo-Japanese war for economic activity’s participants, like zaibatsu, its emergence, for example. Authors also analyses legal measures Japanese government took to develop a relation considering providing services and selling goods to zaibatsu, which were put to a thoroughtful consideration during Russo-Japanese war. In this article author provides an analysis of role of each classic zaibatsu had been running during preparation to the war between Russian Empire and Japan (so called “big four” zaibatsu) and what part they took in creating Japanese Imperial military forces, putting special consideration to its role in such vital sphere as shipbuilding and producing raw materials. Author seeks law government provided as one of the primary sources of effective organizing this partnership in case of reaching expansion purposes.
Abstract: Over the almost century-long history of shipbuilding at the Votkinsk plant, more than four hundred metal ships were built there, from warships and sea schooners to small barges and rowboats. But, despite the numerous data that the plant was engaged exclusively in iron shipbuilding, there is a number of evidence of the presence of wooden shipbuilding, which can be divided into four types. Onboard wooden boats, for completing sea and river steamships built at the plant; the only wooden ship built as an independent order by the Shipbuilding Shop is the yacht “Vyatksky Voyevoda” – a gift to the governor of Vyatka S.D. Gorchakov; motor wooden boats that were built by private individuals in the village of Votkinsky Zavod; wooden barges. To identify the possible volumes of the latter, the office documentation of the plant was used from the funds of the Central State Archive of the Udmurt Republic. Despite the eclectic nature of the facts, their arrangement in chronological order made it possible to identify duplication of information and determine the volume of production. Unlike the Shipbuilding Department, which concentrated all the final work on the delivery of steamships and watercraft, shipbuilding was also carried out by the Fuming and Construction Departments. They built exclusively wooden barges for their own needs: by the Fuming Department barges for the Kama, and by the Construction Department barges for the factory pond. In total, in the period 1900–1904 at least six barges were built for the Kama and four for the pond. During the period from 1905 to 1912, the plant decommissioned or sold for firewood a total of 12 wooden barges. Two more barges burned down during a fire in Levshino in 1919, taken away from the factory by the retreating Kolchak troops. The discrepancy in numbers is explained by the transfer of wooden barges to the ownership of the plant from other owners, apparently, mainly to pay off the debt to the plant. Up to one and a half dozen wooden ships could be in the factory caravan at a time. In 1908, wooden ships were deemed unprofitable for the plant due to their fragility, after which, apparently, alternative wooden shipbuilding ceased.
Abstract: The article presents an analysis of the journal “Sotrudnik Zakavkazskoi missii” as a historical and philological source.
Due to the specifics of the work, the main source is the filing of the journal “Sotrudnik Zakavkazskoi missii” for the period of its publication from 1912 to 1916. The journal was the official organ of the diocesan church brotherhood of St. Prince Alexander Nevsky in Sukhum. Its frequency was once in two weeks, the volume of the issue was 16 pages.
The methodological tools of the research are based on the method of content analysis, since the main source in the work was a set of issues of the journal “Sotrudnik Zakavkazskoi missii”: all available issues of the journal were analyzed and based on them, the material of interest for the study was selected.
In conclusion, the authors state that the journal “Sotrudnik Zakavkazskoi missii” is a valuable historical and philological source on the history of the Sukhumi diocese of the beginning of the XX century, as well as on the formation of local mass media. The journal was published from January 1912 to August 1916, and only external factors (lack of paper) during the First World War led to its closure.
In 1912, when the journal was created, three main headings were included in it: articles of religious and moral content, articles of an ethnographic nature, as well as reviews of the latest research related to Transcaucasia. Already during the publication, it became clear that there was practically no material in the third column, so official documents of various organizations operating in the territory of the diocese were placed in it.
Abstract: This article provides an analysis of the Anglo-Russian confrontation in Persia, as well as the policy of tsarist Russia towards this country for the period 1913–1917 through the lenses of political memoirs of the famous Russian diplomat, the Extraordinary Envoy and Plenipotentiary minister in that country, Ivan Jakovlevich Korostovetz' “Persian Arabesques".
Of greatest interest is that part of the recollections in which their author appears before us as not only an active participant, but also as the creator of Russian politics in Persia. It covers his diplomatic activities in Persia in 1913–1915, during which, despite the efforts of the Foreign Ministers of Russia and England to smooth out the sharp corners in bilateral relations, especially after the outbreak of the World War I (1914–1918), the Anglo-Russian contradictions extremely aggravated.
According to I.J. Korostovetz, he himself was to a large extent responsible for the deterioration of these relations. Moreover, all this happened against the background of the activity of the Turkish-German agents in Persia and their close alliance with the Persian nationalists, who complicated the life of the Russian and British diplomatic missions to the limit and threatened the interests of these countries.
In the same part, the author of the memoirs tells about his dismissal in April 1915 from the occupied post by the Russian Foreign minister S.D. Sazonov, and how after few months, he got an appointment as a Manager of the Loan and Account Bank of Persia in Petrograd.
Recollections of I.J. Korostovetz represent a critical rethinking of the foreign policy of tsarist Russia, accompanied by the traditional confrontation with England for dominance in Persia. Moreover, comparing the policies of Russia and England in this country, the author of the memoirs comes to the disappointing conclusion that the Persians were more disposed towards England than towards Russia because of the more aggressive policy of the latter.
Abstract: The article examines the Sukhumi Diocese' activities during the First World War. The attention is paid to the charitable activities for both the clergy and the flock, as well as events to raise funds for military needs.
There were used as sources the regional periodical press, namely the journal “Sotrudnik Zakavkazskoi missii”, which was published in the district center – the Sukhum city. The work used the journal issues for the 1912–1916 period.
The usage of periodicals as a source predetermined the authors' use of the content analysis method and the historical-chronological method. If the first one was important for the analysis of the general content of the journal and the selection of materials of interest, the second one allowed the authors to consider the life of the population of the Sukhumi district and the Sukhumi diocese in its chronological sequence.
In conclusion, the authors state that the Sukhumi diocese of the Russian Orthodox Church during the First World War was a reliable support of the Russian government in organizing the assistance to both the Russian Red Cross Society and helping the families of those called up for war. The population supported many initiatives of the church and the government: it provided all possible assistance in supporting Russian prisoners of war, donated funds to Russia's allies in the Entente, for example, Serbs and Montenegrins. The events for collecting donations used on the territory of the diocese were diverse: these were charity evenings, sermons by priests, and club gatherings. All sectors of society, including the elderly and children, took part in donations for military needs.
Abstract: In the article, the authors view the issues of the history of the World War I, namely the stories associated with the deployment of prisoners of war of the German and Austro-Hungarian armies in Asian Russia, within the administrative-territorial boundaries of the Steppe, Turkestan General Governorship. Based on archival materials from the funds of the Central State Archives of Kazakhstan the special state archive of the Police Department introduces new facts that allow us to view the daily routine of prisoners of war, the resolving of social and housing issues, as well as placement and employment, including fragments of oral history that demonstrate how the prisoners of war themselves perceived the captivity, and the photographs discovered accidentally reveal previously unknown facts of visual history.
Despite their deployment on the territory of Steppe and Turkestan Governorate-General of the Russian Empire, the issue of prisoners of war of the World War I did not receive an active research impetus due to a larger event, such as the national liberation movement of 1916. The work provides statistical data on prisoners of war placed in the specified territory, including the cities. Problems with accommodation of arriving prisoners of war and their resolution have been viewed, along with internal contradictions and confrontation among prisoners of war on the basis of ethnicization and the formation of a "Slavic community of prisoners of war" not without the help of public organizations of the Russian Empire.
The authors revealed the structures of the everyday life of prisoners of war, showing the everyday concerns of captured officers and enlisted personnel. The military situation determined special conditions and legal norms in relation to the rules of residence and employment of prisoners of war, the regulation of which was controlled by additionally adopted orders and instructions of the governor-general. It should be noted that the everyday life of prisoners of war has been viewed through the prism of interaction with the host society, where patriotism was intertwined with empathy and support for arriving prisoners of war.
Abstract: The paper examines the activities of the Petrozavodsk Female Teachers' Seminary in 1915–1917. The attention is paid to the teaching and student staff, its national and religious contingent.
The authors used documents from the National Archive of the Republic of Karelia (Petrozavodsk, Russian Federation) as materials. The documents were first introduced into scientific circulation. The methodology of the research is based on the historical and chronological principle, which allowed us to consider the history of the Petrozavodsk Women's Teachers' Seminary with the involvement of all available archival materials in chronological order and taking into account neighboring events. Due to the fact that statistical information is also presented in the study, we used a statistical method, thanks to which we analyzed data with numerical expression (on the composition of teachers and students both in the teachers' seminary and at the two-grade school at it).
In conclusion, the authors state that the Petrozavodsk Women's Teaching Seminary, established at the height of the First World War, was important both for increasing the number of teaching staff in primary schools and for the availability of teaching positions for women in the region. Despite the fact that the seminary originated in wartime conditions, the teaching staff coped quite professionally not only with academic, but also extracurricular work. Teachers and students of the seminary actively participated in actions to raise funds for the needs of the war and in helping the wounded. Besides this, the leadership of the seminary provided significant assistance to needy students.
Abstract: Comprehension of the experience of the formation of the deputy corps in the conditions of intrastate political turbulence and the context of historical crossroads arouses our research interest.
In this work, the authors study in detail the class status, political outlook and the process of including representatives of the Oryol province in the activities of parliamentary structures of the early 20th century (State Dumas of 1-4 convocations and the State Council).
Within the framework of the outlined key vectors, the authors analyzed documents from the State Archives of the Oryol Region, biographical data of members of the State Duma and the State Council (1906–1917), reference and encyclopedic and memoir literature, periodicals, as well as materials from "Tauride" and "Murom" readings.
As the main methodological base, the problem-historical method, the theory of delegation and the theory of agency relations are used, which allow considering the participation of individual citizens in the activities of parliamentary structures as representing the interests of the people in the context of a specific historical situation.
In conclusion, the authors come to the conclusion that for all the controversy of the issue, the representation of various estates of the Russian provinces in the parliament influenced its socio-political configuration, the direction of legislative measures, and in general - the further fate of the state.
Abstract: Based on the analysis of the materials of the agricultural census of 1917, the literacy of the rural population of the Altai District is studied in the article.
The mass migration movement to Siberia was a factor contributing to the increase of literacy of the rural population of the region. But during the initial adaptation period, the opportunity for migrant children to receive primary education decreased. The gap in the level of literacy between men and women was narrowing in the new generations of the rural population, but on the eve of the revolution of 1917, patriarchal ideas about the social role of women still dominated in the village, especially among old-timers peasants. During the census, the lowest level of literacy was recorded among members of households with a small crop, and the highest level – in wealthy peasant families, actively involved in the process of economic modernization that took place in the Russian Empire at the beginning of the XX century. The population of households without crop area was more literate than members of households with small crop and middle peasants due to the presence in it, in addition to rural proletarians, persons engaged in handicrafts, trade, and intellectual professions. The literacy level of the rural population of the Altai District corresponded to the initial stage of modernization of traditional society.
Abstract: The article attempts to consider the life path of a member of the editorial board of the journal “Bylye Gody”, a prominent historian, candidate of historical sciences Vladimir Gavrilovich Ivantsov (1947–2022).
The documents of Vladimir Gavrilovich Ivantsov were used as materials, namely: an autobiography (prepared by V.G. Ivantsov in 1997), a work book, diplomas and a certificate, a personal record sheet during his work at the USSR Academy of Sciences, lists of scientific papers and other documents. The work uses biographical, descriptive and historical-chronological methods, which are the main ones for conducting such a genre of research. The biographical method made it possible to extract the most important events from the life of V.G. Ivantsov. The descriptive method made it possible to gather disaggregated information from sources into a single text, and the historical-chronological method to construct a work taking into account the chronological sequence.
In conclusion, the author states that Vladimir Gavrilovich Ivantsov has passed a long life and professional path, dedicating almost all his mature years to the service of history. He went all the hard way from a laboratory assistant to the dean of the Faculty of History and Philology and devoted a lot of time to the research work. His research interests included various issues of the pre-revolutionary history of the Caucasus, such as ethnography, military history, social development of tribes and demographic processes. Besides this, he was engaged in public scientific and organizational work, being a member of the editorial board of the journal “Bylye Gody”.